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Three categories of textile

1. 1 Background Study

"Waste is thought as anything left or superfluous, as excess material or by-products, anything rejected or useless, worthless or unwanted. " D Tanya and K Kathy, 1997. They also depicts three types of textile and apparel waste in 'Textile waste Lifecycle model' namely, post-producer waste made by manufacturers, pre-consumer waste produced by retailers and post-consumer waste made by the general public.

For this research paper, post-producer waste is taken into account. In specific, denim waste from the supply chain industries is studied for the purpose of its management. Since Denim fabric is considered to be the toughest fabric and constitutes the maximum amount of cotton which is known as to be organic and natural in nature.

Thus it is suitable to find its recovery system so that no denim waste is land filled or burnt in the atmosphere.

In the study paper-"The Textile waste Lifecycle" in Clothing and Textile Research Journal, author discusses the growing attention towards solid waste management by textile and apparel industry to environmental responsibility and expanded efforts to reduce disposal of post-producer textile waste in landfills. Authors said that environmentally friendly awareness and subsequently the term "recycling" has been around common utilization for 25 years. But finding means of recycling textile waste as an alternative to landfill disposal is an ecological problem which textile/apparel industry is already working. Though they are still working on to build up a Textile waste Lifecycle model to lessen the textile waste in every the categories of textile and apparel waste.

Authors while introducing in the above research paper discusses that the vast majority of solid waste stream is contributed by post-producer waste from the industry including fiber producers, textile mills and fabric and apparel manufacturers. Therefore, "Recycling, a big component of the larger environmental movement, is continuing to grow rapidly lately". (D Tanya and K Kathy, 1997) He also mentioned that the eye towards recycling is due to many factors including green consumerism, rising waste disposal cost, an explosion of legislative initiatives and mandates and the evolution of waste recycling into smoothly running commodity industry.

Discussed in the 2nd International conference of Textile Research Division under the topic "Textile waste-material Recycling" by (G. M. EI-Nouby, H. A. Azzam, S. T. Mohamed, and M. N. El-Sheikh, 2005) that large amounts of cloth scrap, clippings and loose sample scraps are manufactured at "cut and sew" plants where garments are manufactured. These scraps of waste-material consists of 15-30% of most types of garments manufactured.

Also in the recent study in the study paper "Recycling Textile waste-Newer Dimensions" by S. Aishwarya(2010) found the total cotton fiber consumption is estimated to be 26 lakh tons per year, of which approximately 2, 10, 000 of cotton dust which is a micro dust and also regarded as a non-saleable waste which is produced during yarn manufacturing process.

Because of environmental concerns, a sizable volume of companies are currently developing manufacturing processes using alternative materials for their products and seeking new markets for the sub-products of the first-line production as said by the authors M. G Gomes, R. Fangueiro, C. Gonilho (2006). They also points that because of the higher charges for raw materials and man-made fibers, it'll be utmost importance to recycle a few of the waste. Associated with this, they also states that companies who wish to stay in business have to be good environmentalists.

But major issues facing the recycling efforts of Textile and apparel manufacturers are lack of market for recycled products and cost of processes as discussed by (D Tanya and K Kathy, 1997). In addition they did industry research which includes indicated that small companies may have less waste to recycle which makes the price tag on recycling too much. The web in particular concern for small manufactures. Therefore, it is important to get the cost-benefit of textile recycling industry.

Larney and Annette, 2004 has also investigated the South African textile industry in regard to recycling practices, interest and willingness of the manufacturers and the problems & barriers to enter the market for recycled products. The questionnaire and mail survey was done considering 103 textile manufactures including small, medium and large textile manufactures. Out of 10 statements asked in the questionnaire, rank wise, the majority of the companies would purchase carpets from recycled textile materials, they said that they might manufacture apparel or other textile products created from recycled textile materials and so on. The very last rank was presented with to the statement that "It is not economically simple for my company to recycled textile material to create new apparel or other textile products. " and "It will always be more costly for my company to use recycled textile materials then it is to use new textile materials in the production of apparel or other textile products". On the other hand, companies agreed to the actual fact that market strategy that creates a strong ultimate demand can be an appropriate strategy to use with apparel or other textile products made from recycled textile materials.

