Posted at 10.13.2018
The cost of arresting and sentencing an offender has been calculated at $150, 000, with annually spent in jail costing an additional $90, 000 (Jail Fellowship New Zealand, 2012). In New Zealand there are over 8, 000 prisoners incarcerated, the price of casing inmates therefore totalling up to a substantial charge for the Government and taxpayers likewise. Despite the huge amount of money being infiltrated into the correctional system, recidivism rates remain relatively high, with 44 % of individuals being released from jail, reoffending and being re-imprisoned within a three calendar year period (Department of Corrections, 2009). Such statistics are not unique to New Zealand, with famous brands the United States and United Kingdom facing larger overheads with in the same way dissatisfying results lowering reoffending. Quite contrastingly, in Nordic countries even an imperfect contrast suggests reoffending shows up far less of any problem, with the entire reoffending rate on the two season period differing from the cheapest in Norway at 20% to the highest in Sweden with 30% (Kristofferson, 2010). Because of variation in calculating methods between countries, caution must be studied in evaluating these results, but that besides one other possible description for lower reoffending rates in Nordic countries is the intensifying and unique correctional methods which were integrated there. Centred on openness, personal growth and ecology, the common aim is never to overtly punish but to give attention to the rehabilitative needs of prisoners. Motivated by this success of Norway's self-sufficing prison Bastoy and with the goal of uncovering an alternative solution to the original finished and costly jail regimes, this paper will examine the idea of self-sufficient prisons. An investigation will be produced into the history of prisons which have done or still do operate under a self-sufficient ethos and an evaluation of the consequential benefits and/or potential negatives will be completed. Throughout the newspaper in-depth consideration will also be directed at any marriage which research has found to exist between a prison predicated on self-sufficient ideals and rehabilitation. Furthermore, in weighing the findings reached from this investigation, the viability of self-sufficient prisons realistically operating in New Zealand will be explored and any possible limits which could hinder their success will be recognized.
Self-sufficient prison model
When confronted with the expression "self-sufficient prison", a number of different interpretations can be drawn in regards to what exactly this requires. Firstly, from an financial perspective the term self-sufficient prison symbolizes a jail which works with the primary goal of counteracting its running costs and even creating profits through inmate labour and development. A jail encapsulating this understanding often runs similarly to a traditional closed jail but inmates take part in working during their sentences, rather than simply idly passing enough time away in skin cells. An example of this kind of self-sufficiency is seen at Louisiana State Penitentiary(Angola). Produced in 1835, this jail was established around the concept of inmates working and in 1880 an 8, 000 acre plantation was bought to fulfil this ideal. Today, it's the biggest maximum security jail in the United States, it also has been designed on self-sufficient ideas, being thought to function as a small community with a canning factory, a dairy products, a mail system, a tiny ranch, repair retailers, and a sugar mill. Colloquially known as "the farm", it is situated on 18, 000 acres, with around 5000 inmates whom work to create enough food to support over 11, 000 people throughout five different prisons in the state of hawaii. The resources which come from the land are used for the advantage of inmates and benefit the community. Jail warden Bruce Cain represents the prison today by stating "we all work together. We're all one. Our resources are their resources. " (Auzenne & Williams, 2010, p. 1).
Another way to interpret prison self-sufficiency is to comprehend it as a host where prisoners have the ability provide for themselves, within the chemical substance of any supportive correctional center. Although still wanting to offset financial costs, the concentrate of such a jail is on achieving a community like lifetime where inmates have an element of independence, enabling those to prepare, clean, work and essentially be self-sufficient. Together with the prisoner's self-sufficiency the jail would operate sustainably through adopting environmentally friendly routines which are in harmony with characteristics, impacting only a small amount possible on its surrounds. This would involve energy conserving strategies being carried out including the use of solar panels to provide warm water and heating, drinking water conservation, reductions in transportation petrol use and high efficiency lightning and equipment. As well as that, recycling, composting and misuse lowering would be of concentrate. Ultimately this knowledge of the word "self-sufficient jail, " can be explained as a correctional service which seeks to reduce the real human, environmental and monetary costs of jail.
