Threats To Ict System And Organisations IT Essay

Scanners - Various methods are being used by visitors to attack systems using scanners. People are in a position to download scanners from the internet to be able to scan addresses and obtain information about TCP jacks. People can discover IP addresses by mapping using DNS. Hackers use this potential tactic guaranteeing what systems are dynamic and open to hack.

Range of addresses - That is a scanner which is simple, visible and fast at scanning as it looks for a range of addresses.

Deep probe - in order to show you essential information of a device then doing a deep probe is the useful way additionally, it can be used when there's a remote problem.

Scanning a radio system - When there is no encryption can result cordless systems to be very vulnerable. When looking at mobile networking, cellular access points have to be established as they can be accessed when connected to the laptop, PDA, or mobile. Home windows has a feature that contains an instrument that can allow you to click on a network icon for your wireless network interconnection.

ARP poisoning - Within the system these are known as change based networks that are extremely secure as they create micro-segments. However, there is still an issues of invasion in many sites. To be able to tackle this problem, the storage area must be supervised of many network by checking Apple pc address as they come in locations more than once: here is a diagram to help your understating

Default Gateway



Default Gateway

Man in the middle

Magic drive - are regarded as boot disks that may be downloaded on the internet for the purpose of restarting the computer and subvert the operating system. There are a few very good magic disks for illustration the best boot Disc that can handle issues of viruses and Trojans furthermore, drive, hardware and operating-system failures. In order to avoid anyone by using a magic disk it is vital is security password lock the BIOS and also USB sticks, floppy disks and Compact disc/DVDs shouldn't be used as boot devices.

Key loggers - Key loggers are applications that are being used to record key stroke also can be utilized for mouse activities then oddly enough sends the info to a data file or in some case that are often used remote network location. There are incredibly difficult to keep track of as they are hidden but can be found using anti-virus software program. If suspecting there's a threat, run a protocol scanner, which works by looking at material of every data packet.

Access causing harm to data or jamming resources

Unauthorised usage of software can lead to destroyed data or restricting resources. You can find episodes that can gain access to systems without the need of damaging however, an intrusion can always have an effect on the machine.

Virus Episodes - in every computer systems, trojan attacks may appear when rogue code has got into in to the system. Infections work by concealing themselves in standard executable code. They can damage the system by beginning and closing the CD/DVD door, swapping key responses or can multiply themselves by self reproducing and can serious destruction the hard drive. You will find virus scanners that will detect a disease by beginning the record and checking the code.

Trojans - Trojans are programs with a hidden identity and seem to be to look as an application or a record in which it can be normal or harmless to your personal computer.

Worms - Worms have a process of forwarding through the use of emails from the data of your contact list.

Piggybacking, Tunnels and probes - Knowledge is required for data for when forging data or spoofing which knowledge network programming languages which range from; Java, C++ or VB. NET. Hackers have the ability to hand art a data packet for an application to have no choice but or information given away by server, lead to a service attack or piggyback/tunnel where that happens into a system via an acceptable protocol.

Phishing and Personal information theft - That is a recently available developed method that allows unauthorised to systems. Phising functions by luring people into displaying their personal information in which this is performed through social anatomist for example; when you receive messages supposedly to be from lenders saying ISP etc. requesting to check out this link to lead you to their site to be able that you should change your details where that may be a HTTPS which that can be in operational.

Natural Disasters - Natural disasters can occur to numerous systems ranging from power outage, flood or fire leading to serious major destruction. Organisations have computer systems that are specifically created to deal with these series of issues. The devastation policy have several ways to implement the following:

Remote storage of all data to be done in daily back again up

Duplication of critical servers

Malicious destruction - constantly there are malicious damages occurring interior and exterior to systems. Malicious destruction can be caused by external hackers. The hackers then assault the systems. There are plenty of security ways of avoiding this however, hackers always find a way to do what they do best.

Technical Failing - There is always technical failure that occurs a lot now at days for occasion when sever storages are lost, or bad web connection that can cause disruption to the complete organisation. The large use of network technology for illustration voice, video recording and CCTV can lead to a commercial damage and disrupt the security of the machine.

Human Problems - Human errors take place unpredictably however, it does happen very frequently scheduled a lot of things for instance being forgetful, ignorant, or having lack of knowledge. This then leads to system failure. Users can ignore to support data which in turn leads to loss of data is something happens to the machine etc.

