Posted at 10.31.2018
Questions such as, 'what is translationâwherein is placed its complexness?' have been asked since literature halted being limited to one concentrate on readership and migrated beyond the limitations of language. The word translation officially connotes the artwork of recomposing a work in another vocabulary without dropping its original flavour, or of finding an analogous swap.
Its complexity lies in it being like the transfer of perfume from one bottle to some other. As careful when you are, some perfume is lost but the challenge remains to capture the essence.
All things in mother nature are subject to change - therefore is all social matter. Translation is obviously a transfer, not between two languages but between the two types of cultural matter.
India is a linguistic galaxy of unparalleled richness. Few contexts could be better best suited than the Indian for a discussion of the functions of translation within a spectacular stellar setting. So how exactly does one common 'idea of India' make itself open to a Bengali, Tamil or a Marathi at all save that of translation? Translation offers a cognitive map of India's linguistic world in all its interrelatedness as well as estrangement. All texts and all viewers are both monolingual and multilingual. A text, obviously written actually in one vocabulary in confirmed manifestation encounters a multi lingual reader and thus extends to out to a much bigger base, unifying experience and opinions as it expands.
English needs to be admitted as an enormous tank of translation in contemporary India. It could no longer be considered a colonial terminology, but it is more and more a conduit vocabulary. This 'filtration vocabulary', as Khubchandani conditions it, has today a certain inescapable occurrence. More English translating have been printed in India in recent times than ever before, but our awareness of the need to ensure quality in translation has not heightened the same magnitude. Who should assess a translation - somebody who can browse the original or someone who cannot? Someone who was able to read the terminology, and enjoyed the original could find no translation satisfactory, whereas a person who cannot is likely to respect readability in English is the primary requisite.
It seems unarguable that the only way in which the ideology of 'unity' can be explored in a multilingual contemporary society like ours is by agreeing to both the dependence on, and the issues of, translation.
The Sanskritised term we presently use for 'translation' in many Indian languages is anuvada - which literally means 'after speech' so it seems incorrect in the first destination to discuss it within an 'Intro'. In addition, it stands as opposed to anukaran, which implies aping or slavish imitation, but there should be a far more to the term than just the suggestion that it might involve creative certificate of a sort?
Any debate of translation leads automatically to the question: who's an ideal translator? The article writer himself, or someone who has not been mixed up in primary creative artwork? The task of the translator is to unfreeze the forms that thought required in one vocabulary and refreeze them into another. A translator must consider rules that aren't purely linguistic but ethnic. Translators, even though trying to give us the flavor of the language, are in fact modernizing the foundation. So far as translators in India are concerned, most Indians who grow up in urban conditions and go to university and college handle shifts from one language to some other so often and so comfortably that translation seems second character to them.
The Pedagogy of Translation by Vanamala Viswanatha
Translation Studies is a discipline still in the process of mapping its place. Efforts have been made to define its boundaries and develop its landscape by scholars working in disciplines as mixed as Anthropology, Comparative Literature, Culture Studies, Linguistics and Literary Theory.
Viewing translation as a transaction between two languages, the prominent linguistic paradigm has treated it just as a subject of transfer from the Source Language to the Target Language.
There can be two means of translating: Transliteration and Transcreation.
Transliteration or literal translation is word-to-word, phrase-to-phrase or sentence-to-sentence carrying over from the Source Text into the Target Text. Which means that what and terminologies would either require exact equivalents in the Target Language or would have to be placed as it is in to the Target Text. It may be ideal for text messages falling under specialized registers. However they would confirm extremely difficult when done on cultural texts. The aim of the translation is to reproduce meanings of the Source Wording and the immediate effect it produces on the indigenous audience for the visitors and audience of another culture in whose dialect the text is to be translated. But, say, every Hindi term cannot have a counterpart in English due to its vast words and cultural distinctions in certain connotations and set ups. Hence, the 'literal' translation of ethnic/literary works would end up like forsaking the duty of any translator.
