Keywords: romeo and juliet tragedy, romeo and juliet analysis
At the heart and soul of the play's themes or templates of feuding households, ill-timing, and misfortune sits the true agent that defines Romeo and Juliet as a tragedy; the impulsive and reckless decisions of the young buffs determine, for some reason, the tragic results that are mistakenly related to fate throughout, and Shakespeare's exaggerated consideration acts as moral training of what can occur when choices of the magnitude are created unadvisedly. Although fate will play a part in the activities of the play, it only serves as instructions to the protagonists. Fate is accountable for retaining natural order and, as long as this is achieved, the destiny of the fans is based on their own decisions. Fate serves as helpful information, providing moral lessons to the protagonists and even warns them of future devastation. Despite the generosity of the actors, however, they continue steadily to rebel and this, in turn, brings about their demise.
A common device of Shakespearian tragedy is the "tragic flaw, " also called "hamartia, " defined as an "inherent defect or shortcoming in the hero of the tragedy, who's in other respects an excellent being well-liked by fortune" ("hamartia, " def. ). In the end, the "tragic defects" of both Romeo and Juliet are their values that, without regard to the warnings and direction of a higher order such as destiny, they are really above the laws and regulations of man; they make decisions without regard to outcome or accountability for the chaos they produce. It really is evident in Romeo and Juliet that the impulsive actions of the protagonists aren't related to inexperience in youngsters, but instead a reflection of the tragic flaws. Inside the fourth action of the play where her father asks where she's been, Juliet replies, "Where I have learned me to repent the sin of disobedient opposition" (4. 2. 17-18). Shakespeare's audience, of course, knows that this assertion is only Juliet's method of sustaining peace at home until she can go through with her intend to fake her own death. In connection with the father-daughter patriarchal composition during this time, however, her words are a distinct reflection of what is expected of her in obeying the regulations her father demands. This is, perhaps, Shakespeare's way of ironically exposing his moral lessons to his audience through the character who supplies the example, disclosing what Juliet should do. These words expose her knowledge that obedience provides order, and consequently, the audience is less sympathetic to her because she does not pay attention to her own words, those of Friar Laurence, or the warnings of destiny.
Romeo also unveils his awareness of the Prince's legislations and advises its importance for interpersonal order. Initially of Work 3, when Mercutio and Tybalt are fighting, Romeo comes between them and says, "The Prince expressly hath forbid this bandying in Verona streets" (3. 1. 82-83). Romeo appears to forego his recklessness here, but it generally does not previous long; he kills Tybalt only a few lines later. Granted, he's revenging his friend's fatality, but this step marks the start of the deadly chaos seen throughout the rest of the play. Although he doesn't agree that a tragic flaw leads to the lamentable finishing of the play, Fredson Bowers, in his article "Dramatic Structure and Criticism: Storyline in Hamlet, " will, however, think that "the climax in Romeo's decision to deal with Tybalt involves an individual choice that carries moral responsibility which is therefore morally determinate" (210).