Theft - An Organisation or individuals can be broken heavily where that can be long lasting impact credited to robbery of data. Theft occurs in the cyber sense where that is known as to be hacking, or physically removing data by CD/DVDs, storage area sticks etc.

Integrity and completeness of data - That is a critical subject integrity and completeness of data as destroyed can be caused when there is incorrect data. Wrong data can lead to distress and legal action especially the info in medical documents, police systems as well as credit reports. You need to have appropriate visitors to check the data effectively maybe of customers or personal details by asking a colleague or customer to check on if accurate.

Physical Security

Systems can be safe with the latest the latest anti computer virus and firewall however, that is all unproductive if anyone can have access to the sever room and manages to get critical data to a USB storage stick by duplicating the data. In organisations there must be security features that require to be there; lock and key security, equipment identificatyion, CCTV, Detection of intrusion etc.

Lock and Key Security - There is a need to secure devices such as laptop computers by placing a padlock chain. In complexes there are many locks and key systems that runs something that is get better at/submaster system.

Equipment Id - this calls for stolen properties determined for instance if a computer from college/college is taken, it can be determined from the marking obviously showing possession and origin which can result in prosecution. Equipment can be identified through the use of indelible ink which labels the house of the owner in which it is unseen and ultra-violet sensitive ink.

CCTV (Closed down circuit tv) - This calls for surveillance cameras used 24/7 in monitoring people or situations. There are many advantages to its use for occasion, central centres that are centralised can be supervised, a record of 24/7 occurrences are looked after, and lastly talking about that CCTV reaches show prevent bad behavior to occur.

Intrusion detection systems - intrusion detections are being used by many organisations which can find human presence in many ways. The operate through various ways for case, body heating is sensed by passive infrared, detect many movements by using microphones, doors and windows have circuit breakers for access etc.

Staff visitor recognition systems - many from small to large organisations have systems that can identify staff or visitors to be able to prevent undiscovered people to access. People can be determined through the use of identity cards where it is crucial for everybody in the premises to wear them.


Biometrics involves the use of finger printing to recognise, retinal scans and speech recognition.

Fingerprint acknowledgement - this biometric form is often used in discovering in crime views. Our fingers contain a normal water solution which allows the diagnosis on finger printing to work. There are many scanners that finger marks by detecting ridges in our fingertips. Finger printing can also work in id for passports and visa.

Retinal Scans - The retina is located at the rear of the eye which is very similar to a finger print as it contains unique construction. However, there is a difference between them as a finger print can be evolved when your skin is removed through slices or melts away whereas it is impossible for the retina to be altered unless someone attempts to tamper with the eye bow which is highly improbable.

Iris checking - This is another unique identification eyeball method which is the iris. The difference between the retina would be that the iris can be scanned when the receiver is wearing glasses or contact lenses.

Voice Popularity - This form of biometric is not being commonly used as voice can transform scheduled to various known reasons for case if someone is unwell, stressed or has a neck infection that can affect someone's tone of voice.

Software and network security

Organisations all need to have security, ways to take care of data and technology in order to beat intrusion and superverion of personal computers that are marketing to prevent data being harmed or resources being infected.

Encryption - Encryption involves the conversion word, images and press information in to a format. RSA encryption is a Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Len Adleman in they can be mathematicians who enforced the public/private key encryption through the use of prime figures. In encryption there are extensive ciphers which exist for example Caesar cipher, where relies on simple key of changing one notice with the notice a fixed quantity of places down the alphabet. The procedure of this works by using move of four places indicating A becomes E and B becomes F etc. DES (Data Encryption Standard) is a cipher uses key 56 parts in length through which this is mathematically explained. A general public/private key can be utilized by RSA encryption; with a good example of the way the security certificate is issued by the website. As the creation of a key is performed the qualification is a general public key area of the exchange.

Call back again - Dial up systems use call back where remote employees or network administrators have the ability to dial into a network or devices that have network and it will then call them back. In order to call back the number is pre-configuared. Users are unable to hook up from any location but only the ones that happen to be trusted and recorded lines.

Handshaking - When data is being sent by way of a medium in WAN systems it in which it is not trusted, to be able to obtain the trust the devices are each examined in an issue as it carriers account in order to indentify the device.