On the other hands, transcreation or ethnical translation means a incomplete or complete independence to the translator in dealing with the Source Word. The translator has to render the Source Content material in a recreated form in the Target Language. It consists of reading every expression and word carefully, but it isn't only or simply a literal making.
Another part of translation is termed as 'Transfer'. It is the stage in which the analysed material is moved in your brain of the translator from the Source Text to the mark Text. The ultimate stage is 'restructuring' the transferred material. The essential structural elements have to be transferred to the prospective Language. It should be ensured in the process of transformation that the same result the Source Word had should be performed for the Target Text because of its readers. When the translation produces the same impact as on the initial audience then your translation can be viewed as equivalent to the Source Text.
PROBLEMS OF TRANSLATION
The translator has to deal with the situation of finding equivalent words and expressions in the Target Terms, which though can't be substitutes for the expressions in the Source Language, but will come near it, can boost similar feelings and behaviour in the readers and people of the Target Text.
Literary and social texts suggest alternatively than summarize meanings. Cultural meanings are very specific and their connotations change with words in other languages. Therefore, it is very difficult to anticipate equivalence between your text messages of two languages separated by two different civilizations. The translator has to interpret and analyse the connotative and suggestive of the foundation Text and on the basis of his knowledge of the culture of the Target Text; he must recreate the meanings in the new language.
Figures of talk, extended metaphors, idioms, proverbs and allegories pose a great task to the translator. Even translating dialogues, varieties of dressing, different kinds of food can be difficult when it has strong ethnic roots. For example, words like 'saree', 'churidar', 'skillet', 'pallu' cannot own an British counterpart. In India, there is a specific word for each familial relationship. For instance, 'chacha', 'mama', 'phupha', 'tauji' are called 'uncle' in British, similarly 'nana-nani' and 'dada-dadi' are simply just 'grandparents'. Also, the suggested meanings of these relationships can never be translated into other language.
To show the way the differences in ethnic facts can cause challenges in the translation of metaphors we might go through the symbolic meanings of certain words in various civilizations. 'Owl' in British is the symbol of intelligence whereas it symbolizes 'ill-fortune' in Persian and is associated to superstitious values in India. Also, 'pig', 'hog' and 'swine' will vary words for the same dog but these small modifications can create big differences in metaphorical meanings:
Sam is a pig.
Sam is a hog.
Sam is a swine.
The dialects which do not have independent words for these different categories would fail to symbolize the difference between the discoursal value of these metaphors. Thus, a literal translation may lead to Target Terminology metaphors with different and sometimes completely opposing discoursal principles.
We are now going to discuss a few authors who have presented very vividly different civilizations of India through their writing in vernacular dialects. The languages we are going to focus upon are Hindi, Urdu, Marathi, Bengali, Assamese, Tamil and Kannada. It's the voice of the marginalized section writing in vernacular dialects, especially of the women regional writers, which needs to be heard. This is possible only through translation, gives them recognition all around the globe.
Tagore was the first Indian Nobel Laureate. He received the Nobel Prize in 1930 for his translation of the Gitanjali.
His best known works are Gora and Ghare Baire. His works - verse, brief stories and books - are acclaimed because of their lyricism, colloquialism, naturalism and contemplation. Of Tagore's prose, his brief stories are perhaps most highly regarded indeed he is credited with originating the Bengali terminology version of the genre. His brief stories mostly borrow from the deceptively simple subject material: common people. The translation of his works into various dialects has given people across ethnicities a glimpse of the world of the Bengali common man.
Given below is Robi Dutta's translation of his poem 'Urvashi':
No mother thou, no girl thou
Thou skill no bride,
O maiden good and free
O inhabitant of Nandan
Sampooran Singh Kalra better known as Gulzar is an Indian poet, lyricist and director. Gulzar principally works in Hindi-Urdu and also works in Punjabi, several dialects of Hindi like braj bhasha, khadi boli, Haryanvi and Marwari.
