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To what degree does personality anticipate performance?

There are two methods to personality: nomothetic and idiographic. The nomothetic methodology presumes that personality is inherited and environmental factors don't play a higher role (Buchanan, Huczynski, (2010). pp. 174). This approach takes a number of variables into consideration while learning personality such as qualities (Iverson Software Co. , 2006). This is on the nature aspect of the nature-nurture controversy (Buchanan, Huczynski, (2010). pp. 174). This approach is contrasted by the idiographic procedure which studies the whole personality of a person and is not compared with another individual (Iverson Software Co. , 2006). It talks about the richness, uniqueness and intricacy of an individual and helps understanding to get deeper (Buchanan, Huczynski, (2010). pp. 185).

There are very a few theories and principles related to personality. Based on psychological preferences, is Carl Jung's theory for extraversion and introversion. Extraverts are sociable and don't like to be by itself. They like get-togethers, have tons of friends, are positive and like change (Bainbridge, 2011). Introverts are shy, quiet, reliable, prefer to plan things in advance and are pessimistic. Jung made a personality type matrix with four functions that are being used while people deal with things. They are thinking, sensing, intuition and feeling (Buchanan, Huczynski, (2010). pp. 172-175). Considering employs decision-making which is the understanding and evaluating of information. Sensing is acquiring information through the means of senses. Intuition is a natural sense of knowing something ahead of time. Feeling is comparable to thinking in terms of evaluating information but it also evaluates emotional reactions. Everyone possesses these functions but proportions are different (Boeree, 2006). Another influential characteristic theory of personality is of Hans Jurgen Eysenck. His explanations are genetically founded. He researched the main element dimensions which personality differs which is the 'E' or extraversion-introversion dimensions and the 'N' or neuroticism-stability dimension. His model offers a way to link features, types and behaviour. He claims that each person has a set of identifiable characteristics which causes trait clusters and the composition of personality is hierarchical. These clusters bring about a personality information which is known as personality types by Eysenck. These trait clusters are reinforced by statistical research from assessments of personality. If a person takes the diagnosis, it will result in a personality account for the individual showing several features which might be helpful for the organisations in choosing a prospect for a position. The E dimensions includes two categories of people - extraverts and introverts. Eysenck says that typically all individuals have a pair of seven personality trait clusters between these extremes. The N sizing examines personality on a range from neuroticism to stableness. Neurotics are mental, nervous, unstable, are pessimistic, unhappy with life, believe that they are really failures and stay depressed. They quickly get upset, are obsessive people and are highly disciplined. Steady individuals are assured, optimistic, sensible, are free from guilt and stay happy. This assessment helps individuals to know about their personality type and be alert to their characteristics which could be seen as advantages and weaknesses by others. These ideas are based on the nomothetic methodology (Buchanan, Huczynski, (2010). pp. 173-178).

Charles Horton Cooley developed the 'looking goblet self' theory. He stated that the folks we interact with are our mirrors. If people are favorable and sweet towards us, a confident self-concept is developed. If people are rude and unfavorable towards us, a negative self-concept develops. This implies that the surroundings does play a role in deciding the personality of the average person through conversation. Individuals learn to accept values, behaviour, beliefs and prospects of the population they are brought up in. Another principle was developed by George Herbert Mead. He said that the home involves two components: I (the average person personal) and Me (the norms and values of the contemporary society that one discovers). He used the word 'generalized other' to refer to the expectations one thinks people have of 1. 'I' is where the thinking occurs and how you are and 'Me' is how one is supposed to act and helps someone to form their personality and behaviour. Carl Rogers developed a similar concept to the called the 'two-sided do it yourself'. He stated that personality is not steady and perceptions change as one experience new changes in their lives and as a result self-concept changes. A person has perceptions about their talents, qualities and behaviour of course, if these perceptions are correct and accepted, then your self-concept is recognized as successful and leads to feelings of delight and comfort. Failure to attain the successful self-concept can cause a personality disorder. Roger mentioned that the desire of the human being personality is to realize its full potential. To accomplish this, the correct environment is needed - one in which the person is not criticized for who he/she is and is respected, respected and valued. As a result, the individual can be trusting, will achieve a successful self-concept and can live with peace and harmony. These concepts derive from the idiographic methodology as environmental factors play a large role here. The idiographic approach is seen complex compared to the nomothetic way. Its research has been important but it has not been apparent in psychometrics (Buchanan, Huczynski, (2010). pp. 186-188).