The research concluded that uncertainty of market strategies could be the economical barriers, as textile recycling is not affordable on the whole even though most industries advised the strong trade demand through market strategy because then only the market would be moved forward.

Therefore, it is still important to recognize applications of textile waste apart from landfilling the waste which is considered as the major gap on the market.

Therefore, for the purpose of this research, it is important to find considerable denim waste (denim fabric which is constitutes the maximum cotton consumption and is known as to be organic in nature) from the industry which can be further analyzed to find its various applications (which means its recovery options) and the effect can help in building "return service" for yarn manufacturers/denim manufacturers through denim apparel manufactures locally.

1. 2 Project Objectives

The objectives are to study your options for the recovery and recycling the denim wastes and also to find the economical feasibility and opportunities by applying this to the supply chain from denim manufacturing through the Denim apparel manufacturing.

In this the next objectives can be confirmed:

  1. To evaluate the quantity of denim waste made by the Denim apparel manufacturers
  2. To study what happens to denim waste and price considerations of rag dealers locally
  3. To analyze the various applications of denim waste reuse/recycling
  4. To recommend a "return service" for denim scrap locally

CHAPTER-2 LITERATURE REVIEW

Literature Review is analyzing previous researchers work with an idea of how many other folks have done in the same portion of study. The project revolves around classifying the prospects of commercial denim waste and its own cost efficiency.

Following parts of Literature Review discusses objective-wise researchers study. Firstly it will talk about the analysis on the quantity of waste estimated in Textile Industry, then it reveals whether informal or any government organizations get excited about recycling/reuse practices, then finding the applications of denim recycling and finally looking at the cost effectiveness of the same.

The Literature Review involve research papers of renowned authors, or any other articles from Internet or otherwise. It'll involve Secondary data this means the data is collected from Secondary source around the globe and then summarized by means of my very own analyses author wise in each section. Although in Chapter-4, data collection in the form of Primary data is viewed by consulting Denim apparel manufacturers, rag dealers and recyclers to identify and facilitate the objectives of the research paper.

2. 1 The total amount and varieties of Post-producer textile waste made or recycled

In the study paper-"The Textile Waste Lifecycle", the authors revealed that the vast majority of solid waste stream is contributed by post-producer waste from the industry. For textiles, it was estimated between 1. 5 and 1. 9 billion pounds of new fiber and fabric wastes annually by fiber producers, textile mills and fabric manufactures in USA. Out of 2% of the total nation's gross annual post-producer textile waste(which amounts to 11. 2 billion tons), apparel manufacturers waste contributed 450 to 600 million tons annually by means of apparel cuttings. Media focus on various U. S industries prospect of ecological damage as contribution to sold waste stream has pressured the textile industry to respond with alternatives apart from landfilling waste based on the author. Which environmental pressure has already established dramatic impact the last ten years as companies have added environmentally sound management philosophy. Therefore, the authors analyzed a "Textile Waste Lifecycle model" which is also shown in Figure: 1 showing the integration of post-producer and post-consumer textile waste with resalable and reusable new products. Also the model contribute to the philosophy that while everything must go somewhere, there will be more options than landfilling.

The above figure of Textile Waste Lifecycle Model reveals that Post-producer textile waste may be disposed of in three ways. Firstly, it could enter the solid waste stream and end in landfills or waste incinerators. The second option is converting the solid waste into energy to power the manufacturing process. The third option is to market the waste to textile waste recycler who shreds garments, fabric or fiber waste into new fiber. The author also quoted various types of textile recyclers to be able to establish the actual fact that what they are doing with the post-producer textile waste which is discussed in section 2. 2. Authors in the long run of the research paper provides further framework for even more dialogue about what constitutes the textile waste and finding means by which textile waste is or can be disposed. Likewise, many avenues for further study were established.