Diskless networks - There are common ways data is stolen for occasion when data is transferred from your personal computer to a mobile device storage area.

Backups - Burning data is important to be able to revive critical data to make sure that it's safe and sound, if data is not backed up very frequently will direct result the company loosing data where that may be costly.

Audit logs - Audit logs are being used with the objective to keep details of network and data source activity to likewise have an archive of who did what, when they achieved it and where. There are many purposes for instance, to maintain files that are detailed on how many systems are being used. Syslog is a frequently used system that is able to store simple, auditable details system activities.

Firewall Configuration - This permits users to be able to remove filtration systems depending on various conditions: IP Addresses: Every machinery operating of the internet each has an allocated address called the IP address. The IP addresses consist of 32 bit amount and can be grasped as octets in amount which is decimal dotted. Domain Names: The collection of volumes that produces the IP addresses can be hard to be remembered since an alteration of IP addresses will occur. Norton Security has a firewall as well as the Norton 360.

How to check your FIREWALL settings

Windows has a firewall that may be configured through control -panel by opening it.

The exceptions tabs have to be selected and you will view a set of automatically configured expectations.

You then select the add pot option.

Virus Security software

Firstly, computer systems can be a victim of trojan, worms and Trojan attack from the internet access as well as email messages. There are many ways of safeguarding the computer from might be found which are unfortunately created by pathogen writers

A virus scanner can only be used when an individual initiates it. There's a virus start up scanner that starts to run as soon as the booting process begins by looking at for sector trojans. A memory resident scanner software checks for incoming e-mails as well as internet browser record by doing an automatic check on the environment of the computer. There are many types anti trojans all ranging with different abilities and some are much more secure than others and can be downloaded on the internet. These anti trojans could work through doing file emulation, file evaluation, Heuristic-based detection, Malicious activity detection and Signature centered detection.

An anti pathogen fundamentally examines the documents for known recognisable viruses through the virus dictionary as well as to identify unrecognisable activities of behavior in the computer to see if contamination may be occurring. A computer virus dictionary contain list of infections known also to be placed by the maker of the program and so when an anti virus detects a pathogen it then refers to the dictionary to confirm, then initiates the deletion of chlamydia or it can quarantine the disease for it not to be accessible to other programs as well as stopping it from distributing or the attempt re-creating its home. Anti infections also contain suspicious alert where it immediately alerts an individual if it is suspecting or has suspected of a threat happening then it ask the user if they want to carry on or what to do. The most destructive and spreads extensively is argued to be the macro trojans, and mostly affects Microsoft as they need to beat their security defects in the away look to be able to prevent this destruction taking place to the documents. A standard way how viruses normally gain access to the computers is through networking of local systems even through the internet by going through unprotected security areas which is often holes in the software or having an infected sent thought the utilization of email, downloads or disk posting. Some of the viruses may occur to Excel or phrase record or has been created to initiate through email, and as soon as the computer it is attacked it can keep on its destruction to other personal computers without the recognition from an individual. Anti trojan software updates are highly essential as new trojans can be created and the old softwares might not exactly be able to protect you from it.

VIRUS - It really is called a trojan because it spreads everywhere you go and enables data to be removed as well as corrupt data.

WORM - Worms have an activity of forwarding through the use of emails from the info of your contact list.

TROJANS - Trojans are programs with a concealed identity and seem to be to look as a program or a file in which it can be normal or safe to your PC.

POLYMORPHING - This is a clever potential a computer virus has for when changing it's appearance, size, personal for every transform it attacks the computer since it makes it difficult for a trojan software to recognise it.

Software Utility




Anti-Virus Protection


E-mail Scanner

ID Protection

Link Scanner

Resident Shield


Organisations have the ability to speak from site to site in a general population system through the use of VPN for occasion the internet, via tunnel in which this is the route for all those encrypted traffic. VPNs have a trusted connection on a system that is not trusted.


Managing passwords is very essential, organisations must be sure that the protection of the security password is very safe to avoid troublesome. If the password is forgotten will lead to many problems.

The password should not be written down

Change the password for at least every 3 months

Put an extremely strong password

Software Update

Software update is vital as it means that the machine is safe from possible faults and vulnerabilities from various program. When the software updates it is an automatic update to be able to remove the need of stressing on the revise of the system.


BTEC National Information Technology Practitioners Reserve 1 by Jenny Lawson

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