Total Quality management results on business performance

The focus of this report is to focus on to the funding director of the well-established public shown company (Plc) how Total Quality Management (TQM) allows to develop better business performance through quality management. Through this article, there will be an assessment on TQM can be regarded as a process regarding all business functions to give out a continuous quality improvement. The bottom line is, TQM is all about client satisfaction. Later, by the end of this article we can conclude that TQM promotes a more useful emoting, thinking and feeling relevant for the expansion of organisation. As a research assistant, it is the duty to help expand research and discuss on this topic to guide the funding director to produce a more confident decisions with the objective to provide proper path for the organisation.

2. 0 Introduction

TQM was initially developed in Japan in the early 1970s. In the early days of TQM, it is then developed in countries such as USA, Japan and countries of Western European countries has been implemented TQM mainly to maximise customer satisfaction, attaining better product quality, and obtaining higher production. Through the systematic method of TQM, it helps to reduce waste and reduce on the non-productive activities. For today, TQM comes with both a management philosophy and with the progress entity of tools and approaches for continuously improving products and services that complies with the client expectation (Jeffords, 1993, p. 60). TQM is looked upon to give a continuous improvement of quality of goods and services that required the participation of individuals in any way degrees of functions of your company (Pfau, 1989). TQM acted out more than simply a program, it is a way of how business management for complete organisation. TQM is split to three fundamental principles, total means participation of every person and every section; quality means get together customer needs and targets exactly; management means permitting conditions for total quality.

Quality strategist guru, Juran (1985) defined TQM as relatively an abstract theory, even though TQM has been considered a powerful management practice and even a necessity for corporate and business survival. However, the impact of TQM in organisations varies to the means of how each company applied it. Jeffords (1985) believes that to be able TQM to reach your goals, management must incorporates at least three major concerns for example, the best concentrate on TQM is the task process, customers and teamwork, alternatively than individual effort. Therefore, the correct practise of techniques and sufficient suggestions of TQM can contribute to successful TQM implementations to the company.

Within the global competitive world that we lived in nowadays, there are great numbers of organisations supplies the same type of products and services. A lot of progressive ideas were come up by organisations to make their products and services to be accepted by the existing market. However, what makes something and service sticks out in the market is often the quality of the total service offered (Yusuf et al. , 2007). Therefore, giving out the high quality of products and services and their associated customer satisfactions will be the key survival for just about any enterprise. Hence, relating to Yusuf et al. (2007), TQM is known as to be the most likely tool to provide out that sustained quality improvement. Not merely does TQM pertains to reliability, but it also aim to meet up with the customer satisfaction need. As mentioned by Atkinson (cited in Mann, 2008), TQM is a strategic method of produce the best product and service provided with constant innovation. The product quality control method that are emphasised by TQM, provides complete evaluation of both inside and exterior customers. Early awareness of TQM concentration more on monitoring the making techniques, thus, now it is rolling out to a customer-oriented procedure for ongoing improvement. Thus, it is make think that TQM delivered the merchandise and services of regularly high quality in due time. This is reinforced by The Deming Award Committee (cited in Mann, 2008) where they viewed TQM as something of activities to ensure products and services of the quality required by customers are produced financially.

The article by Robin Mann talked about back on what makes TQM a successful tool for quality improvement in organisation. It is discovered that this article talks thoroughly about what are the quality activities that induce TQM as an effective tool. In addition they provided depth research on companies regarding which quality activities that add most for TQM. This article is good start for individuals who seek to learn more about TQM. However, since the creation of the article is to commemorate on the 70th birthday and success of Teacher Gopal Kanji, the individual who founded the full total Quality Management & Business Brilliance journal, this post may be biased on some part. For instance, there are rarely criticisms or downsides talked about about TQM, thus, the article may not be completely relevant. Also, the article is well prepared in 2008, thus, it is an excellent system to reassess back again on the development of TQM as a result of ideal time difference since it originated. The author, Robin Mann holds a Phd. in Total Quality Management. The publisher because of this article, It had been shared by Routledge Taylor and Francis Group, which is reputed for publishing journals such as Total Quality Management. Therefore, it may serve as a trusted source.

