Posted at 10.28.2018
The news is very important in todays society because it attaches us to the globe. Because of this, it is important for the news headlines to be accurate and accessible. Journalism mainly depends on the reliability and accuracy and reliability of its writers. With the introduction of online journalism by means of news sites, blogs, and resident journalism, a concern regarding ethics may happen. With the starting point of speedy and real-time appearance, real details may be jeopardized in online journalism. In a day and time where anything can be distributed and seen online, there is a question on whether online journalism has affected the ethical rules occur traditional print journalism. It then becomes important to analyze set up ethical recommendations of print journalism remain being applied to and if indeed they use online journalism to become able to evaluate whether there's a need to produce new ethical rules for online journalism.
Ethics takes on a huge part in journalism, for it helps uphold the high benchmarks and the good practice of the field. The Population of Professional Journalists (SPJ) in their code of ethics brands four main guidelines, namely to 1 1) "seek the reality and statement it", 2) "minimalize harm", 3) "act independently", and 4) "be accountable" (SPJ, n. d. ) Traditional journalists have been pursuing these guidelines for a long time. However, with the climb of online journalism, there's a question on if these guidelines remain being implemented. This study aspires to explore whether or not online journalists still abide by the SPJ code of ethics, whether or not these ethical rules can be applied to online journalism, and subsequently, determine the relevance of honest suggestions in journalism in our society.
Review of Related Literature
We cannot deny that there's been a rise of online journalism. Within the articles we used, it is stated that this climb in online journalism has damaged traditional journalism. Within this review of related literature, we are discussing the troubles online journalism poses to traditional journalism and the area of ethics in this.
The work of Jane B. Vocalist entitled "Who are this business? The online challenge to the notion of journalistic professionalism and reliability" discusses journalistic professionalism and reliability and how online journalism issues it. She says that the idea of professionalism is dependant on the admittedly self-serving idea that certain people in our society are entitled to fill a particular prestigious occupational niche market and that this entitlement stems mostly from the professional's special skills, training, rules of conduct, dedication to open public service and autonomy. (Singer, 2003) Journalists also say that moral rules are needed, due to service they offer to the public as well as for journalists to achieve some kind of "autonomy". (Vocalist, 2003) Aside from this, she also mentions 3 dimensions of professionalism which can be cognitive, normative, and evaluative. (Singer, 2003)
She then moves on to online journalism, saying that the problem facing participants of the journalism community today is how to define their professional niche as it is challenged by those who now work in the new medium. Through online journalism, anyone can perform traditional journalistic functions of gathering and disseminating information online and the news headlines now
becomes more individualized. (Lasica, 2001) This article also claims the recent rise of web logs or 'blogs', interactive personal publications that typically combine commentary, talk and original reporting, further blurs the range between professional and non-professional. One of the most consistent criticism however of online journalism and the clearest brand traditional journalists have looked for to attract between themselves and those working online has engaged ethical behavior. (Vocalist, 2003) A quotation from Lynch in this article stated that journalists associated with online reports do appear to lack a 'rulebook' in an environment that changes quickly and unpredictably and this has neither a long tradition nor a chance for reflection. (Lynch, 1998)
The article also mentions that whether traditional honest procedures can or should be transplanted to online journalism is debatable. Some journalists say that there should be a different group of rules for online journalism although some say that existing rules should be grafted onto an online environment. (Performer, 2003) She also mentions several related issues like the difficulty of verifying information, editors as mainly in charge of adapting reports and turning them around quickly and the prospect of speed making judgment of media more vital than ever. (Performer, 2003) This article appears neutral and so we cannot notify if the writer has any stand on having a new code of ethics for online journalism or if she is for grafting the existing code to online news.
An article entitled Ethics and Reliability in Online Journalism says that whenever access to printers was limited, journalists were allowed additional time to verify options, check for error, and revise consequently. Together with the onset of new press, this time lowered substantially. This poses a threat on ethics and reliability of online information and journalists. Bradley Osborn explores this issue, along with factors that impact journalism routines.
Osborn starts by delivering his audience with two contrasting perspectives on online journalism. He dubbed one, The Pessimist, quoting Sandra Mims Rowe, Portland Oregonian editor: "the runaway Internet, makes a journalist out of anybody who may have a modem. It prices rate and sensationalism over precision. " He also estimates Frank Rich, a fresh York Times columnist, and dubs him The Pragmatist. Full says, "[The Internet]'s a medium, not really a message, and it could be used as irresponsibly or as honourably as a printing press or a Tv set network can. " (Osborn, 2001, p. 3).