There remain voids and gaps on the market to be able to know very well what constitutes the textile waste. Therefore authors in this research left initiatives for further finding the applications of varied textile waste which forms the part of the objectives of research paper.

Another recent survey by T. H. Christensen, G. Bhander, H. Lindvall, A. W. Larsen, T. Fruergaard, A. Damgaard, S. Manfredi, A. Boldrin, C. Riber and M. Hauschild, 2008 is also done to calculate the volume of textile production waste materials and the recycling level by Lithuanian textile, clothing and soft furniture production enterprise. 18 textile companies, 12 apparel industry companies and 10 companies of soft furniture production have been surveyed by questioning. A significant part of textile production waste is land filled. The transportation of textile waste for land filling requires additional investments like the consistently increasing pressure of taxation for waste disposal and transportation costs. Using the EU Environmental Law getting stricter, the procedure of waste land filling can be more loss-making. The Resolution prohibits burying of most recyclable waste, including textile waste, from the year 2015 and prohibits burying of all residual waste, except the cases when the burying is inevitable or a danger arises, from the year 2025.

The overall waste amount throughout the complete cycle of the textile fabric production from yarn manufacturing to fabric sewing may constitute upto 40-50% of recycleables quantity. On the other hand, the amount of textile waste generated in the apparel industry companies covers the interval of 3-22% compared to the recycleables used.

The main part of all the waste (62. 5%) includes textile material cuttings. These are cuttings of different size with dyeing defects, stained, fine knitted fabric waste, woven fabric borders, weighted cuttings of woven fabrics (0. 1-2mm length), and cutouts from garment sewing industry.

Following Table-1 shows the waste amount and recycling degree according to enterprise type

TABLE-1

Enterprise type

Overall amount of waste, t

Average amount of waste, t

Amount of waste recycle/ used in co. , t

Amount of waste solid given away, t

Amount of waste solid transported for land filling, t

Textile Production

1671. 2

93

343. 7

815. 1

513. 1

Apparel

1001. 0

83

0

299. 6

701. 4

The research has shown the quantity of waste made by different industries, and how much it is reused, recycled and hw much thrown in landfill. Figure:2, 3 proves that over fifty percent of the textile industry waste goes into the landfill and very less amount of waste is recycled. This research has revealed that how waste is going to put pressure on each and every industry, as they are already shelling out for transportation of waste and in future it is said that they also have to pay taxes because of this waste disposal. By 2015 government will not allow to dispose from the waste in the landfill. The study only viewed the waste, its amount and how it is going to create problems in the foreseeable future. But there are no ways how to recover or recycle is discussed.

In 2005, the next Conference of Textile Research Division already discussed "Ways and Means" to Textile -waste Recycling by authors, G. M. EI-Nouby, H. A. Azzam, S. T. Mohamed, and M. N. El-Sheikh which is discussed in following section 2. 2

Therefore, from the above section it can be concluded that there is no proper study which has been witnessed by Denim textile/or apparel industry in specific. Though there are lot of studies by various textile/apparel industries irrespective of specific industries such as Denim industry to identify the amount of waste and its further prospects.

2. 2 The Recyclers and theirRecycling applications of Textile waste

The 2nd Conference meetings Journal-"Textile Waste-Material Recycling"-Part-I- Methods" includes the considerable coverage of previous work. It also attempts to convert textile waste material into useful forms, non-woven fabrics or spun yarns. The methods and machines found in textile waste material recycling were also covered to improve the ability of Egyptian textile industry to compete in the era of open markets and globalization.

The above figure: 5 show the technical solution and non-technical solution to control textile waste which is also discussed in Figure: 1 by Domina and Kathy to integrate the textile waste among all the categories including post-producer waste, pre-consumer waste and post-consumer waste. But here the question arises that what recyclers are doing and discover various applications of the textile waste material.