As the audience can see, tragedy follows a course of increasingly destructive happenings, and following a scene which represents the point of no come back for Romeo, in this case the murder of Tybalt, madness undoubtedly follows. A. C. Bradley describes this series of events with regards to chance by saying that, "any large admission of chance in to the tragic sequence would definitely weaken, and might demolish, the sense of the causal connection of figure, deed, and catastrophe" (Bradley 64). Character represents the tragic flaw; the deed is the climax leading, then, to madness which is the catalyst for catastrophe. Romeo's madness becomes more obvious as the reader can see his actions become more and more less reasonable, beginning with the climactic arena and only stopping with his death. Romeo's madness is displayed through both his irrational activities and the reactions of Friar Laurence and Romeo himself. After Romeo learns of his banishment from Verona, his response, in both terms and action, provokes Friar Laurence to proclaim, "O, then I see that madmen have no ears" (3. 3. 61). Here, he identifies the madness, so quickly visible in Romeo, spawned from Romeo's banishment following loss of life of Tybalt. Later in the play, Romeo's madness intensifies to this extent that he himself recognizes it when he says, "The time and my intents are savage-wild, more fierce and even more inexorable considerably than unfilled tigers or the roaring sea" (5. 3. 37-39). Here, Romeo's admission of his madness is Shakespeare's way of explicitly informing the audience that Romeo has indeed lost his sensibilities. The madness seen in the prior lines leads directly to catastrophe, namely the fatality of Romeo. His insanity, before an internal conflict, is now outwardly accepted to Paris when he says, "Live, and hereafter say a madman's mercy bet thee run away" (5. 3. 66-67). These lines represent Romeo's distribution to his madness as he rushes to his designed suicide. Much like Romeo's insanity, Juliet activities symptoms following a climactic landscape of the play. That is identified by Juliet's mother when she suggests, "Some grief shows much of love, but much grief shows still some want of wit" (3. 5. 72-73). Although Female Capulet believes she actually is seeing Juliet's despair over Tybalt's death, her visible display of sorrow is derived immediately from her grief over Romeo's banishment, and this grief is but the first sign of the creeping irrationality that will lead Juliet to her end. Her irrationality lapses into madness as Juliet starts to hallucinate before enjoying Friar Lawrence's potion, as is seen when she says, "O, look! Methinks I see my cousin's ghost seeking out Romeo that did spit his body after a rapier's point" (4. 4. 57). Immediately after this affirmation, she drinks the potion, an act that even Friar Lawrence deems "desperate" (4. 1. 69), exorcising, through her action, the madness that has acutely built up in her since Romeo's banishment.
Throughout Romeo and Juliet, fate is referenced in many various ways, yet all passages seem to be to be directed to the same notion of a higher vitality watching in the "natural order" (Kastan 16) of the individuals, but the protagonists of the play use fate as a source where to place blame so not to be held in charge of the decisions they make. Throughout, this higher ability has been called "the celebrities" (1. 4. 107), "fortune" (1. 2. 57), "heavens" (4. 4. 121), "fate" (3. 1. 114) "nature" (3. 2. 80), and each time Romeo or Juliet makes a rash decision and faces the results of the same, they complain that fate is the cause. Fate functions as a help for the young couple, however, which becomes evident in that, each time the play gets to a crucial point important to the play's results, the protagonists are warned. This idea of alert from a supernatural or ghostly source is a common strategy in Shakespearian tragedies. Here, Romeo is first warned in a goal which Mercutio calling "Queen Mab" (1. 4. 53), right before he is going to meet Juliet for the first time. The dream warns him never to go to the Capulet ball, and destiny further guides his decision by planting doubt in his decision as a alert of what will happen if he will go. Romeo areas, "I fear prematurily. , for my mind misgives some consequence yet hanging in the stars" (1. 4. 106), and even though he is influenced by this warning and alert to the results if he moves, only five lines later, he ignores the caution with "On, lusty gentlemen" (1. 4. 113). This is a dynamic decision by Romeo to go to the ball, yet in the previous word, he says "Direct my sail!" (1. 4. 113). Thus, although Romeo gets help from destiny through direction, warnings of impending devastation, and the free will to avoid decisions, he repeatedly makes bad choices of which he's not willing to take responsibility, but instead, blames the source that helps him. Another example of this warning comes when Romeo is going out of for Mantua, and this is the previous time Juliet recognizes him. This time, both have a feeling of impending doom. Juliet says, "O God, I have an ill-divining soul! Methinks I see thee, now thou skill so low, as one dead in the bottom of any tomb" (3. 5. 