Osborn labels some honest issues which have emerged with the surge of online journalism. A few of the issues he touched on are "graphic manipulation commingling of editorial and advertising content" and hyperlinks (Osborn, 2001, p. 4). He boasts that many others may occur along with the speedily changing times and multimedia panorama. These changes may necessitate new ethical methods. Still, he boasts that rules of journalistic ethics are timeless. As such, they continue being relevant today even with the changes in journalism as a result of new press.
Although constantly endeavoring to uphold journalistic requirements, credibility, Osborn locates, has declined over time. He reveals results from a 1999 review conducted among journalists by the Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. According to the survey, 50 percent of the journalists contained in the survey question the news credibility. One of the factors that has added to the decrease of credibility is the thinning lines between commentary and reporting.
In addition, credibility suffers due to prevailing notion that most online publishers are untrained professional journalists. Trustworthiness is also declining because of the
increasing need to break news first. New multimedia has afforded journalists the capacity to publish media quicker than they've ever before been able to, but this swiftness has also reduced enough time they could spend examining quality, facts, and mistakes.
Ultimately, Obsorn concludes that we now have obvious advantages that come with the emergence of online journalism, but that there are also obvious drawbacks. Online journalism, being a relatively new field, is yet to be explored. To establish its credibility as a news medium, Osborn feels that it's best to adhere to the original code of ethics (Osborn, 2001).
In an article on the importance of ethics, trustworthiness and reliability in online journalism, Demir mentions that in the current postmodern world, the population encounters major changes to our conventional definitions, including press. These changes offered way to the creation of new press, that provides users the convenience of being able to access content online plus a more interactive platform where communities can be created. The internet has increased to be the most important and prominent medium of present, and allows the community a large amount freedom to upload any type of content. "Within an environment where every one is a potential publisher, the issues of anonymity, personality, usage of information and protection of intellectual property influence how online journalism works. " (Demir, 2011) Due to the freedom it provides, issues have been lifted regarding ethics, credibility, and accuracy behind the multitude of content aquired online. In his article, Muge Demir discusses how online journalism has given way to traditional journalism, and how the profession has evolved in terms of ethics, credibility, and consistency.
Demir mentions that the ethical issues experienced online are "impossible to regulate" and referred to as having a damaging nature in journalism. Each modern culture has its own set of ethics
which may vary from other societies. Because of this nature, Demir promises that it's "hard to gather the internet world under a roof covering which consists of the same moral values" Because the opportunity of the internet runs beyond a single society, it might be difficult to create a homogeneous code of ethics that'll be approved by all. Demir also records the unstoppable go up of new mass media which is probably changing the field of ethics, and the life of new multimedia retailers (e. g. internet) can provide way to new honest problems.
The creation of the Internet has been regarded as a fourth type of journalism, where the velocity and anonymity may distort the press. (Demir, 2011) Within the electronic space, anyone can be considered a journalist, where being the first to report is known as to become more important than the accuracy and reliability of the news headlines content (e. g. delivery of new via Twitter). There is a pressure between the users to deliver and post brand new information, even without critiquing the content and due to this phenomenon, some end up with either early or incomplete media. Like printing and visual multimedia, the internet may also "be utilized within an irresponsible manner or under ethical rules. " For Demir, this new kind of journalism takes a new approach when it comes to ethics, he considers the internet as having "diversity to the receivers and senders" and could "cause destruction in the linear paradigm". The grade of the content has been "slipped out of the hands" of the internet gatekeepers, or lack thereof. "Insufficient editorial audits and pre-printing manipulation of an electric backup may be detailed among the consistency concerns" Also, with the many graphical manipulations of images in the internet, you can question how reliable the content found in the internet really is. From a study done by UCLA (University of California, LA), the study found that those who find themselves not internet users are more suspicious of this content found online that those who make an online search regularly. "While over fifty percent of the internet
users (54%) consider a great bulk or all of the information on the internet to be reliable and accurate, only 1 third of the non-users consent to this point of view. " Since information in the internet is utilized openly and lacks a control system, it "enhances the prospect of mistakes and exploitation. "
In finish, Demir says that even though the electronic digital press is slightly reliable, the reading mass only looks into the instant reports pieces rather than detailed, exact information. Along with the steady increase of 'citizen journalists', "We have to consider journalism which we have no idea whether to visit better or worse in the foreseeable future to be a profession which includes now been adopted by every one. " For Demir, the Internet, a daring and new concept in journalism, should be "required to adhere to the normal ethic and consistency, to ensure success and to have the ability to check out the new communication technology in a far more reliable manner. "
