Posted at 10.09.2018
Fashion and folklore clothes in Poland has been affected by the resources available, local climate, and also by the other cultures that came across. German, Czech, Russian, Lithuanian, Hungarian, and other affects is seen in the original dress of each region. You will find approximately 60 unique costumes attributed to the different areas in Poland, because of these diverse influences, each region of Poland has its local traditional dress.
Polish fashion developed in the late 15th Century. Medieval apparel were worn all over east Europe. Attributes as the jopula were influenced by Hungarian and Turkish costume. Those were in turn created by impacting the Byzantine courtroom dress and by central Asian influences. Links with Hungary were significant for the creation of another design of dress that was worn in Poland and in Lithuania. Those cable connections were strengthened by dynastic plans within the royal groups of both countries. The stereotypical caftan-like 'look' of long streaming robes was not used to the early 16th Century, which was strongly strengthened by the election of the popular and effective Ruler Stephan Bathory of Transylvania. Ruler Stephan Bathory alongside Ruler Jan III Sobieski, gained the best respect and popularity among the list of nobles, as these were famous not only for their bravery but also, significantly, for his or her inclination for dressing in Polish style. Which, at that time they known as ''Sarmatian dress''. The style became a means of manifesting the gentry's ideology. It was symbolic of the republic tradition and the nobles' liberty that was valued the most in Poland. West European male dress using its laces and ribbons, along with a curly wig, was regarded as a creation of an absolute monarchy and a token of effeminacy. Kings dressed up in such a ''ladylike'' manner were cared for with distrust. Just like the last King of Poland; Stanislaw August Poniatowski, who refused to wear a Sarmatian dress on the day of his coronation. The long Hungarian overcoat, the mentlik, was also implemented as Slovakian countrywide dress. The Lithuanians, White Ruthuanins, Ukrainians, & most Cossacks used Polish dress in the 17th Century. Due to all the fast changes, it was difficult and often challenging for foreigners to tell the difference between some eastern European apparel, especially in times of fights. For instance: a Pole could always find a Hungarian in a crowd, but westerners weren't able to recognise Turks from Poles and Hungarians. In the second 1 / 2 of the 17th Century, thanks to two queens consort who came from France; Maria Ludwika Gonzaga and Maria Kazimiera Sobieska. Polish woman's wear implemented the european fashion tendencies. Women left out dark coloured, somewhat humble and strenuous remembrances of Eastern culture. However this foreign style came across a strong disapproval from the traditionalists. These were reluctant of the immoral impact of French judge on Polish women.
"Just how many continually changing styles I recall in frocks, caps, boots, swords, harness, and in every other kind of military services garment and home utensils, as well as in hairstyles, gestures, walking and greeting practices! Oh Almighty God! you can not have the ability to list them on ten ox skins!. . . . . The clothing which I bought abroad would have lasted me a complete life-time - even my children could have profited by them - got they not eliminated out of fashion and become unstylish in a yr or less. These outfits had to be taken aside and restyled, or else had to be sold in a second hand market. (If one didn't purchase new ones) people would dash at you like sparrows at an owl: 'look look!' they would point their fingers at you. They might say that the attire reminded them of the days of the Deluge ('Potop', 1650s). About the ladies and their fancies I will say little or nothing because I possibly could fill a whole book. "
In Poland the beginning of folk culture is usually associated with class divisions in culture. Due to social, economic, political, and historical factors, three distinct groups emerged: the peasants, middle income and nobility.
Dress symbolised the several value systems of various social organizations and reflected the economic distinctions between them. There were also distinctions between the dress of richer and poorer customers within each group. That resulted with making few laws and regulations, to stop peasants from replicating dresses of the richer classes.
In addition to grains flax were grown up and were used for making yarn, which was then woven into linen or hemp cloth. Stockbreeding provided a way to obtain wool and leather. Country dwellers were self-suficiant in producing clothes, which for a long period have been their distinguishing symbol. Producing clothes was an important part of village women's work.
The heyday of creative imagination in dress took place between 1850 and 1890. it was a period of abrupt industrialization, which resulted in new materials and techniques appearing in the villages. Initially the festive dress have been modest and devoid of complicated ornamentation. But following the granting of freehold, trends were manufactured in the use of new reductions, colors and accessories. More elements were factory made. In this period, folk dress was still worn and got great symboilc and estetic value, but the slow progress than it vanishing had begun, especially in northern parts of the country. This technique of drop was slowed by the bigger classes declaring a pastime in folk culture. Like artists, that used folklore as their ideas for new creations.
Another group of deviation in dress was occasional outfit, which was distingtive in its colouring, richness of adornments, and accessories. Particulary by the marriage attire, that was worn by the bride-to-be, groom and his best man. During the wedding ceremony -according to region- brides locks was unpleated, and the committed woman's headdress was placed on. Hitched women usually wore headdresses manufactured from batiste, linen, tulle or velvet always highly decorated, because of the social requiremen to protect he hair. Sign of virginity was an uncovered head, but young girls often wore colourful brain scarves, or pleated ribbons directly into their hair. The bridegroom and his best man were distinguished by a adornment mounted on their hats and/or lapels. Public norms also controlled mourning clothing and the clothes placed on the deceased. As for more casual situations, women used aprons over their knee-lenght skirts. Colorings of the aprons were carefully chosen to complement the skirt. It used to be totally decorative equipment, often beautifully decorated with laces and beads. For jewellery, the most popular were strings of coral beads, but also less common amber and vinyl beads. Even the number of strands that girls wore on their necks suggested her prosperity.
However the division between winter and summertime clothes had not been always very noticeable. During winter, people wore several layers of summertime clothes, and during summer, sheepskin jackets were still worn as a symbol of riches.
previously stated ''kontusz'' and ''zupan'', were one of the most striking components of Polish dress.
The phrase 'zupan' for an external caftan-like garment started being used in the 1530s. Like the later kontusz, it was often lined with fur. From the 1570s the term started to mean an under-caftan, generally light in weight. The military services version was, however, cushioned, since it was used under armor. The outside garment choices, that have been often fur-lined except for summer-weight variations, are the delia, ferezeya, and later the kontusz. The delia was form fitting from the waste products up and loose below and lacked a collar. It is seen in illustrations being worn as a mantle (arms not through the sleeve). It was usually fastened with passementerie loops. It disappeared in the middle 17th century (in the 18th Hundred years it came up to suggest a fur-lined mantle. The ferezeya in the 17th Century was a extravagant indoor outer-coat, worn over the zupan. It had been replaced in the 1640s by the kontusz.
Most often it was folded in half and wrapped around the waistline few times. ''kontusz'' first made an appearance in the 1630s, and quickly changed most outer apparel. Matching to Turnau, the sign of the ''kontusz'' is the one-piece back again with a trailing long slim rectangle of textile, to which is fastened a side skirt -panel on each part. The slash in the inside arm, which allowed sleeves to be thrown back the 'wyloty' style, came into being in the 1650s, and then became general in all but the heaviest of fur-lined winter-weight kontusz. The kontusz, that could be unlined tender wool for summer months wear, or fur-lined for winter, might be supplemented in cold or bad weather by overcoats and mantles and capes, such as bekiesza, burka, and oponcza.