Therefore, D, Tanya and K Kathy, 1997 in the research paper-"The Textile Waste Lifecycle" conducted a survey and found various textile recyclers and what they are actually doing to lessen post-producer textile waste. Following will be the textile recyclers namely,

Crown Textile recycler, where fiber makes up 60% of the all solid waste, of which 95% is recycled as energy

Leigh Fibers Inc. , a textile and apparel waste recycler that purchases bundled textile waste such as carding, fabric scraps and thread, shreds waste into fibers which are then sold.

Eco Fiber Canada, Inc. makes cotton yarn from fiber and fabric waste to be then made into a number of apparel products.

Levis Strauss and company has recycled 400000 pounds of denim scrap into paper

Cone mills recycle polypropylene wrapping from cotton bales, polyester and other materials.

Russell Corp. rebales its cutting waste for resale or returns it into fiber for use in spinning

Burlington recycles old jeans and denim scrap into new denim fabric which Levis Strauss makes into Jeans

According to the survey, both author's reports that 73% of the post-producer fabric waste is recycled annually, approximately 150 million pounds are reprocessed into fiber, 200 million pounds are sorted by color and exported to respun, and 100 million pounds are being used to make wipers. They also said that due to the difficulty in separating laminated fabrics and high usage of blended yarns and fabrics, no more than 2% of industrial fabric waste are recycled. Since our project is aimed at Denim waste recycling, there must be no difficulty of such kind just as blended yarns and fabrics.

One of the Denim Return Project done by Bradmill Group in Denim Park in 1999 revealed that Denim waste are made such as warp tailings, denim selvage, fabric waste and other smaller waste. The group also found the opportunities for the recycling and reuse for denim wastes also to provide this to a completely a recycling activity because of their group as well as fulfilling a need for waste reduction at Denim Park facility.

The opportunities of denim reuse that Bradmill Group investigated are:

  1. Shredding and Recycling into a new spinning operation
  2. Shredding and Reuse as a fiber base for paper and cardboard
  3. Sorting and packaging for sale locally and overseas
  4. Briquetting for combustion in Bradmill Undare boilers
  5. Shredding and use as filling material for a variety of non-woven applications including wadding for furniture, cushions, pillows and car wadding
  6. Shredding and use within mushroom production
  7. Shredding for use as an absorbent material(mainly for oil spills)
  8. Use of large scraps as polishing rags

Certain aspects are recognized by Bradmill, 1999 which affect the recyclability of denim waste which are the following:

  1. Fiber length, which is determined as critical to the end application. Short length fibers which can be less than 3mm can't be respun, whereas long length fibers are ideal for respinning
  2. Impurities (such as oil, dirt, vegetable and metal contamination), is another critical aspect of fiber reuse which can cause serious hazards in reprocessing.
  3. Sizing is a starchy material which is necessary during weaving operations. Therefore, waste fabrics/fibers require desizing as Sizing will affect fiber absorbency, which will reduce its effectiveness in oil spill collection, paper production, and may reduce its usability in other non-woven applications.
  4. Lastly, Color in the fiber can have a positive or negative effect on recyclability. Since residual colors in denim fibers many affect the ultimate product if it has a particular application For instance: high quality white paper.

Some recycling procedures require use colored fibers sorted into colors for respinning. Careful color mixing of fibers to attain specified colors without requiring dyeing. This sort of operation requires cost-cutting input of around 250 tonnes of waste monthly whereas Bradmill produces approximately 20 tonnes monthly.

A basic break down of reuse fiber requirements is discussed in Table: 2 according to the survey done by Bradmill.

Again the major issues facing the recycling efforts of textile and apparel manufacturers are insufficient market for recycled products and cost of processing as also discussed by the famous authors D Tanya and K Kathy, 1997

Therefore, you may still find gaps in the market to find the cost-benefit (or cost effectiveness) of the opportunities of Denim reuse/recycling business. Inside the section 2. 3 certain researches have been compiled to investigate the entire cost and cost-benefit of recycling business of solid waste management.