Currently, there is merely one real example of a jail operating completely consistent with this knowledge of prison self-sufficiency. Situated in Norway, by using an island in the Oslo Fiord is Bastoy prison. Made to operate as a small self-sufficient community this jail encompasses the heart and so this means of self-sufficiency to the fullest. It not only has one of the lowest reoffending rates on the planet at 16%, but is also the most cost efficient prison in the complete of Norway (Sutter, 2012). Cover up to 115 inmates, numerous complexes disperse over a rural panorama and simply as in virtually any other community there may be shop, catalogue, information office, health services, cathedral, school, NAV (federal sociable services), dock and ferry service all located within the prison, for the inmates use. Every day inmates at Bastoy work between your hours of 8. 30 am and 3. 00 pm in one of various different work products, including ; the agricultural sector, the greenhouses, the forestry device, seed and turf production, the kitchen, the shop, the maintenance device, on the fishing boat or operating the ferry. (Bastoy Prison, 2012). The work they do not only allows the prison to run self-sufficiently and earn the inmates a little wage, but it also fulfils their daily presence. Bastoy instils a sense of community, reality and independence, three aspects which are key to the rehabilitation of inmates.
Other aspects which distinguish Bastoy from traditionally run prisons and donate to its self-sufficient life include an lack of intimidation and scare mongering from guards, whom are unarmed and don't wear uniforms. Instead, guards are thoroughly trained to safely and purposefully connect to prisoners and just as the prisoners do, they become part of the Bastoy community. The jail is also focused on being environmentally sustainable. It is run under human-ecological ideals, farming is ecological, the jail handles the majority of its own rubbish, there is a constant give attention to lessening CO2-emissions and the buildings are warmed from solar panels or the lumber they develop and process themselves (Bastoy Prison, 2012). The current Governor of the prison is extremely focused on the self-sufficient methods instilled on the island, even living there himself. His interest is demonstrated in this quotation where he claims;
The prison is self-sustaining and as green as is possible in terms of recycling, solar power panels and using horses rather than cars. It means that the inmates have a great deal to do and lots of connection with dynamics - the plantation animals, wildlife, the new air and sea. We try to teach inmates they are part with their environment and that if you damage aspect or your fellow man it comes back for you (Jail Governor, Arne Kvernvik Nilsen quoted in Hernu, 2011).
Some would say they are words of a man completely deranged. His views and methods of running a prison will be the polar contrary to the traditional closed, tough and costly regimes so commonly seen throughout westernised culture. Regardless of judgment, one significant factor remains, this jail is working, in all sense of this is.
History of self-sufficiency and prisons
In 1787 Jeremy Bentham needed prisons to become "mills for grinding rogues genuine and idle men industrious" (Reynolds, 1996). He had not been alone in this way of considering and over the United States incarceration came to be more and more industrious as prisons realised the value of the workforce that they had at their removal. In 1797, Newgate jail opened in NEW YORK and effectively it recouped practically all of its expenses through the first five years of the procedure through prisoner development. The Auburn system named after another NY prison producing superior monetary results, dominated U. S. prison culture from 1823. The basis of the Auburn system was to confine prisoners during the night but keep these things get together and work throughout the day (Reynolds, 1996). For centuries the American jail system sought to function self-sufficiently and according to research conducted by Lyons (2012) the presence of jail farms acted not only as an economically feasible way of sufficing jail populations, but also functioned as a disciplinary and rehabilitative work program essential to the 19th century penitentiary. Along with the successes of working prisons also came up criticism, primarily by means of claims about unfair competition from prison-made products being created in the general public market. Allegations of mistreatment were also made, accusing prisons of exploiting inmates and concerns were raised in the security of the public. All three criticisms increased politics pressure and worked well in creating legislative changes. Self-sufficiency as an integral element of the penitentiary system was being challenged and stayed phased out. During the last two decades incarceration in the United States has become progressively more privatised, commercialised and run towards corporate earnings. Companies such as Aramark and many other suppliers have made large profits, through providing prisons with food and other products. Between 1993 and 2000 only, the US food service industry made 36 billion us dollars in profit through contracts with correctional facilities (Lyons, 2012).