There are factors that influence personality distinctions between individuals. These are the physical environment, the public environment, the ethnic environment, the biological environment and role learning. Physical environment refers to the location a person was created and raised in. (Nurture) For example, an individual who was created and brought up in a tiny town will have another type of personality in comparison to a person who was raised in a city. The cultural environment identifies the society a person is brought up in impacting their personality. For example, a person learns different aspects of these personality of their friends, family and parents. The individual's personality is a mixture of these interpersonal factors. The social environment identifies tangible and intangible aspects of society affecting the average person. This is anticipated to different views being accepted by different ethnicities brings about different personalities between individuals. For example, every culture has different norms, clothing style, life-style and food. The natural environment identifies the type of an individual. The individual's hereditary make-up that affects their personality. Role participating in refers to assignments that contain been designated to individuals, which affects the differences between individual's personalities

The trait clusters has eventually resulted to be known as the big five and this approach is broadly accepted. This informs us a whole lot about an individual's personality (Myers, (2005). pp. 618). These traits were advocated by Costa and McRae plus they identified six attributes under each heading. The super qualities describe the elements common among the sub-factors that cluster together. A couple of six qualities related to openness which are aesthetic, fantasy, ideas, feelings, activities and values. These traits operate on a level from 'explorer' to 'preserver'. People with explorer characteristics are open-minded, creative and intellectual. These traits are of help for architects, enterprisers, artists, experts and agents. People with preserver attributes are thin minded. These features are useful for level performers, project managers and finance professionals. Moderates come in the middle of the range and are thinking about novelty when demanded. Features relating to conscientiousness are competition, achievement, order, dutifulness, trying, deliberation and home discipline. These qualities run on a size from 'centered' to 'flexible'. People who have focused attributes are organised and ambitious. They are useful for older executives and leaders. People with versatile characteristics are irresponsible and disorganised and are useful for detectives, management consultants and experts. Those that lay in the centre are balanced and discover it easy to move on the scale in one end to another. The six features associated with extraversion are positivity, friendliness, sociable, boldness, activity and pleasure. These run on a range from extravert to introvert. The extravert characteristics are useful to people in politics, sales and arts. Introvert qualities are useful to people in natural sciences and creation management. Those that lie in the centre are known as ambiverts who can certainly move from being isolated to being sociable. Traits in agreeableness include straightforwardness, trust, unselfishness, conformity and tender-mindedness. These operate on a range from 'adapter' to 'challenger'. People with adapter traits are good in mother nature and sympathetic and these qualities are useful for individuals who are professors, psychologists and sociable workers. People who have challenger attributes are uncooperative and irritable and are useful for folks in advertising and armed service leadership. In the center of the spectrum lie the negotiators who is able to move from command to followership as the problem demands. Traits associated with neuroticism include anger, be concerned, discouragement, self-consciousness and weakness. It operates on a level from 'reactive' to 'resilient'. People with reactive attributes are depressed and troubled. These traits are useful for social researchers, customer service specialists and academics. People who have resilient features are self-assured and calm and are of help for air-traffic controllers, pilots and engineers. Those in the middle are known as responsives who use their levels of emotionality in line with the circumstances (Buchanan, Huczynski, (2010). pp. 178-179).

Employee performance packages goals for the employees and stimulates involvement with the company, which would lead to raised drive and increased job performance (Walden University or college, 2010). Many studies have been completed to find the marriage between personality and worker performance. These studies also show that there is a small correlation between both of these factors. Earlier studies depicted that personality is wii tool for increasing worker performance but recently there's been an increase in the use of personality assessments to be able to manipulate and increase staff performance. Barrick, Mount and Tett et al (1991) gave evidence that the top Five can be a useful tool for selecting employees and were the key personality framework. Out of the Big Five, conscientiousness is seen as the utmost valid predictor for evaluating performance for some careers as all the factors included in conscientiousness lead to good job performance and are needed by the business. The Big Five has a sizable effect on contextual and task performance (Hurtz, Donovan, (2000). pp. 869). Neuroticism relates adversely to job performance as employees are inclined to negativity which leads to low job performance and satisfaction. Extraversion links favorably to job performance as employees are positive and mingle around with people quickly which contributes to high process performance and job satisfaction. Agreeableness also proved to be a valid predictor for training (Judge, Higgins, Thoresen, Barrick, (1999). and can lead to powerful as employees with these traits be friends with people quickly. The openness and the agreeableness characteristics likewise have some disadvantages such as wide open people may skip careers often and good natured people might quit their success in satisfying other people. A couple of three motivational factors that affect the Big Five which in turn impacts job performance. These are trying for communion (getting along with people in the company), accomplishment (being task oriented) and position (being ahead of men and women in the company). Although, research shows that position striving is firmly associated with performance. These three parameters motivate an employee to work harder which rises staff performance (Barrick, Stewart, (2002). pp. 2-3).