TABLE: 2

APPLICATION

FIBER CHARACTER

 

SHORT

LONG

COLORED

SIZED

METAL CONTAM.

Respinning for colored yarn

 

ј

ј

Desizing may be required

 

Paper Production

 

ј

Blue is ok(may be Black)

Desizing may be required

 

Paper board Production

ј

 

May require Bleaching

ј

 

Shredding for fill

ј

ј

ј

ј

 

Shredding for Absorbent

ј

ј

ј

ј

 

Combustion

ј

ј

ј

ј

ј

Non-woven

ј

ј

May require Bleaching

May require Desizing

 

Rags

Scraps 8cm. sq. (Min. )

 

ј

ј

N/A

Mushroom Production

ј

ј

ј

ј

 

Another recent research by S. Aishwariya in the study paper " Recycling Textile waste-Newer dimensions(2010) discovered that willow waste(which is a short fiber waste considered as non-salable and also just disposed off as landfills) in India based on the unforeseen statistical report amounts to 80, 000-85, 000 tones per annum. Therefore, this non-resalable can be collected, processed and converted into biocompost through vermicomposting and enzymes technology which can be an extremely convincing effort to lessen and recycle waste. "Vermicomposting in the broad sense can be referred to as waste minimization which really is a quite effective technology for managing solid organic wastes, into highly beneficial and valuable compost that can be used as supplement to increase soil fertility. "

2. 3 Cost Analysis of Textile Recycling business

B Margaret and P Paul, 1998 talks about the true cost of waste in the study paper -"The waste minimization of food and drink industry" and explains that "The cost of waste isn't just the price tag on eliminating it, but also the value of what you are getting rid of. According to the authors, the true cost of waste can be split into two categories, the obvious costs and the hidden cost.

But it is stated that in the apparel industry, efforts are made towards waste minimization but nonetheless there's a lot of waste generated as discussed in section 2. 1 of the chapter. Because, nowadays automated grading and optimized placements of garment pieces within a marker are powerful, but also optimizing the mapping of the markers to the different rolls of fabric is the key to optimizing fabric consumption and lowering costs. (Retrieved from a remedy case study "Integrated Solutions Increase Efficiency and Reduce Waste in Clothing Manufacturing" by REACH technologies)

Therefore, S Michael, D Mathew, M Scott, G Cathleen, E Matt, G Beth, 1997 of the "Division of Pollution Prevention and Environmental Assistance(DPPEA)" by the department of Environment, Health insurance and Natural Resources conducted a study on "Analysis of the Full Costs of Solid Waste Management for North Carolina local governments. " The analysis discovered that the cost-effectiveness of recycling program (compared to solid waste collection and disposal) correlate the neighborhood governments recycling rate i. e. the local governments that achieve high recycling rates are more likely to operate recycling programs that are less costly per ton than solid waste collection and disposal.

The Full cost Analysis (FCA) helps local governments understand expenditures associated with collection, disposal and recycling so the true costs and advantages of each sectors are understood.

The study presents cost analyses by 15 North Carolina local governments and concentrated on cost of residential solid waste collection, solid waste disposal and

The study presents and analyzes the quantitative from the completed full cost analysis worksheet of residential solid waste collection, disposal and recycling. All governments used the same methodology of identifying the entire cost work sheet as a standard format.

To determine the efficiency measurements, cost-per-ton figures for 15 North Carolina local governments are taken as an example of study. The Recycling cost includes the expense of collection, processing and marketing of materials. In the Figure: 6, It can be seen that recycling cost is apparently most costly solid waste management option per ton. This comparison is explored in more detail in Fig: 7 which show that relative cost effectiveness of recycling in comparison to solid waste collection and disposal cost is directly correlated to municipality recycling rates.