For over a century Canada has already established six successfully functioning prison farms (Frontenac, Pittsburgh, Westmorland, Riverbend, Rockwood, and Bowden). However, in 2009 2009, the Canadian Corrections Team started taking action towards phasing out the farms, saying deficits of around four million per annum and recommending money used to perform the farms could be better placed into "public safety". There's been no facts provided to aid such says of ineffectiveness and those involved with the farms dispute this is not the truth, with the farms in truth being extremely positive correctional procedures. In response to the news headlines of closing the plantation community users, correctional officials and ex lover inmates themselves emerged together in the countrywide "Save Our Jail Farms" advertising campaign. The campaign seeks to stall the closure of the prison farms in order to provide non-governmental experts a chance to collect evidence of the farm's viability and benefits (Lyons, 2012). In britain prison farm closures began occurring in the past. Between 2002 and 2005 the prison service significantly reduced its farming routine from having twenty-three farms, to only the existing five. Those presently in procedure include; North Sea Camp, Prescoed, Hewell, East Sutton Park and Kirkham but between them only give a mere 92 inmate careers. They are operate on a small level with no real emphasis of self-sufficiency and have become more about training than other things (Ministry of Justice, 2010).
Although it would appear self-sufficiency in jail is becoming a redundant notion, there are places that are embracing it and achieving successful results. As stated above, Bastoy prison in Norway is the quintessential example of an functional self-sufficient prison which is demonstrating the tremendous value such a jail can have. The origins of Bastoy stem from a Scandinavian ethos of open and effective prisons which have throughout time been based on the rule that prisons should be forget about arduous when compared to a loss of liberty and be as normal to lifestyle externally as possible. The idea of prison farms started out in Finland in the 1930s, with a fresh type of labour colony being unveiled to the Finnish prison system in 1946. Inmates have always been but still are paid based on the normal wage, it would also not be uncommon for prisoners to be paying taxes, buying food, providing money with their family, to their victims and conserving for his or her release. Start prisons maintain between 20 % (Sweden) to 40 % (Denmark) of the Scandinavian jail populace and in practically all cases when a prisoner is achieving the end with their sentence they will be migrated to an available prison. Communal style living is largely implemented in these facilities, with some prisons being completely self-catering and generally those at an available jail will be working throughout the day (Pratt, 2008).
Most recently, environmentally friendly sustainability of prisons has drawn attention, with concerns being brought up about the ecological footprint of corrections and also as a result of rehabilitative value "green" initiatives can have. Just in 2011, the united states Office of Justice released the publication "The Greening of Corrections: Making a Sustainable System, " a doc which outlines sustainable practices, principles and identifies types of programs and management strategies which is often implemented to build self-sustaining correctional facilities. The concentrate throughout the report is on the long-term goal of limiting the financial and individuals costs of prisons. Methods outlined to do this goal are the reduced amount of energy and source use, engaging inmates with beneficial work encounters as well as providing education and training (US Department of Justice, 2011). An company going forth and putting these ideals into practice is the Sustainability in Prisons Project. Working as a partnership between Washington Talk about Corrections and Evergreen School they seek to make prisons more environmentally sustainable and subsequently economically efficient. Presently four Washington Status correctional centres are operating in unison with the project; Cedar Creek, Stafford Creek, Mission Creek and Washington Corrections Centre for Women. Each are taking part in varying programs such as; endangered animal security, insects and plants, water and energy saving, "motorless" garden mowing, your dog rescue initiative, butterfly treatment program, recycling, composting, organic and natural gardening, a horticulture greenhouse, beekeeping, water catchment basins, low-flush toilets, tree planting and crazy land fire fighting.
When analysing the idea of self-sufficient prisons, there are both effective and disadvantageous aspects which need to be acknowledged to get a complete knowledge of the viability of such a jail model. In firstly examining the benefits to come from a self-sufficient environment, one of main value is the opportunity of self-sufficient techniques having the ability to reduce prison costs. A change as simple as removing talk about issued clothing and uniforms could save millions of dollars. Building upon this, if prisoners are caring for themselves, you can find consequently less of a need to employ personnel to do things such as preparing, cleaning, farming, gardening and maintenance careers. Having inmates produce and harvest their own food could enable even greater savings. Relating to Breslin (2012), if america were to enact an insurance plan which required prisons to utilise their own food options through the procedure of self-sufficient farms, prison spending could be reduced by $1. 7 billion every year. Lyons (2012) likewise supports this idea and she uses the Florida Division of Corrections as an instance example. In 2001 they finished a brief history of jail farming and contracted Aramark to provide all the meals needed to Florida's prisons. This was in an attempt to save money, but six years later costs were only increasing by huge amount of money. Costs could only be reduced through the change in prisoner's lifestyles, but also through sustainably modifying prison facilities. Structures can be built or modified to be environmentally sustainable. This might include among other activities, installing solar panels, composting and recycling vegetation and farming ecologically. Putnamville medium security service in Indiana has implemented several inexperienced initiatives, such as; using a hardwood chipper that fuels a wood-burning furnace (conserving $1. 25 million per yr), recycling cans, bottles, paper, and other materials which helps you to save them around $150, 000 every month (Sofa, 2012).
