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Tony's report from life course perspective

Tony is a 14 calendar year old boy who is out going and boisterous adolescent. June His mom represents him as "out of control" and says he never does as he's informed June say's "he is going to finish up like his dad terry" who is currently serving a prison word for a violent assault.

Discuss how an understanding of real human development from a life course perspective aids you in understanding this child's situation

Consider how your understanding will influence your work with the kid and family cultural worker.

Human development from a life course perspective is a way of considering all contributing factors of an individual life and making use of them with expansion, development and change. It is often known as the life-span or circuit, theorists use the different perspectives in order to comprehend and interpret different activities and how these impact on an individual. The largest argument throughout the hundreds of years has been the type nurture debate. There's been differing perspectives including the mental health and sociological perspectives to specify exactly how much of personality, characteristics, behavior and emotions derives from nurture or how much is in our genes and for that reason innate. I am going to check out some theories to be able to explain the case of Tony, a fourteen calendar year old boy, who's described as an outgoing and boisterous adolescent.

Tony's mother describes him as "out of control" she seems that he is unruly and state governments "he is going to wrap up like his daddy Terry" who is incarcerated for a violent assault. In order to fully understand Tony's situation you must look further than the facts. There may very well be various underlying issues within parental relationships, his environment, poverty and education, that will contribute substantially to his situation, therefore as a interpersonal worker I'd consider a alternative approach in order to secure a full and appropriate knowledge of his situation. To do this I will be incorporating ideas on various aspects of his Tony's life from a emotional, natural and psychosocial perspective.

Obstructions change and can be hereditary like a disability or health problems or environmental such as education unemployment and living conditions. According to the Behavioural Perspective, the average person may imitate or learn behaviours through: their environment, their peers, tv set, internet and multimedia but more importantly role models. These behavior habits are underpinned by positive or negative rewards for the behavior which determine which behaviours are chosen to mimic Gross (20??). Tony's father might have been a strong role model for him within a disadvantaged area where he might not exactly have noticed safe or secure. (Elaborate from violent nighttime reserve).

There is a routine throughout many perspectives which link the value of stages in determining individuals development, like the lifecourse, such as; Piage's levels of moral development, Freud's psychosexual periods and Erikson's eight periods of man. Erikson considered the developing stages of living as eight individual tasks and advised these, depending about how successful the completion, would lead to a positive or negative outcome. The eight stages of man is considered to be a Freudian based model of the psychosexual levels, as both see the relevant levels and the value of concluding them in order to efficiently move on to the next. However Freud was not as flexible as Erikson, as he did not consider the ability to repair uncompleted duties, while Erikson suggests that more often than not you will see unresolved issues, but which may be triumph over in later life. In Erikson's adolescent level, where the specific is thought to go through a process of personal information v role misunderstandings, looking for a coherent personal and vocational identity. The desired reaction to this would be for the given individual to consider themselves as a constant and involved person.

However in Tony's circumstance there may have been an interruption of the periods, for example if his dad has already established an inconsistent relationship with Tony through lots of prison sentences from reoffending, then there could be confusion concerning 'what or who he is'. This end result is considered to be a pattern for just about any individual who will not successfully complete this level within the psychosocial model. Beckett (20??). Vitaro et al derived a theory based on Erikson's eight stages that an person that has a best friend or role model who is a delinquent, has an increased potential for them too growing such behaviour. However this model tends to take a somewhat individualistic strategy and will not consider free will or the humanistic strategy which would say that humans have the ability to defeat adversities and choose the path in which they would like to take. Gross Mindset (2008).

We can suppose that there surely is a challenge with finances which might suggest that there are some areas of poverty. Regarding to Perry (2004), children essentially indicate their upbringing; positive and negative life encounters will determine behaviour. Therefore an understanding of early experiences and how they effect on the human brain is vital in order to understand the individual. The more enriched the first experiences of the kid, the better the results and chance to reach their full potential is regarded as.

Du Plessis advises, DATE the one innate features human beings are created with is reflexes such as blinking, respiration and sucking. Everything else is regarded as learned through the environment in which they live which then in turn will determine the adult they become. She gives a good example of a person given the wrong directions would never reach the desired destination, equally a child not given the required emotional support, love and love will never reach their full potential, therefore the parents as the principal educators.

"The destiny of children's lives lies in the hands with their parents". Du Plessis (19. . )

Mills suggests that folks develop differently with regards to the culture and environment in which they live as this influences the opportunities which they may have, or lack, through their life time. Guide Income has a direct effect on children's development for example; poor real estate conditions such as: moist, cold and inadequately nourished have a primary psychological and physical effect. There is also an indirect impact through the parent's fighting hardships, parents and caregivers may well not fully attain their parenting jobs unless living within 'permitted circumstances'. Children's development and wellness is thought to suffer through inequality as financial deprivation is most likely the most frequent and wide spread stress factor faced by families within society. Algate, etal (19??).

