Posted at 12.11.2018
Tourism industry is one of world's fast-growing and gained monetary benefits in many countries all over the world. In recent season, technology became important part in many companies specially the internet in tourism industry. The development of the internet has increased significantly and many countries in the world have made efforts to really improve their internet service. For the demand part, the internet consumer basic increases internationally every day. Consequently, the utilization of internet and web technology is important and is becoming a primary marketing tool for improving the success of a company in the web environment, which is very appropriate to adjust to travel and leisure industry as call e-tourism (Khemthong & Roperts, 2006)
This newspaper is presents what are the effects of e-tourism on holiday behavior and how to control it. It analyzes the role of tourist tendencies before and after e-tourism came up to Thailand. In addition, discussions on the benefits, disadvantages and tendency of e-tourism within the next year ahead.
Tourists' behavior consists of a consideration of various important problems with respect to current tourism tendencies. Travel and leisure has many factors which can define as Leiper mention thirteen factors and antecedents such as nomadism, travel for trade and business, travel by scholars and experts, resort travel and leisure migratory and etc. In general, tourism can be described in behavioral conditions as persons who travel away from their normal home region for a non permanent amount of at least one nighttime. Their behavior will involve a search for leisure activities from interactions with features or characteristics of places they choose to go to (Leiper, 2004). Referring the Leiper's assertion, it can be verified that understanding vacationer consumer patterns is not only of academic interest but doing so would provide knowledge for effective travel and leisure planning and marketing. Even though some writers (e. g. Meethan, 2001; Jelincic, 1999) consider that understanding the patterns of tourism consumers is less important in the globalization period. The study of consumer habit focuses on how individuals make decisions to invest their available resources (time, money, effort) on consumption-related items (Schiffman and Kanuk, 1997). Individuals and homes decide how to spend their free or leisure time in many various ways, including home, outbound or inbound.
Tourism before technology period, the Second World Warfare, impeded the growth of international tourism even in 1939 fewer than 50 percent of British population spent more than one night abroad. Inside the inter war period, the cruise trip liner and flights resulted in changing likes and tendency in holiday consuming. in post conflict, the demand for holiday acquired increase it seen from development income, leisure time and opportunities for international travel. These trips cannot happen without vacationer demand. The definitions of demand are worried generally with "the program of the quantity of any service or product which people e are willing and able to buy at each specific price throughout a specified time frame" (Cooper, 1993).
According to Uysal (1998), summarized the determinants of travel and leisure demand as shown in Amount 1. It offers a general context for travel and leisure demand, but will not adequately explain how and why people decide to select and participate in specific form of visitor. Main factor such as age group and income are significant determinants of the demand - for example, the quantity of paid getaway and somebody's or family's income both have an important bearing on demand.
Figure 1 Determinations of travel and leisure demand (source: Uysal, 1998)
The tourist, many factor to produce a decision to serve the demand to visit but prior to the tourist design to truly have a trip they have to plan and find the info. Planning generally can be involved with 'predetermining a span of action' to accomplish a desired goal (Hayes-Roth & Hayes-Roth, 1979) The planning and decision-making techniques employed by visitors are sophisticated, as a touring holiday break requires assimilating information from a variety of options and a continual evaluation of options. (Becken & Wilson, 2006). In primitive societies, for many people the entire world beyond home was a scary an unknown place. (Leiper, 2004) In today's world, radio, TV, reserve and, to a lesser level, attendance at schools have provided almost everyone with knowledge of places throughout the world that might be visited. Moreover, travel operator and travel agent can be considered a main helper for visitor.
Tour providers are businesses that incorporate several travel services (e. g. transportation, accommodation, wedding caterers, entertainment, and/or sightseeing) and sell them through travel agencies or right to last consumers as a single product (deal head to). The components of a package head to might be pre-established, or can derive from an 'a la carte' process, where the visitor chooses the combination of services s/he hopes to acquire. A travel operator is often described as an intermediary
'The main role of intermediaries is to bring buyers and sellers collectively, either to build efficiently and in that way to increase market size In every industries the task of intermediaries is to transform goods and services which consumers do not need, to something that they actually want. ' (Cooper et al. 1998:189)
In Thailand, 1393 travel company available (Association of Thai Travel Agents) plus more than 100 literature and publications it shown that many tourist find the information by booklet or magazine and purchase the product and service from travel agency. Before, travel book (manual) is very popular because is the one of all we will get the information at reserve store. There is performed atlanta divorce attorneys province in Thailand and some country surrounding the world where most Thai people like to visited as well. Moreover, map is another travel materials that most visitors have on hand. Another factor that traveler would design to have a trip is experience posting, this is often a main influence to visit.