54-56), and Romeo responds with, "And trust me, love, in my own eyes so do you. Dry up sorrow wines our blood vessels. " (3. 5. 58-59). Juliet's lines are spoken just three lines after she asks Romeo if they will ever see one another again. Needless to say, they don't meet again, and these lines make the next phase of chaos, fatality, and bad decisions which conclude the play. You will find, however, two more references to dreams that properly reveal encounters, tragic in nature, that could have been avoided. First, Juliet imagines heading mad inside the Capulet tomb, blatantly declaring a caution from destiny that has been performed inside her own daydream. When she says, "O, if I wake, shall I not be distraught, envisioned with each one of these hideous doubts, and, in this rage, with some great kinsman's bone as with a golf club dash out my desp'rate brains" (4. 4. 49-53), her concerns are in reality a proclamation of fate's alert that this rash action will eventually lead to her demise, a caution which she immediately dismisses as she drinks the vial only a few lines later. The next of the references to dreams lies in Romeo's assertion, "I dreamt my lady arrived and found me dead - strange wish, that gives a useless man leave to think" (5. 1. 6-7). Romeo will not realize the implications of this dream, which serves as the voice of destiny. Instead, his irrationality spins this concept into an application that he's willing to simply accept, as sometimes appears by the following lines, "and breathed such life with kisses in my own lips i revived and was an emperor" (5. 1. 8-9). Because of Romeo's maddening obsession along with his infatuation, he is struggling to decipher the real message of the dream. His irrational activities have placed him on the path that will lead to his fatality.
A. C. Bradley is convinced that tragedy is generally structured around a character of prominence and is a story of "individual activities producing exceptional calamity and ending in the loss of life of such a guy" (Bradley 64). This component of tragedy, comprising specific actions that lead to a catastrophe and cause the death of an prominent persona, is a classic theme among Shakespearean tragedies. Among the most common areas of this basis is the element of fatality, both foreshadowed and recognized, as a final result to the deranged activities of the principal character types in Shakespeare's works. This theme can be seen in a lot of his has, such as Hamlet and Othello, but none of them more so than Romeo and Juliet, where the theme of death is constantly reiterated from the initial prologue to the conclusion of the play. For example, when paralleling the young enthusiasts' courtship to the different phases of the play, one can see these recurrent statements explicitly mentioned, all of which suggest death's impending arrival as the natural summary of the couple's constant irrational activities. The first of these decisions occurs before Romeo is to attend the Capulet's ball. He commences to feel himself going down an unnatural avenue and says, "my head misgives some result yet clinging in the actorsof a despised life, shut in my breast, by some vile forfeit of untimely death" (1. 5. 106-111). Although Romeo, somewhat, feels fate's caution and the consequences of his activities, he proceeds to Capulet's ball, taking his first step toward his in the end tragic end. Furthermore, after they meet, Juliet immediately determines he is committed and says, "my grave is like to be my wedding foundation" (1. 9. 131-132) before she even learns the name of her idol. This is only the first of many such types of an irrational thought process that will continue throughout the rest of the story; types of this unreasonable idea that death is their only substitute further displays their refusal to simply accept the problem and work toward a remedy. Instead, fatality provides an easy solution. By restricting herself to only two options, Juliet constantly bases her decisions upon this opinion, despite all warnings that she actually is essentially jogging headlong to her own death. The next phase in the progression of this affair, the matrimony of the young enthusiasts, is just as before marked by the presence of loss of life. Upon arriving at Friar Lawrence's cell for the proximate ceremony, Romeo declares that, "love-devouring death do what he dare - it will do I might but call her mine" (2. 5. 7-8). Once more, the existence of loss of life is foreshadowed at a pinnacle point, and Romeo and Juliet make another aberrant decision. By explicitly challenging loss of life, Romeo is seemingly aware that his mortality is imminent, but he still continues down this path. He will not consider that Juliet's activities are mirroring his and leading her to the same final result.
The couple's impetuous drive toward rash decisions is unmistakable throughout the rest of the play. Although they know that the chance of their prolonged relationship will ultimately never be offered, both protagonists pursue fatality from the beginning. These good examples solidify the argument that Romeo and Juliet is a primary exemplory case of Shakespeare's lessons that loss of life as a natural outcome of the impetuous activities of those who overlook the admonitions of fate.