Finally, the study concluded three tangible conclusions:

  1. Full cost analysis provides a foundation for budgetary decisions
  2. Recycling can cost only a small amount or significantly less than solid waste management
  3. Local governments that achieve high recycling rates will operate recycling programs that are less costly per ton than solid waste collection and disposal.

That means there is a positive correlation between recycling rates and low recycling costs (compared to solid waste management) for 15 participating local governments.

Therefore, from the above three sections discussed in this chapter, it can be concluded that a lot of studies are being done to get the opportunities of textile waste recycling and finding the positive correlation between recycling rates and low recycling cost. But, there continues to be a gap in the market to recognize and analyze the opportunities of denim waste recycling and locating the greatest alternative applications of denim waste reuse in India.

CHAPTER-3 METHODOLOGY

The project waste management in the Apparel Industry is taken due to global scenario. So in order to donate to the noble cause this project will assess the quantity of waste in the Denim apparel industry in specific and emphasize on the choice use of Denim apparel waste.

For undertaking the project, data must be collected which is split into Primary and Secondary data collection. Because of this project, Primary data is the data (or information) which is collected from the Denim apparel Industries in Delhi/NCR and other textile waste members in the supplychain Delhi/NCR and other areas.

For collecting Secondary data, information from e-books, e-journal articles etc. will be require to learn what all researches are completed in this field, what is the consequence of this researches, how denim apparel waste can be an input for just about any other industry, which areas have not been thoroughly covered etc.

Objective:1 To assess the forms and amount of denim waste generated by the Denim apparel manufacturers

Sampling Frame: 3 Denim apparel Manufacturers

Sample Technique: Convenience and Judgmental technique

Research Design: Descriptive

Data Collection: Primary data collection(Case Study) to investigate whether there's a significant amount of waste in the Denim apparel Industry in case yes, then finding the various forms of Denim waste (through photography) for further analyzing the scope for the same

Objective:2 To find the required information from recyclers in India

Sampling Frame: 2 Textile/Denim waste recyclers in Delhi/NCR

Sample Technique: Convenience technique

Research Design: Descriptive/Exploratory

Data Collection:

Primary Data Collection(Depth Interview) to identify what is happening to the denim/textile waste collected, what's the market and future scope. (Photography)showing variety of denim waste collected by recyclers, the working environment and processes involved with their premises.

Objective: 3To identify and analyze the opportunities out of Denim waste Recycling

Sampling Frame: Data collected from Denim recyclers and Denim apparel Manufacturers

Sample Technique: Judgmental technique

Research Design: Descriptive/Exploratory

Data Collection: Primary data collection (In-depth Interview) from recyclersto understand the processes involved at their end.

Objective:4To recommend a "return service" for Denim scrap locally

Sampling Frame: Data collection from Textile waste Recyclers

Sample Technique: Judgmental technique

Research Design: Descriptive/Exploratory

Data Collection: Primary Data Collection (RESEARCH STUDY)- to finally recommend a return service which might assist in adding something to the surroundings

Objective:1 To assess the forms and amount of denim waste produced by the Denim apparel manufacturers

This objective targets identifying the total amount and forms of Denim waste generated by Denim apparel industry. Therefore, a pilot study was done to be able to calculate the quantity of denim waste in each department which is shown in Table-3 below. And types of wastes are shown in various departments through photographs followed by Table-3

TABLE-3

Denim Manufacturer's Name

Department

Waste Amount (in % out of 100% on an average)

Forms of Waste

Chelsea Apparels

Fabric Department/Sampling Department

20%

Thaan waste, sample waste

 

Cutting Department

40%

Selvedge waste, end pieces left from marker inefficiency), garment waste

 

Sewing Department

30%

Overlock waste

 

Finishing Department

10%

Thread, garment waste

Anand International

Fabric Department

10%

Thaan waste

 

Cutting Department

40-45%

Selvedge waste, end pieces left from marker inefficiency), garment waste

 