In recent 12 months, the development of globalization and the move forward of information and communication technology, especially internet play an important role both for consumer and business in travel and leisure industry. The expansion rate in tourism have moved much faster than in the entire world economy, which trend is not expected to slow down in the near future (The Western e-Business Article, 2007) As the tourism industry expands globally, the necessity for growing the communication systems to connect the clients and companies has increased. ICTs have been utilised as a mean for communication widely over the past 10 years in the travel and tourism industry. It has been instrumental in helping the travel and leisure sector to develop its market across the continent and has enjoyed a major role in assisting the expansion of the industry. Furthermore, it is resulting in a switch from product-oriented organizations to a adaptable and responsive market, where success depends on sensing and responding to rapidly changing customer needs, using for providing the right product, at the right time, at the right price, to the right customer.
E-tourism shows the digitalization of all techniques and value chains in the tourism, travel, hospitality and catering companies. The e-tourism theory includes all business functions (e. g. e-Commerce and e-Marketing, e-Finance and e-Accounting, e-HRM, e-Procurement, e-R&D and e-Production) as well as e-Strategy, e-Planning and e-Management for any sectors of the tourism industry. As exhibited in Physique 2, e-tourism bundles collectively three distinctive disciplines, namely
Figure 2 The e-tourism concept and e-tourism domains (source: Buhalis, 2003)
E-tourism showing by web, the net is a cost effective means for businesses in the travel and tourism sector to immediately market their offerings to a huge customer population throughout the world. It is also an extremely convenient opportinity for the customers to gather information as well as data about the resources, record, social and financial structure of destinations. Within this sense certain consumer teams are better equipped to engage in social relationship with local people and use their travel as a educational experience. Research of holiday demand proves so it has become more important for tourists how to spend an unforgettable holiday break than where to spend it. Special incidents have to become vacationer product designed especially for tourists, which is already the truth in successful holiday destinations in order to appear different on the marketplace and create or fortify their image and create a recognizable brand. In such instances the support of web design becomes critical. (Bevanda, Grzinic & Cervar, 2008)
In general, tourism and hospitality websites have a tendency to be easy to grasp with a single level website. There are different ways that clients reach the web site of a traveler facility, like immediate access to a certain page, after which one reaches the net web page through various adverts or banners on portals. The picture is one of the most popular to provide the merchandise and service because the picture can clarify by itself. These are summarized travel and leisure website into two types.
One stop service
Website developed for use in information, advertising, communication and a system of reserve car seats, accommodations and/or vehicles. The tourist will get everything in website as you stop service. For example; www. agoda. co. th is online hotel reservation service and providing the cheapest available hotel prices atlanta divorce attorneys destination worldwide. www. kaoyai. info is another website that ideal for tourist this website specific for who's interesting in Kaoyai and Nakhonratchasima. The website presented the general information, attraction, history, map, restaurant, and accommodation and also arranging system for accommodation as well.
These websites would help traveler to make a decision easier because the visitor can get the information from text and image that the owner provided it and then your tourist may decide from these information and reserve it immediately. It is best than other websites that could not need the booking system on the site because the vacationer might change their decision.
Businesses' website development should be done with the purpose of providing information only don't have the route for tourist to make a decision immediately. This website is suitable with non-profit business as the government or association such as Tourism Expert of Thailand (www. tourismthailand. org) or Thailand Incentive and Convention (www. tica. or. th). These website shown the overall information to steer the tourist make a decision or for tourist knowledge. Moreover blogs and Bulletin planks (www. pantip. com) these are another website that most Thai people like to discuss their travel experience
Information systems have a dramatic effect on the travel industry because they force this sector as a whole to rethink how it organizes its business, its worth or norm of behavior and how it educates its workforces (Faulkner, Moscardo & Regulations, 2001). Travel and leisure is another industry that has the competition intense especially in borderless communication age. Internet is tool condense of world community included businesses and consumers. Most people would use the internet as a communication channel with other folks, find the info or do the business. This communication route is very useful in tourism industry as much business and holiday have connection in this channel. Marketing is another factor that effected many businesses uses this channel to do marketing with less cost but more efficiency and promote their business as well. This can be a one stop service which can find everything in a single place and also assessing quality and price of product as well. That is an wide open source, everyone can access and higher opportunity of new customers in to the business 24 hours per day. In addition, the consumers could start to see the product and service as many times also ask of help immediately by e-mail or call on working hour, it speedily, nor spend your time.
On the other side, the internet also has the dark side, it easy to compared price and quality which more competition available. The consumer can access the internet at home or all over the place that has sign so they might lazier and ignore how to get involved like dialog on face to face. Around the internet, the business may know the real feedback off their customers. The client may give the real of not real reviews but how have they know the true feeling without see the face or lesson the voice. Furthermore, business online has less worker that damaged to high unemployed.