An equally valuable advantage of the self-sufficient prison regime is the potential gain to inmate health, both mentally and in physical form. Lyons (2012) known that through being able to exercise, to breath in oxygen, also to simply get beyond your confines of cement and barbed wire inmates would be healthier and mental pressures associated with the harsh prison environment would be abridged. More specifically the mental health of prisoners could be aided through having the intellectual activation of actually taking part in meaningful activity, such as harvesting food for his or her own dining tables or chopping real wood to keep them warm. Efficiently completing jobs could also increase the sense of personal satisfaction in inmates, seeing they can achieve and effectively live separately. Physical advantages are just as evident, working is obviously a form of exercise and through growing their own organic produce eating needs would be likely to be met subsequently reducing the risk of overweight, high blood pressure and diabetes, all conditions stemming from unhealthy eating patterns. Also, with a rise in the overall health of inmates, money would be kept on jail medical services (Breslin, 2012).
Correlations have been drawn between an improved quality of living and the superior behaviour and conduct of inmates. When interviewed about life inside Bastoy, an inmate tractor drivers said "in finished prison I was locked up for 23 time a day, so I'm really pleased with this job. I am cared for very well here and in return I'll treat them perfectly also" (Hernu, 2011). A US post-release job project analysis found prison carry out among inmates who had used part in work, vocational or apprenticeship programs was much better than that of in any other case similar prisoners (Reynolds, 1996). Linked to having the opportunity to work and live self-sufficiently in prison is the education and vocational skills prisoners could learn. As suggested by Lyons(2012), the job and life skills that inmates learn through farming, teamwork, time management and having responsibility can be applicable to any kind of future work.
In now turning to the potential downfalls of the self-sufficient model, the most known drawback is the safety risk an wide open style of jail poses. Internally there can be an increased threat of danger to both inmates and officers basic safety and externally there's a greater threat of endangerment of the general public due to more opportunities for get away from. Firstly, if inmates are openly living and working with the other person there are going to be great opportunities for assault and abuse to take place, particularly when tools which could be utilized as weapons are participating. Constant movements would make it harder for guards to keep an eye on inmates, whereas when in a cell all day constant monitoring may appear. Second, guards would become more susceptible to damage within an environment where there is frequent close relationship between themselves and inmates. Trust is so intensely relied upon in a community centered self-sufficient model that if this is abused there may be dire implications. The possibility of dangers to public security could also be said to increase, as with more independence come more chances to escape and be at large in general culture.
A risk associated immediately with working in jail is the exploitation of inmates. Frequently layed out in prison research as a significant disadvantage of jail farms; this concern is based on the probability of development becoming more important than another factor, like the welfare of the prisoners who may become at the mercy of hard labour and little else. There were numerous situations where agricultural work in prison has been the catalyst of degrading and bad working conditions exposing inmates to disease, physical violence and abusive methods (Lucko, 2007). For some, the thought of prisoners moving into a community like environment, which include recreational time and the possibility to live a life based on normality, would flunk in portion the retributive role prisons are usually likely to provide. Victims and their own families may feel this substitute model of prison does not sufficiently punish perpetrators for the crimes they have devoted against them.
Monetary exploitation can also appear through inmates being extremely under paid for their labour when working on farms, building furniture or assembling products for massive multi-national corporations who can make additional revenue at the expense of prisoners. Resulting from this is the opportunity of large businesses like Microsoft or McDonalds participating in the practice of utilising prison labour and increasing an unfair edge over their rivals (Smith and Hattery, 2006).
Rehabilitation and self-sufficient prisons
"If we have created any occasion camp for criminals here, just what exactly? We should reduce the risk of reoffending, because if we don't, what's the point of punishment, aside from leaning toward the primitive side of humanity?" (Arne Kvernvik Nilsen, quoted in Sutter, 2012). This quote demonstrates the strong rehabilitative views of Bastoy's prison director, who currently heads the jail with minimum reoffending rate in European countries. He strongly is convinced in the theory that if inmates are eventually heading to wrap up being somebody's neighbour, everything possible should be achieved to enhance rehabilitation and eventually prevent future crime. The proof of his beliefs becoming a reality are obvious in the correlations that can be drawn between your self-sufficient and available environment at Bastoy and the mere 16% reoffending rate.