Unlike this article by Robin Mann, this article by Yusuf et al. talked about extensively on TQM plus they figured aspects such as customer concentration, continuous improvement and Just-In-Time should be designed in the TQM execution in order to establish an excellent culture in the organisation. They also explained that these factors which were mentioned just now are cornerstones for the perfect TQM improvement. However, examination of the implementation is dependant on China, therefore results of the research only correct for the China region. But, the thoroughness of justification in this specific article makes it relevant because of this part. This article is reliable because all the three authors are professors from a respective business schools. Since the publisher is same like the prior article, thus, the source of the article is reliable.

4. 0 Tools that strengthened the TQM model

i) Kaizen

When TQM was emigrated from Japan it totally modified the perceptions of the European on issues such as corporate sensibility and companies. They quickly learned that ongoing improvement is the goal for many early on quality programs (Kinni, 1995). Kaizen originates from the Japanese expression of 'constant improvement'. Kaizen is often embedded in TQM because with the implementation of TQM in organisations, a continuing improvement method should be contained in order for this program to be improved. The key to achieve kaizen through TQM is to have the managers to carry the primary responsibility of to induce and support your time and effort of organisational users to improve techniques. Second is process-orientation, where it is there to evaluate requirements which can keep an eye on and bring focus on the improvement process itself (Berger, 1997). Apart from ongoing improvement, Kaizen also acts as a low-cost, high-return entry point into TQM. Its common-sense strategy helps create the workforce to a process orientation. Kaizen also shows the skills had a need to solve out the real cause of a difficulty (Kinni, 1995). With TQM programme, it is advisable to also have constant improvement. Daily operation of kaizen will contributes to many small advancements of relatively small cost.

The article by Kinni reveals hard idea on the three-stage procedure for kaizen. The article provided research companied with real occurrence how kaizen is put in place in real life. However, the writer tends to get carried away with the explanations, thus, which makes it less reader-friendly. The article still acts as another source. The writer Theodore Kinni is creator of The Business Audience, a business-to-business bookseller. He has written articles and reviews for most magazines and magazines exploring on methods in management and making. Although no results were found on the qualification of the author, however the article that he had written seems reliable because of his experience and knowledge on paper articles and publications on management. The article is released by Industry Week, an established mag for manufacturers.

Meanwhile, this article by Berger is not relevant, but only the part on the introduction is relevant to this sub-topic. It is because; the article provides too much information on kaizen. Though it helps reader to comprehend on the procedure orientation on kaizen and also designed along instances for readers to relate with the true life organisations, but it is available that that is not relevant for the sub-topic. The author Anders Berger works at the centre of research on organisational renewal, Chalmers University or college of Technology, Sweden and has produced many articles on constant improvements. Since the qualification of the author is unknown, which means article is not completely reliable.

ii) Six Sigma

TQM has been defined as 'managing the organisation so that it excels in all sizes of products and services that are essential to the customer (Run after et al. cited in Green, 2006). However, in the early 1990s, many articles commenced to seem that questioned the value of TQM in a number of organisations. According to Harari (cited in Green, 2006), he argued that there are at least ten explanations why TQM does not work. He stated that TQM is too unmanageable and they overshadow the true reason a business is running a business. Thus, this brings about the emergence of six-sigma. Relating to Green (2006), he stated that six-sigma is an activity design or process goal explained in conditions of the properties of a normal syndication. Six-sigma is thought to be a tool that will revive and strengthens the so-called recognized failures of TQM.

Six-sigma constitutes five steps strategy. This starts with define, accompanied by strategy, analyze, improve and control (DMAIC) (Green, 2006). For instance, one of TQM aspect is strong customer target. Six-sigma tackles this aspect by begin with 'define' to make sure that customer needs and requirements are most important. By finding out how to define the goal of meeting customer prospects it is further showed by a demanding adherence to a five step process - DMAIC. With six-sigma, virtually all the elements of TQM is in place. The strategic way like strong executive involvement and bottom-line accountability strengthens TQM efforts to really improve projects.