There are other techniques as well which are being used to predict worker performance such as personality assessments. There are various personality assessments and a famous an example may be Myers-Briggs Type Signal (MBTI) predicated on Jung's theory. This assessment is used by a great deal of companies and has a lot of uses such as decision-making and problem fixing. Another trusted examination is TAT for high-stress jobs and psychological research. It also measures the effectiveness of need for achievement for individuals. Candidates are shown images and pictures of individuals and are asked to create a story by what they see in the pictures. That is known as a projective ensure that you by this the business comes to knows about the candidate's personality. For this reason test the business is given a hint of the individual's personality through their account. But personality assessments aren't good predictors of employee performance as the candidate can provide false answers to get the job (Buchanan, Huczynski, (2010). pp. 173-189). Personality assessments should be used along with other reliable assessments and only helps to an scope in selecting employees for the job. General mental ability test is an additional way of predicting performance and it is the most positive predictor but there is not much evidence these two factors web page link (Judge, Higgins, Thoresen, Barrick, (1999). pp. 628-629).

Personality and job performance do relate, but this depends upon the individuals cognitive ability to some extent. If the individual has high need for success and high cognitive capacity, then he/she will perform better in their job (Lowery, Beadles, Krilowicz, Thomas, (2004). pp. 1-3). Personality does indeed predict worker performance but only to a certain extent and is not a very good tool for predicting performance. Research demonstrates these procedures have drawbacks as well and there are many other suitable ways of predicting worker performance. The benefits a business can gain by using personality to predict employee performance is that it helps to find the right applicant for the job which will lead to profits for the company and the employee will be motivated to work hard and revel in their job as it'll match their personality; leading to positive behavior which is beneficial to the company (Buchanan, Huczynski, (2010). Pp. 189).

Career success is the achievement a person gets through his/her work. Personality traits can be translated favorably into a person's professional profession. A relationship is available between your Big Five Features and job success. The facets of Big Five do relate to some jobs out of which conscientiousness and extraversion are strongly related to work success. Individuals who are structured and disciplined will choose opportunities such as hotel management, bankers and businesspeople. People who have agreeableness qualities come used in customer service and are needed in any company because they are helpful, trustful and good in character and certainly relate to career success. Openness characteristics are useful for folks who are in customer support or who are painters or in the business of event management because they are creative. People who have extraversion attributes are talkative and sociable and would be good market leaders and have employment opportunities such as event management, insurance, radio jockeys and sales. The behaviours that qualities indicate in the five factor model (FFM) predict career success for a long period. This links to the concept of gravitational hypothesis which declares that over time people choose their careers matching to their passions, desires and values. Regression and relationship centered analyses were carried out to investigate if the relationship existed between FFM and RIASEC style of gravitation effect. Studies showed that standard mental ability positively correlated with gravitation to careers linked to exploration and extraversion favorably correlated with gravitation to sociable jobs and negatively correlated with gravitation to investigative careers. Results of regression somewhat differed. Extraversion didn't have gravitation for sociable careers but for practical careers and conscientiousness and neuroticism did not contain gravitation to the jobs detailed in RIASEC model.

Career success relies on two things - intrinsic success (job satisfaction) and extrinsic success (income and position). Research has shown that conscientiousness and extraversion favorably linked to extrinsic career success while neuroticism associated negatively and this also impacts performance in a negative way. Basic mental capability related positively to extrinsic success but there is no hyperlink found with intrinsic success. Smart people have higher positions and earn high incomes which would lead to job satisfaction. Actions of personality of FFM were taken from childhood and adulthood and were utilized to clarify about the extrinsic and intrinsic areas of career success. Knowledge about personality of people in child years was successful in predicting the individuals job success in future. Results of a report found that shy children adversely related to occupational status later in the future whereas sociable and organizational skills positively linked to marketing promotions.

Career success also pertains to demographic factors and other factors such as education, training and work experience. Career success also relies on organizational success. It'll be beneficial for the company if employees perform well and show organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB). Nowadays organisations have to be competitive, progressive and respond quickly and for this they need hard-working personnel. OCB helps bring about behaviour such as supporting others at the job, suggesting advancements and investing in more time and effort to complete work and meet deadlines. Leader-member exchange quality improves job satisfaction and aids in demonstrating OCB. For organisations to show OCB, they have to hire individuals who have conscientiousness characteristics as they illustrate OCB behaviour often which contributes to offers and job satisfaction. The employees in exchange gain respect for his or her work from the management which boosts motivation and additional will encourage OCB. Employees with conscientiousness qualities have high LMX quality romantic relationships with their elderly people. They get high levels of job satisfaction by showing OCB and receive more responsibility and freedom. This attracts job opportunities for them. OCB not only benefits the company but also the employees. Employees display OCB when they know they are going to be compensated for the work done which consequently encourages positive behaviour and profession success for the individual. A meta-analysis by Borman et al (2001) proved that conscientiousness was the strongest characteristic that related to OCB (Judge, Higgins, Thoresen, Barrick, (1999). pp. 621-648 ; Lapierre, Hackett (2007). pp. 539-544).

To conclude, personality will predict worker performance but only to a certain magnitude - other valid assessments should be utilized when choosing employees for a job. These assessments can be helpful both for the employee and the organisation to understand what kind of your personality you have and exactly how it can aid in their professions which can lead to high job satisfaction and performance and success of the organisation.

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