"Poverty means residing at home, often tired, not finding friends, not heading to the movie theater, not going out for a glass or two and not being able to take the children out for a trip or a delicacy or a holiday. It means dealing with the tensions of managing on very little money, often for a few months or even years. It means having to withstand the onslaught of society's pressures to consume. It impinges on connections with others and with yourself. Most importantly poverty eliminates the tools to produce the building blocks of the future-your 'life chances'. It steals away the chance to have a life unmarked by sickness, a great education, a secure home and a long retirement. It puts a stop to people being able to plan forward. It prevents people having the ability to take control of their own lives. Taken from Aldgate - (Oppenheim and Halker 19996 p5)

Behaviour which is collectively considered unacceptable or maladaptive behaviour is considered to are based on distorted thought cognitions. These can frequently be self defeating thought techniques not feeling sufficient or in Tony's circumstance being constantly told he'll never amount to anything positive. Gross Mindset (200??). Piaget's theory of cognitive development emphasises the knowledge of how a child's cognitive ability varies by years, this too is a level theory of cognitive capacity. Such ideas have given an insight into what sort of child is able to understand, or seem sensible of, their environment or confirmed situation and permitting professionals to consider such factors to steer their way. (advanced psychology guide)

It may be argued that Tony is only something of his environment (take a look at publication on environmental issues). . .

However environmental factors, although have a huge impact, do not consider the average person will or the power of human resilience to get over obstacles, for example: the Humanistic Approach which emphasises specific choice. You can find the thought a person chooses if to send to oppressive circumstances and, gets the ability, to overcome disruptions to be able to reach full probable Gross (2008). Psychosocial is considering both specific psychology and cultural context of people's lives on their specific development Walker (2008). It focuses on the value of illiminating obstructions which might be preventing personal actualisation, like the Humanistic Strategy, emphasis on the will of any person and their capability to defeat adversities.

(Take a look at Darwin for biological explanations). . .

Sociological explanations on deprivation- Bronfenbrenner (1979) affected public work practice as he produced some systems to explain deprivation in depth which were: The microsystem which is the immediate environment such as people and happenings in the home, this is said to have the major impact as it is direct, the mesosystem, which really is a social and ethnical factor and the way in which several Microsystems interact, the chronosystem which is the annals of expansion and development of their time, the Ecosystem is beyond the immediate environment, for example the neighbourhood in which the child lives, and lastly the macrosystem which is interpersonal factors, economic conditions and social values. Each one of these systems interacts with the other person to create the complexity of every individual's life. Crawford and Walker (2008)

Look up examples of psychosocial theories-psychological ideas is developmental mindset, cognitive and behavioural strategies which are already in essay but need to relate with eachother and talk about therefore.

Conclusion To get an understanding of each individual, as a person, there must be a knowledge of the connections between various factors such as: the genes we inherit, physical characteristics, environmental factors, the impact of culture and response of others for example interpersonal class, the way we are brought up and options made, arbitrary or unexpected happenings, opportunities and the impact of others on and inside our lives Crawford and Walker (2008). As a social worker I would have a life course perspective, in order to ensure that I possibly could combine this theory into practice, I'd have a narrative approach. This is a means of dealing with individuals that focuses on the importance of these experiences and the meaning they put on them, the way the person may have interpreted encounters within their life expectancy to get to this point and for that reason possible techniques or interventions to fit.

For ADP being careful of discriminatory language like young ones culture which is associated with hoodies culture, talking about anti social behavior is again linking the given individual to a label based on era and assumptions. Also not using jargon therefore making sure terminology is clear and focuses on are clearly grasped, not abusing electric power by ensuring the average person has a right to input how they feel and what they need despite them being truly a minor. Not making assumptions based on class or the surroundings where they live that may be associated with high drug and criminal offense rate. Not presuming the behaviour is innate and for that reason there exists genetics which will determine the behaviour of Tony to be the same as his father. Ensuring all legislation and types of procedures are met as he is a minor with regards to objectives and options given. Ensuring you're using resources available to the best of capacity as you will more than likely be working in just a budget. Assessing time range trying to enhance the situation before there is a crime committed, therefore assessing whose needs are to be addressed first. Taking a look at what company you will work with and the strategy that they take therefore being in charge of any options you make through this limitation and having knowing of poverty, adolescence, the effects of incarcerated parents on their children and local businesses that you might incorporate to deal with functional problems.

Children's whose parents are incarcerated tend to be overlooked when contemplating adversities experienced by young families and support set ups which are placed set up after such an event. Matching to Barnardo's statement, children of these in prison are more likely to experience mental health troubles, poor housing conditions and poverty, yet are less likely to offered help and support for these. There exists reported to be over 2 hundred and eight local authorities and health planks spread over the United Kingdom and yet only twenty make reference to children whose parents are imprisoned in their children's plan. (Regarding to Linda Wilson director of bernardo's Northern Island).

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