The article by Green protects in-depth input on six-sigma. It points out how TQM should be incorporated with six-sigma. The writer also provided various point-of-views from several authors on why they think TQM should work along with six-sigma. Although the author explains the step-by-step process how six-sigma works with TQM, in the long run part of the article he clarified that the implementation of six-sigma will not necessarily ensure success. His open-minded attitude for the guaranties of six-sigma proven that the author is not biased when authoring the appeal of six-sigma. Established from this, this content by Green is relevant to the topic. The author, Forrest Green is a Teacher in general management in Radford School and his area of expertise included productions management, TQM and management research. This article is publicized by Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, a well-known publisher for TQM journals.

5. 0 What effect organisations to look at the TQM model?

There a great deal of TQM books is associated with studies that contain been done in the united kingdom and US. Therefore, the execution of TQM in other countries varies in terms of location and culture. The influence of execution of TQM has shown to be successful in the Eastern countries. Regarding to Maccoby (cited in Psychogios et al. , 2007) due to interpersonal romantic relationship is value more than the individual work in the Eastern culture, it is proven that the effect of TQM for the reason that region donate to most success. In the meantime, the TQM characteristics as a fresh management viewpoint with a couple of concepts and tools, has began to enter the awareness of managers in Greek company (Psychogios et al. , 2007). He stated that, there are two kinds of ethnic 'pushes' that affect the Greek organisations on the use of TQM, that happen to be conservatism and reformism. The conservative cultural 'drive' identified the very best professionals is dominance over the system of TQM. The lack of wide open and clear communication among organisational customers in Greek organisations causes the effect of adoption of TQM model.

The article by Psychogios et al. advances the theoretical knowledge of TQM that differ from those where it surfaced. The adoption of TQM by Greek organisation is a excellent example on what effect them to look at the system. This article is backed with depth results of 73 semi-structured interviews conducted with managers working in Greek public and private organisations. The article also provides several loose exemplory case of other region like in the Eastern countries regarding on the affects. However, the influence of adoption of the TQM model is merely limit to Greek organisations. Because the article focuses more on one nation, therefore the relevance of this article is questioned. Up to this sub-topic, it is assumed to be relevant. Since the research is done in 2007, it is therefore considered relevant because the research is still quite recent. The writer, Alexandors Psychogios, is a mature lecturer on Management and HR. He's also an adjunct lecturer at the Hellenic Open up School which he instructs Total Quality Management and Environmental Resources Management. His work in this article is known as reliable because of his experience in educating the TQM subject matter as well as his wide-ranging knowledge on the TQM.

6. 0 Impact of TQM on process performance - long-term commitment

TQM is related to process performance, where no doubt that a to be able to accomplish a good performance it will takes organisation to be ready with the long-term dedication that they can face. The consequences on the company itself depend on how well they integrated it. However, the evidence of the impact of TQM on performance is relatively mixed. TQM is considered a strategy with the capacity of helping the organisation pursue and attain some key tactical objectives. The impact on TQM, as concluded by Longbottom et al. (2006), where TQM is well applied in organisation, the most important evidence is the fact it will gives an improved financial performance, that is including profitability, market share development and ROCE. Also, with well implementation of TQM, it'll give strong romance with the clients through the success of giving out high quality that result to client satisfaction. However, with no supports and persistence of the most notable management, it will also provide a negative impact into the organisation because management blindly replicating it without developing a clearer links along the way of defining strategy and performance goals (Longbottom et al. , 2006).

The article by David Longbottom et al. mentioned that we now have many on-going debates that regards TQM as an idea that is began to lose its attractiveness. This is argued in several articles that recognized TQM as a 'falling star' because way too many initiatives have failed to deliver expected results. However this content opposed the ideas that identified TQM as failure that gives negative impact to organisations. This article do described that, yes; TQM will sometimes causes failure, but, they firmly stated that organisations can also gain success. They justified that the main failures of TQM is in the implementation process itself, and not due to underlying concept of TQM. Therefore, the authors questioned the reader whether the implementation of TQM has been handled appropriately by the failed organisations. With this, this article is not biased, and offered as another source.