Gulzar has received many honors including the Padma Bhushan and the Academy Prize for his song "Jai Ho".
He has been generally translated into English and other languages. Through the Jaipur Literary Celebration, Pawan Varma, an eminent IFS officer who has translated Gulzar's poetry, said that he experienced a difficulty translating phrases like 'suggestion tip' and 'tap faucet' and Gulzar replied "abhi to humne kabutar ki gutar goon shuru bhi nahi ki hai".
Sunjoy Shekhar, who has also translated Gulzar message or calls himself a "smuggler aiming to surreptitiously smuggle the thoughts evoked by Gulzar's lyrics across an impermissible, alien wordscape. " To provide a flavour of the translation of his poetry, listed below is a track of his along with its translation:
basa cand kraoD, aoM saalaaoM maoM
saUrja kI Aaga bauJaogaI jaba
AaOr rak, ]D, ogaI saUrja sao
jaba kao[- caaMd na DUbaogaa
AaOr kao[- ja, maIM na ]BarogaI
tba zMDa bauJaa [k kaoyalaa saa
TukD, a yao ja, maIM ka GaUmaogaa
mawma Kiksa~I raoSanaI maoM
maOM saaocata hUM ]sa
Aga, r kaga, ja, po ilaKI hu[- naj, ma
khIM ]D, to ]D, to saUrja maoM igaro
tao saUrja ifr saoo jalanao lagao
In a billion years when
The sun's flame dwindles
And ash blows across its surface
Then the moon will no longer wane
And the land not rise
When just like a frigid, burnt out little bit of coal
This earth revolves
Lost in its gyre
Trailing a dying, sepia glow
I think then
If a poem written on a bit of paper was to waft along
And perchance land on the sun
The sunlight would ignite again.
C. S. Lakshmi was born in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu in 1944. A few of her works - A Purple Sea and In A Forest, A Deer (2006) - have been translated British by Lakshmi Holmström. In 2006, she (along with Lakshmi Holmström) acquired the Vodafone-Crossword award. For her contributions to Tamil literature, she received the 2008 Iyal Virudhu. Her work is characterized by her feminism, an vision for depth, and a feeling of irony. Exploration of space, silence, approaching to conditions with the body or sexuality, and the value of communication are a few of the recurring topics in her works.
Vijaydan Detha also known as Bijji is a observed copy writer from Rajasthan and a receiver of Padma Shri honor(2007). He has also received several other honors such as Sahitya Akademi Award and Sahitya Chudamani Prize.
He has more than 800 short reviews to his credit, that happen to be translated into English and other languages. He's co-founder of Rupayan Sansthan with past due Komal Kothari, an institute that documents Rajasthani folk-lore, arts and music. His literary works include Bataan ri Phulwari (garden of stories), a fourteen level collection of testimonies that draws on folk-lore and spoken dialects of Rajasthan. His stories and novels have been designed for many takes on and films including Habib Tanvir's Charandas Chor and Amol Palekar's Paheli.
He once said "If you do not desire to be a mediocre article writer, you should return to your village and write in Rajasthani. "
Born in 1968 in Tamil Nadu, Salma's first poetry collection shocked conservative contemporary society where women are supposed to remain silent. In 2003, Salma along with three other Tamil women poets encountered obscenity charges and violent threats. Salma is now mind of the panchayat (local level administration body) of Thuvarankurichi, near Trichi in Tamil Nadu. The government of Tamil Nadu has appointed her Chairperson of the Tamil Nadu Friendly Welfare Table.
Her book, translated as Midnight Stories targets the interior world of Muslim women in the conservative population of Tamil Nadu in south India. It offers us an information into what actually goes on in the homes of this section of the culture and brings it out very effectively. The novel was also long-listed for the Man Asian Reward of 2007.
Translating these text messages into more greatly spoken dialects like Hindi and British has considered their voice to a much wider selection of readers.