In Stephen Ward's article Global Marketing Ethics, he talks about the importance of global ethics in the practice of journalism and he stated two main reasons for this. The foremost is practicality, matching to Ward, "a non-global ethic is no longer able to sufficiently dwelling address the new problems that face global journalism". The next reason Ward described is ethics, "new global responsibilities come with global impact and reach. " (Ward, n. d) Today, with the surge of new mass media, news has been reported from all elements of the world real time. An individual click can reach some other time zone. Information dissemination is easier and faster, and this simple truth is alarming. The affect, impact, and the scope of new multimedia have reached better heights. There is sustained weight now to guarantee that journalists all over the world follow a universal code. To ensure liable information dissemination, reliability and variety of news studies, and to help folks from different countries get a more global perspective in world issues like poverty and environmental degradation, having global multimedia ethics is essential. It is important that news
reports contain cross-cultural perspectives and there is balance and objectivity in the statement. Impartiality of journalists towards their own country and group is essential in promoting a global perspective for residents. Restructuring or reformatting the mass media system for it to have a wider opportunity of global news will entail constructing a typical global code of ethics. It is crucial for establishments and governments to support the development of a global multimedia ethics code, without their support the activities of journalists towards an increased quality of journalism will be put to waste materials. (Ward, n. d. )
Lastly, moving onto the Philippine environment, an article on the claims and perils of online journalism says that it is important to know the potential of online journalism in the Philippines in order to be able to measure the need of an code of ethics for online journalism. Predicated on Manuelita Dela Torre Contreras and Cripsin C. Maslog's article entitled Philippine Online Journalism: Offer and Perils, the online medium seem encouraging particularly in the field of publishing and mass communication. By learning the history and development of online journalism and using content analysis and interview for data collection, this article is able to enumerate the benefits associated with online journalism by categorizing them into four areas: First, being truly a "source of information and information". Second, being truly a "communication channel". Third, being an "alternative means of publication", and fourth, being truly a "opportinity for other services". (Dela Torre Contreras & Maslog, 2006) There is certainly however a limitation regarding the occurrence of the internet in country, one of them being having less infrastructures and facilities to be able to link the united states to the "wired world" and adapt to the ICT environment. Nevertheless, this article has concluded that this will not completely stop online journalism from developing; therefore, giving anticipation that online journalism in the Philippines will have a appealing future. While using vast
potential of online journalism in the country through the enumeration of benefits done by Dela Torres Contreras and Maslog's research, it could be said that there surely is a dependence on a code of ethics for online journalism because it has become one of the main sources for media in the country.
All of the articles speak about that online journalism has damaged traditional journalism in some way, may this be in the global setting or in the Philippine setting. It is also notable that all of them discuss ethics sooner or later and they all mention a code of ethics is needed as it is important in journalism especially with making information credible and reliable. Some of the articles mention that it is better to graft the original code to online journalism. However, some also assume that a new code should be made for online journalism, may it be in the global or Philippine sense.
The New Marketing Theory, relating to Tag Poster's book, THE NEXT Media Age, expected "a fresh period in which interactive technologies and network marketing communications, specially the Internet, would convert population. " (Poster, 2008)
According to David Holmes' e book, Communication Theory: multimedia, technology, and world, the difference between the first media time and the next media era is seen as a the next (Summarized in Theories of People Communication by Stephen Littlejohn and Karen Foss):
"The first press age was said to be characterized by (1) centralized production (someone to many); (2) one-way communication; (3) state of control, for the most part; (4) the duplication of sociable stratification and inequality through advertising; (5) fragmented mass
audiences; and (6) the shaping of cultural consciousness. The next media age, on the other hand, serves as a: (1) decentralized; (2) two-way; (3) beyond status control; (4) democratizing; (5) promoting individual awareness; and (6) independently oriented. " (Holmes, 2008)
With the go up of the online world and the characterization done by Holmes, it could be said that people are residing in the second mass media age which Symbol Poster predicted. We are able to use media as a way to interact and to participate in the community. This is especially true in the field of journalism, wherein online journalism is has turned into a dominating medium for reports and information. The characteristics of the second media age found in the new media theory can be viewed in online journalism through its pursuing features:
First, decentralization in the online framework; with the internet being considered as a decentralized medium, it does not have an individual authoritative amount. Thus, in the framework of online journalism, there are no gatekeepers in the online community to validate and uphold requirements for news reviews and information distributed online.
Second, the internet is characterized as a two-way communication system, indicating users aren't only in a position to receive information, but are also with the capacity of sending them. Through content and reviews, the users have the ability to actively participate in discussions predicated on the content found online, particularly when it involves news.
Third, being that the internet is not managed by the federal government and promotes the independence of speech and press among its users. The consumption of the online platform cannot be limited by the state of hawaii because of its democratizing mother nature. Through such mother nature, journalism online is becoming more liberal.