Throughout the realm of Shakespeare's tragedies, another theme persists. While the protagonists in Shakespearean tragedies make conscious choices identifying their own paths, mostly against the delicate and blatant warnings of fate, there's a constant element that renders the execution of these decisions compulsory; this notion is recognized as situational issue. In his article "Art and Artifice in Shakespeare, " Elmer Edgar Stoll areas, "The primary of tragedy is situation; and a situation is a identity in contrast, and perhaps also incompatible, with other heroes or with circumstances" (Stoll 69). This notion that there has to be a turmoil to a tragedy is not really a novel idea, however the idea that there must be a situation in conflict with personality or circumstance shows that an author would need to define this situation, either implicitly or explicitly, sooner or later before the climax of the storyline. Third, design of creating a situational conflict that will force the protagonists to make decisions that will lead them down either fate's implied course of natural order or along a span of their own devising, a tragic story must contain an action that makes this turmoil. Shakespeare had not been oblivious to the motif; in fact, the structure of his tragedies implies his acceptance of the template as a method of depicting a tragic story. In the bulk of Shakespeare's tragedies, there's a common event that, apart from the climax and generally between your middle and end of the first work, explicitly defines this situation. The function typically causes discord in the protagonists' state of affairs, which sets the level for the downward spiral of decisions that the character types make. While generally affected by another figure in the play, such as Iago's announcement of his plot to deceive Othello or Girl MacBeth's persuasion of MacBeth to destroy Ruler Duncan, this triggering event causes the protagonists in Shakespeare's tragedies, either immediately or undoubtedly, to make the initial decision that will decide their fate. Romeo and Juliet will not differ from this program; the triggering event and the situational issue are both present within the same location mentioned recently. Specifically, this event is induced by the endeavors of Benvolio and Mercutio's to assuage Romeo's concerns about participating the Capulet's ball. While Romeo initially agrees to come with them to the function, he soon shows no affinity for the night's activities. He says that he will "be a candle-holder and look on, " and quickly thereafter begins to question his decision to wait the ball whatsoever when he says, "we mean well in heading to this masque, but 'tis no wit to go" (1. 4. 38, 1. 4. 46-47). Although he is persuaded by Benvolio and Mercutio, the ultimate decision to attend is ultimately created by Romeo. This choice places Romeo in a situation where conflict is eminent; he walks into the house of the Capulets and woos a lady who he knows, by being present as of this event, has ties to his enemy. Therefore, although Benvolio and Mercutio attempt to persuade Romeo to attend the ball and "examine other beauties" (1. 1. 221), his choice to take action is the triggering event. This is Romeo's first chance to decide whether or not to enter into a predicament of discord and, as with many of Shakespeare's tragic protagonists, Romeo makes the incorrect choice.
There is some question about the potency of the moral lessons in Shakespeare's tragedies. In his article "Shakespeare, " Walter Raleigh is convinced, "There is absolutely no moral lesson to be read, except accidentally, in any of Shakespeare's tragedies" (Raleigh 66). John Dryden, on the other hand, argues, in his article entitled "THE LANDS of Criticism in Tragedy", that tragedy is "an imitation of 1 overall, great and possible action; not told, but displayed; which by relocating us fear and pity, is conducive to the purging of those two passions in our thoughts" (Dryden 24). The conscious decisions of the personas in Shakespearean tragedy are not only pertinent to the improvement of the tragic storyline, but also morally determinate. Shakespeare reveals this idea through fate's warnings, the dialogue of the people, imagery, the advice of character types such as Friar Laurence, finally, in the epilogue, a common factor in Shakespeare's tragedies.