In attempting to ascertain whether any particular component of the self-sufficient regime is more effective than another in reducing reoffending, each of the main facets of the idea will be reviewed below. A massive amount of support has been given for the potency of farming and/or working in prisons. Lyons (2012) shows that there are two main steps which need to be taken for the pattern of criminality to be damaged. The first, specific empowerment and the next, being able to find work upon release. Farming she believes is a proven success in helping prisoners to achieve both. To get a real perspective on farming as a rehabilitative tool Lyons (2012) interviewed a ex - correctional official from a Canadian jail farm. Within their opinion jail farming is the single-most successful treatment program they have observed to exist, and this in their thirty years dealing with this program they did not see one circumstance of violent reoffending amidst prisoners who was simply involved.
Another aspect of the self-sufficient philosophy being explored this is actually the openness this type of jail has. As opposed to the greater traditional shut ideal where prisoners spend a vast majority of their own time behind bars, in an open style prison inmates are confronted with each day decisions on frequent basis. Bastoy governor Nilsen shows that at Bastoy the openness of the jail allows for inmates to learn and be taught steps to make the right decisions and essentially become better people. He compares this to in a closed down prison where prisoners are mostly taken off interactive encounters and situations necessitating cognitive thinking. This he refers to as dealing with prisoners like "animals" or "robots" (Sutter, 2012). In a conventional prison in which inmates have no freedom and aren't associated with work or farming, it is too often the case that the system literally closes the entranceway in the face of the inmate. It really is surely absurd to essentially believe this will be beneficial, especially in terms of rehabilitation. Being given the personal responsibility of a job in prison and learning to be a part of a working environment gets the prospect of prisoners to increase self-respect, as well as esteem for others including the system which would be encouraging instead of disregarding them. When talking about the result Bastoy's open prison has already established on inmates, Nilsen identifies opportunities inmates have here to do more than just sit down in a cell all day long. "They look at themselves in the mirror, plus they think, 'I am s***. I don't care. I am little or nothing, '" he said. This prison, he says, offers them a chance to see they have got worth, "to find, 'I'm not such a bad guy "(Nilsen quoted in Sutton, 2012).
The ecological focus of a self-sufficient prison model not only plays a part in a sustainable environment, but in addition has been linked having to rehabilitative features. When lifestyle is put in in a safe, healthy and humane environment, on release the positive and inexperienced initiatives experienced inside can surely only be of great benefit to the city on release. Research has been carried out to aid such assumptions and discover any interactions existent between living sustainably, having exposure to character and consequential prisoner rehabilitation. Wener et al (cited in US Section of Justice, 2011) found that the result of discussion with characteristics on human behavior is improved mental wellbeing. Similarly in another review conducted by Ulrich (cited in US Section of Justice, 2011) it was founded that through being associated with nature extreme tendencies and stress can both be reduced. In analyzing the value of the Sustainable Prison Project currently already action in Washington, the Section of Justice (2011) is convinced that benefits associated with these projects are wide-ranging and encompass far more than just learning new skills. Their overview of the project found advancements in; inmate self-esteem, relationships with others and the sense of goal they had. Which are congruent with the goal rehabilitation. With a huge amount of studies and research highlighting raises in recidivism and re-offending results, we are confronted with a significant correctional challenge. It is no longer plausible to simply claim that prison serves as a place of deterrence to prospects released, the information alone have continually portrayed the truth that is no longer working.
Self-sufficient prisons in a New Zealand environment
After taking into consideration the idea of self-sufficient prisons in their entirety, the viability of this alternative prison model successfully employed in a New Zealand context will now be tackled. In checking New Zealand to Norway, where a self-sufficient prison is already proving achievable, you'll find so many similarities between the countries which could arguably suggest a New Zealand environment could too be appropriate for this correctional method. Both countries are sparsely inhabited with populations of around four million, a lot of whom in both countries live as part of small rural communities of towns, somewhat than large sprawling places. Norway in conditions of a interpersonal and human development index is the main ranked country, but New Zealand is also within the very best five out of 187 countries (Human Development Report, 2011).