Lastly, the internet is customized due to the fact that content an individual consumes is assumed to be taken in individually. It is individualized because the users are able to modify this content they find online to match their personality and needs. Because of this, users who ingest online journalism have the ability to perceive opinions on their own accord and talk about this to the web community.
Since online journalism greatly is different from what Holmes considers to be the first press age, being that it's more similar to the second media era, it introduces the question whether a fresh code of ethics should be executed or the code of ethics found in traditional journalism should be modified by its online counterpart.
This research aspires to discover whether the ethical suggestions of traditional journalism can be utilized in online journalism or when there is a have to have another code simply for it. This research seeks to review the difference between your processes of confirmation and publication (time used to gather, check, and edit reports, materials needed/used, etc. ) of online and traditional print journalism. This research also seeks to determine the difference in the study process or production (manner of writing and gathering news, time needed, types of publication, etc. ). These will be achieved so that we can discover what the distinctions are and so we will be able to find out if the original code of ethics can be utilized in online journalism or if there really is a need for an totally different code just for online journalism.
What is the difference between the process of verification and publication of online journalism and traditional print journalism?
What will be the differences in the research process/development of online journalism and traditional printing journalism?
There should be a specific code of ethics designed for online journalism.
For our research, we will be making use of the qualitative way. Utilizing this approach is more suited for the inspection since we want to reach the realities of the problem, in this case, ethics in online journalism. Since our research is rather intricate and tackles the idea of using the Philippine Journalist's Code of Ethics for online journalism, we have to have the ability to go beyond the simple "yes or no" hypothesis used by quantitative methods. Our review is much less dependent on the sample size, but more on the characteristics of the interviews we are conducting. With all the qualitative method, we are able to evaluate certain issues regarding our topic.
Due to the qualitative nature of our own approach, we are using a semi-structured interview method to gather data and gain knowledge from certain individuals. Like this will ensure that we will gain a deeper examination of issues encircling our issue. With in-depth interviews, the participants (in cases like this, journalists) can discuss and reveal their perceptions about the code of ethics being carried out in online journalism, probing can even be done if we realize that the info is not sufficient. Furthermore, we are able to assure a high go back/response rate and an
assurance of no ambiguous replies. Lastly, we will be able to discover and touch on certain aspects of the analysis, which other methods cannot provide.
The study's topic, mainly being centered on journalism and ethics, is intended for journalists. The proposed sample size is at least five journalists. This is to address the issue of feasibility, since the group has little usage of the journalistic community and also to well-known journalists. The group is also working around several time constraints. This being the case, it mandates that the journalists be credible and capable of providing complete answers. Therefore, the interview guide should cover all topics needed for the analysis.
The group has chosen purposive sampling and snowball sampling as the principal sampling types of procedures to be used in the analysis. Purposive sampling is to be used because the study requires that interviewees be skilled in the field to be able to ensure reliability and validity of results. Other sampling methods might not have the ability to ensure the reliability of interviewees.
In addition, snowball sampling will be used. This sampling process operates on recommendations from previous resources. Again, this is to address issues regarding feasibility. The group recognizes that there may be several constraints in terms of acquiring possible interviewees for the study. There are several issues that may occur, including conflicting schedules and limited resources. To handle this, snowball sampling is to be
TRADITIONAL ETHICS IN ONLINE JOURNALISM
used. Employing this sampling treatment, the group gains easier access to the journalistic community, and to credible journalists.
As previously explained, the interview will be semi-structured, with an interview guide presenting a clear path, but also enabling flexibility in the event the necessity for follow-up questions occurs. The first few questions will be the most non-threatening ones, so as to establish rapport with the interviewee. It'll then proceed to a lot more in-depth questions. The main questions are to be asked nearby the start of the interview, to maximize enough time with the interviewee. It's important that the most crucial questions be asked in the beginning because in order not to lose the eye of the interviewee.
Given the different means by which we have been to perform the interviews, the experts are to complement the means of gathering data with a proper method of transcription. If the interview is usually to be conducted face-to-face, the interviewers are to record the interview provided that the interviewee gives his/her consent. The interviewers will also record personal notes to be able to guarantee the persistence of the reactions once transcribed. In case the interview is usually to be conducted online, the exchange of email messages or replies will be named the state transcript.
The study covers Philippine journalism. It tackles traditional and online journalism in light of ethics, and explores the possible implications of this emerging form of journalism on the traditional code of ethics today.
The study is bound to the Philippines as it only looks for to frame the study about the Philippine journalism code of ethics. The means where the group is to obtain data is also limited to interviews. The results will be basically reliant, and consequently, limited by the know-how and thoughts of the interviewees. There are also no other outside the house sources by which data accumulated from interviewees may be substantiated and supplemented.