The definition of a "morally determinate action" is significant in the debate of free will versus fate in Romeo and Juliet because it signifies that "the type is aware of the problem and nevertheless makes a choice that is inherently fatal" (210). This allows for an exchange of the audience's sympathy for the lovers with a sense of contentment in realizing that, rather than a dismal view of fate's inevitable defeat of innocent buffs, the protagonists have control of their lives and pursue tragedy through their own disobedience. The audience can benefit from the play because they too have free will to find out their own fates, yet they also come away with the lesson Shakespeare instructs about the moral responsibility of your respective actions. But the interjection of fate has been discussed previously, the moral reprehension declared by some of the heroes in the play regarding Romeo and Juliet's activities also provide as a measure where to gauge the moral accountability of the couple's activities. For example, Friar Lawrence is appalled by Romeo's exploits with Juliet at the Capulet's ball, which is evident when he declares, "Is Rosaline, that thou didst love so dear, so soon forsaken? Young men's love then sits not truly in their hearts, but in their eyes" (2. 2. 66-68). Essentially, Friar Lawrence is expressing his distaste in the immorality of his decision to wed an other woman not a day after his lamentation for Rosaline. This decision is morally reprehensible since it exposes the fickleness of Romeo's love and the significance of getting into a marriage without understanding the significance of such an act. This type of reaction is evident again when Friar Laurence castigates Romeo, this time around for his effeminate tears and "unreasonable fury" (3. 3. 110). Here, Friar Laurence remarks, "Hast thou slain Tybalt? Wilt thou slay thyself, and slay thy lady that in thy life lives by doing damned hate upon thyself?" (3. 3. 135-137). Romeo's decisions, in this case, are blameworthy because of the selfishness of his assertions of suicide, as he does not consider Juliet's welfare. He's further at the mercy of blame when one contemplates Romeo's past activities and his failure to identify the mercy that the Prince shows him. His selfishness is straight related to the disjointed dynamics of Romeo's decisions; rather than considering the implications of his decisions, he initiates a course of action based on his brash and reckless predilection. The epilogue in Romeo and Juliet repeats the occurrences that unfold in the private counsel of Friar Lawrence's cell, even though his account describes the rash actions of Romeo and Juliet, he openly accepts responsibility for his own part in the scandalous event. Friar Laurence is quickly pardoned for his misdeed. The results of the epilogue reveals the moral lesson; one must face responsibility for his or her actions, which is better to recognize the results than to run away. That is evident when Friar Lawrence pronounces, "if aught in this miscarried by my fault, let my old life be sacrificed, some hour before his time, unto the rigour of severest legislations" (5. 3. 266-268). He allows complete responsibility for his part in the events that lead to the young buffs' deaths and signifies his foreknowledge that his actions could lead to abuse, indicating that the Friar considered this before performing and juxtaposing this with the activities of Romeo and Juliet. By disclosing to the audience both an avoidable situation and the reasons for the tragic stopping, Shakespeare succeeds in providing a moral lessons that functions to "purge the passion" (Dryden 25).
The implementation of a tragic flaw, madness, neglecting fate's warnings, loss of life, a triggering event, activities that happen to be morally determinate, and the moral lessons provide a clear view of Shakespearean tragedy. The causal relationships between the elements of tragedy, combined with common literary features associated with plot, discovering the triggering event that presents the situational conflict that may lead to the climatic maximum of the narrative, the producing madness that builds in the principals, the ineluctable bottom line of death, and the consummate lessons learnt upon the finish of the story. Throughout this chronology, each step is traversed with a morally determinate adjudication founded from, in this case, the main individuals' tragic flaws, and neglecting the karmic advice proposed by other heroes as well as by their own admissions of feelings and dreams. Romeo and Juliet adhere to each of these elements, not on a scarce occasion or two, but continuously and doggedly throughout the course of the storyplot, with each factor intertwining with another to form the basis for which the primary idea related to the primary individuals' decisions may relax; Romeo and Juliet's actions were undertaken too impetuously, and while fate did play a role in wanting to recommend the young couple regarding the natural order of the situation, they exercise their free will to interminably disregard these warnings and established themselves down the slippery slope that results in their undoing.