Tourist patterns has significantly changed lately. Increasing by tourism become a lot more superior and discovering as they have experienced high levels of service and they enjoy move forward of facilities. Tourism become demanding, asking for high quality products and value for both their time and money. Travel reservations will be made without by using a travel agent's skills. The trend is toward individualism due to the development of new computing techniques and especially through the options of e-business. The technical age is the result of some sociocultural changes taking place in advanced societies that parallel postmodernism or "post-Fordism" (Ioannides & Debbage, 1997; Lafferty & Vehicle Fossen, 2001; Smeral, 1998). Most people use the internet to find the travel and leisure information and reservation by themselves it seem to be from internet user in Thailand was increased 12. 89 million in 2007 to 16. 1 million in 2008 (Nectec, 2009). In hotel industry, the number of travel customers booked accommodations online in 2007, researched by Tourism International Association (TIA), was 75% which 40% from all leisure and 35% from business travel. We are able to observe that customers, today, opt to use the internet than publication through organizations because of swiftness, choices and flexibility
E-marketing is marketing on the internet, after the world smaller by internet this is actually the easiest way to do the marketing it less cost and published quickly. Tourism industry selected this way to promote travel and leisure product to worldwide to increase traveler demand. Actually, it is found that many travel and leisure reliant countries have developed various tourism products such as spas, natural-based resorts, and ecotourism places in order to supply the changing tourism demands. In this case, Thailand can be taken as an example. It is discovered that as a result of your current tourism trend in health-concerned travel and leisure, Thailand has developed many spas and health-based travel and leisure sites to supply the holidaymakers' needs (Group of Asia, 2003). This shows an important of the e-tourism that folks throughout the world can easily see what Thailand have as well as e-marketing. In addition, it shows an important role of holiday consumer patterns in developing tourism products. You'll be able to say here that understanding tourist consumer patterns is very good for developing tourism products to be able to provide the travel and leisure demand.
Innovative corporation which respond to current and future obstacles by developing new processes and adapting to new movements, will take good thing about the emerging opportunities and increase their market show. Companies need to convert their operations from business functions to business techniques, as well as redesign their distribution channels strategy. Even more significantly, therefore changes to long-term planning and strategy.
Website is one of the key factors of e-tourism, most visitors to your website need to find out and understand your subject matter instantly from the very first webpage. If not, tourists can leave your site as quickly as they could press a button in their TV remote control. Your website must insert quickly and immediately lead your visitors toward your meaning. Too much information on the opening webpage of your tourism site can make it show up cluttered and unorganized. As a general rule, keep your note simple and the point. Furthermore, website name is also important, the name should be easy to remember and relate with your online occurrence, use your operation's name whenever possible.
Wed design is involved with customer's decision; the design can be an important element on a tourism related website. An image is worth one thousand words, specifically in this industry. Nevertheless, lots of the people in your marketplace will be being able to access your site from other computer; their swiftness connections maybe slow. Thus, the design that are too much consuming to download may cause people to leave your site before they get an opportunity to see it. Using your important keywords in your information and in your image tags will improve your rating in search machines.
In the future the travel and leisure industry's challenge is to provide increased value for money either through innovation-driven cost lowering changes in development and marketing techniques or through product changes providing more numerous tourism encounters for quality-conscious and saturated multi-option customer (Weiermair, 2001). Therefore, Thai business people have to modify themselves to the e-tourism environment. First, they need to focus their business to serve niche market segments such as trekking tours, eco-tourism, or ethnic tourism instead of competing immediately with large corporations for general marketplaces (e. g. air tickets, accommodations, and car rental). Second, they may have to become listed on with large corporations as subsidiaries to help them manage domestic business or market products. Third, they need to allow for the special needs of innovative-driven marketplaces such as e-commerce development, customer romance management, mass customization, product differentiation, and community participation.
Travel agency products are usually sold as packages. Rather than offering only accommodation, they could include airfare tickets, transfer fees and sightseeing. But if customers need it a bundle online, they may need to buy split items and incorporate them that are not very convenient. They are some of the issues that professionals have noted. The effects of E-Tourism will be felt most seriously by the middlemen which, in this research, are the travel agencies. They need to adapt in order to stay in business.
Human resources are also becoming critical for the success of tourism organizations of the future as they will need effective and impressive individual of information and communication technology who can lead change in a strong and uncertain environment.
Tourists are defined as persons traveling from their normal places to other uncommon places (Leiper, 2004). Understanding consumer habit is very useful for developing tourism products. Additionally it is an integral way to obtain information for promoting tourism products and features how to market tourism products especially in this time, where the patterns of tourist driving is highly inspired by global factors like the mass media (Pembroke, 1996). In short, the analysis of consumers' habit is exclusively of not educational interest but additionally it is greatly beneficial when practicing managers have the need to know and react to travellers' needs and needs correctly.