One of the authors, David Longbottom is a professor in Derbyshire Business School, School of Derby, UK. He teaches the topic on HRM and Marketing and has also produced many articles on TQM. His know-how and experience on writing on TQM, makes this article a trusted source because of this sub-topic. The publisher, Routledge Taylor and Francis Group is a reliable source in posting reputable assortment of management and businesses journals.

7. 0 Benchmarking: A organized process that implements guidelines for TQM

TQM is an application that stands within the economic development company that can create a ecological competitive gain for funding investment. When we discuss TQM, we develop a knowledge on customer objectives, then exceeding targets. According to Canada (1993), to fulfill these ever-increasing anticipations of 'benchmarking', benchmarking should be designed to financial development as it is rather useful tool. Without benchmarks, it is filled of pointless risk when organisation tried to increase the quality development in company through a learning from your errors exercise. The quality improvement of TQM relies on benchmarking that will helps to effectively identify customer need, hence carefully identify and make an effort to model the guidelines (Canada, 1993). With benchmarking, it requires another view of organisational composition. Benchmarking allows organisations to possess important comparisons among other organisations. Organisations that applied benchmarking in their TQM improvement will provide results that gives a reference tips for evaluation and the models to be emulated. That is also supported by Rahman (2004) where he considered that a person of the eight components of quality management of TQM is benchmarking where it offers the commitment continuously to improve employees' features and work process.

The article done by Eric Canada on TQM benchmarking is detailing that with benchmarking in TQM, good is bad where better is expected. It really is found that the author talks completely about why organisations cannot just apply only TQM. The author added that benchmarking is suitable cornerstone for TQM, where one organisation can measure its performance against others. The article provides a relevant research study on just why an economic development organisations need to have benchmarking to enhance the TQM routine. The case study that he incorporated along in the article indeed supports his ideas on benchmarking in TQM. The relevant qualitative results established from his research study definitely highly relevant to this sub-topic. Moreover, this article is produced in 1993 which in seventeen years back is recognized as the heyday for the introduction of TQM. The writer, Eric Canada has 20 years experience in economical development including taking care of the management programs. He's trained and experienced in organisational active and management. His works upon this article serve as a reliable source.

But, article by Shams-ur Rahman is not relevant for this sub-topic. It is because, this article only discusses the invention of TQM on organisational performance and how TQM is fading and whether there is still future for TQM. However, the part on where he described on benchmarking is one of the elements for TQM is considered relevant for this sub-topic. The author is a Director of Logistics and offer Chain Management program at the institution of Management, RMIT College or university, Melbourne, Australia. His involvement in the editorial plank for Journal of Quality and Management and his interest and newspaper research on theory of constraints and quality management in logistics offered this post as a trusted source for the sub-topic.

8. 0 The incorporation of TQM in Just-In-Time (JIT) model

JIT is considered to be an approach that involves providing and producing at the right time and in the right place that goals to satisfy customers without throw away (Yusuf et al. , 2007). JIT will not work very well without TQM in operation. Since TQM implementation is mainly to gives out high quality of products and services therefore JIT need to incorporate along this value to help make the procedure of JIT do well. In general, the JIT school of thought focuses on bettering manufacturing efficiency through the elimination of non-value added activities and lessening inventory (Lau, 2000). On the other hand Lau (2000) also presumed that the TQM school of thought has a broader focus on improving the overall effectiveness of any company through concentrate on quality improvement. Structured from the sample of the qualitative and quantitative results of 379 US computer and gadgets companies by Lau (2000), the analysis unveiled that the synergistic effects of joint JIT-TQM were more clear when comparing to those companies with no JIT or TQM implementation. Companies putting into action both JIT and TQM were also found to be superior in several performance measures in comparison with those JIT companies. However, the synergistic benefits associated with joint JIT-TQM were found marginal, at best, in comparison with TQM companies. In the meantime, Vokurka (2007) results from his research based on flexibility of usage of JIT and TQM in organisations has found out that companies who determined themselves as adaptable across all three sizes were putting into action TQM and JIT.

The article by Yusuf et al. that can be used to cover this section on JIT is pertinent to the sub-topic because it covers the huge benefits and the reason why behind of putting into action both JIT and TQM. However the article by

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