Sewing Department

25-30%

Overlock waste

 

Finishing Department

10-15%

Thread, rejected piece

Photographs of waste materials are captured from Chelsea apparels to identify various types of waste expected out of the Denim apparel Industry which is shown in the table: 4 below:

After analyzing the total amount and types of waste in various departments, maximum amount of waste is made by cutting department. Therefore, it is important to determine the real amount of waste in the Denim apparel units, specially calculating cutting waste on the market which is particularly katrans and end pieces left after cutting according to marker utilization (or efficiency)

In order to prove that there is enough denim waste, Case studies in 2 different Denim apparel units (export/Domestic house) were conducted to determine the quantity of waste and to prove that there surely is the amount of denim waste in the Industry. I took 3 styles in each Industry and calculated waste fabric i. e. specifically Katran and End pieces in each one of the style's total order.

Therefore, for the purpose of calculating waste over a period, say 12 months, I took 1 small order, 1 medium order quantity and 1 large quantity to calculate close/approximate waste on the market. (SEE TABLE-

INFORMATION COLLECTED FROM EXPORT HOUSE

Objective:2 To find the required information from denim rag dealers and manufacturers regarding waste supply chain in India

After conducting research study, it is proved that there is significant amount of Denim waste in the Denim apparel industry. Therefore, it's important to know very well what rag dealers and recyclers are making use out of Denim textile waste from the apparel industry.

Therefore, for the purpose of identifying the mandatory information, 2 denim apparel exporters and 3 denim rag dealers were interviewed to know what happens to the denim waste, what exactly are the purchase price points of rag dealers, what is the thinking about exporters regarding the waste etc. After having conversation with exporters and rag dealers, we can have a good idea of how enough time waste remains with exporters, total time involved to reach ultimate recycler to make a finished product, total cost involved in its supplychain from exporter to rag dealers including the cost of waste scrap(which really is a raw material for a recycler)

The summary of the Interview from both exporters and rag dealers is presented in the following page.

Summary Exporter's Interview

Interview Questions

Chelsea Apparels

Hi Fashion Clothing company

1) For how much time waste remains in the company?

Depending on the orders. If there are high orders in a single season then waste dealer take it in 4-5 days time. Else it may take four weeks. Actually it is determined by him eventually as he must pick rags from other exporters as well

They have good orders running up in the factory from past six months so rag dealer comers in every weekend to acquire and segregate katrans according to size, then take weight(in per kgs) and set prices accordingly

2) Do you know where does this waste goes from rag dealers?

Rag dealers take them and sell those to recyclers to make regenerated fibers which is then reused

They do recycling

3) What do you do with the finishing waste which is normally small fiber threads?

Since it is non-saleable, we just gather it with other small waste like ticketing papers and unwanted fabric cuttings and finally burn them

Collect and burn it as it does not have any salability because who'll segregate this waste from floor dust

4) Will you find almost any a business opportunity in processing waste?

Yes we can send the waste to your mill in Manesar plus they can do shredding of the katrans that can be reused to make denim fabric

No, since this is another home based business and requires huge investments

5) How much money do you really make from selling these Katrans?

Approximately Rs. 30, 000 per month

It will depend on scrap to scrap. Therefore, it is normally Rs. 30, 000 to 40, 000 per month

6) If there is profit in waste business, do you want to prefer making profits out of this business?

Who will spend cash in new machineries?

Yes

Summary Rag dealer's Interview

Interview Questions

Dealer-1

Dealer-2

Dealer-3

1) How often do you get denim katrans from exporters

     

2) Which exporters will you visit for collecting denim waste?

     

3) How will you gather waste from companies?

     

4) When you come back from collecting the rags, your truck is fully loaded?

     

5) You sell right to the recyclers or through traders?

     

6) Where would you sell these variety of denim Katrans and big pieces?

     

7) At what price do you purchase katrans from exporters?

     

8) What price will you quote for sending to other recyclers?

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