Other factors relative to this evaluation include New Zealand's few maximum security inmates, just 2. 5%. The majority, or 53. 8 % are in fact minimal security (Newbold, 2005). It would seem to be with such a big variety of prisoners being of low security, the risks associated with adopting a more wide open and interactive style of prison to house this group of prisoners would be relatively low. We also curently have the beginnings of your self-sufficient jail mentality set up. Currently in operation are various income generating ventures providing employment opportunities for prisoners, this consists of; two dairy products farms, three dry stock farms, one piggery, two sheep farms, three organic and natural gardens, six nurseries, five joinery workshops, three furniture assembly workshops, a forest, three timber handling workshops, six textile workshops, three light engineering workshops, three vehicle repair garages, one compost bagging operation and central kitchens in each of New Zealand's prisons (Department of Corrections, 2012).
The development towards a model just like Bastoy is not completely unthinkable. As layed out, New Zealand gets the potential to follow the same journey as Norway in adopting more sustainable routines. However, the possible limitations of New Zealand's capability to introduce self-sufficient prisons cannot be dismissed. One major aspect which not only differentiates New Zealand from Norway, but may possibly also limit the success of self-sufficient prisons in this framework, is culture. Negative historical relationships between Maori and the state of hawaii remain today at the centre of much racism, mistrust and cultural division and this plays a role in crime and prison culture, particularly when Maori are so significantly overrepresented in our prisons. Because of the nature of the traditional system, which places blatant divides between prisoners and correctional personnel, both parties can get into viewing one another as the "enemy. " These behaviour would have to change and common trust and value increased before any community style jail can work. The Gang culture in New Zealand and incidentally in prison creates even more department and an wide open style of jail may only provide to instigate preventing, allow for gang issues and gang domination of inmates.
In Norway these kinds of divisions are relatively absent, mainly because of the fact Norwegians are extremely socially sensible, uniting people of society collectively as equals. This may especially be seen in the understanding the condition, general population and even the press display to the people in prison, those being released and the rehabilitative goal prison serves. Connected with this social health care mentality is the time and effort that the state of hawaii sets into training jail officials. In Norway they obtain two years training while on full salary as soon as certified their role is seen as professional (Pratt, 2007). Contrastingly, in New Zealand, officers are given only six weeks training and are often publically disregarded being labelled "thugs" or "key turners" far from the professionalism of Norway. Scandinavian prisons are completely run by their state, while in New Zealand the Government has begun to deal prisons to private companies. Paying for another party to run the jail would beat the guidelines behind the self-sufficient ideal. Mass unawareness could possibly be the burden of effort, even of something which to those enlightened is so naturally for the common good of contemporary society. This is arguably the truth in New Zealand, where people simply haven't been educated or are just given negative one-eyed images of crime as portrayed through the marketing. This as a result making the general public all together more likely to be against an action as liberal and forwards considering as the self-sufficient jail ideal.
Another more physical account which could create problems is the natural and inescapable fact that more crime is dedicated in New Zealand and the jail society is therefore larger. In New Zealand there remain 8000 inmates whilst in Norway there are just 3000. Geographically there could also be obstructions to overcome. Bastoy is uniquely located on its island, which restricts escapes and permits the open environment which inmates experience. Telling the New Zealand people that Rangitoto for example was to be utilized as a jail, would undoubtedly cause common protest. If the island component performs such a crucial role that the idea would not work on the mainland will stay anonymous until it is trialled.
As Ghandi once said, "an eye for an eyes makes depends upon blind, " why then should New Zealand stay fixated on the notion of reparation, of punishing someone in order to make them "pay" for what they have done to another. This will only ever before get us up to now, and never way enough to efficiently reduce reoffending and change the culture of prisons in New Zealand. In wanting to examine an alternative to the present conventional style of prison, this article has examined the idea of self-sufficient prisons. In doing so, the annals of self-sufficiency and prison has been explored and analysis of potential talents and weaknesses of the idea was carried out. This paper has found numerous correlations to exist between the elements of the self-sufficient jail concept and treatment. In looking at the practicality and viability of self-sufficient prisons working in New Zealand, it was established that could be performed but significant obstacles stand to be overcome. The question remains, do we dare contemplate such change, or alternatively do we play safe and follow the tested correctional models passed down to us from our North american and Uk counterparts. It might be at our peril if we persist with a program which continues to fail as recidivism rates increase, suggesting that perhaps these procedures aren't really that "safe. "