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Theories of Determination: Analysis of Maslow and McClelland

"Why are there multiple theories of 'motivation' in organizational behaviour? Discuss this question by including a crucial analysis of two ideas of desire. "

The goal for writing this article is to describe different motivational ideas by concentrating how managers motivate employees in an industry with a high level of turnover and low degrees of motivation. This essay will mainly examine Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory and McClelland's Needs of Accomplishment theory and it will include other ideas to aid the argument.

Many organisations face problems when endeavoring to motivate their staff to complete a given task. If the employees are motivated the company may very well be successful and achieve set goals. To have the ability to understand drive and just how it works, first we must understand human characteristics itself. In some instances this may be a straightforward process yet, in others it could be highly complex. There must be an efficient management and command to steer employees through the motivation levels. Many companies assume that pay is the excellent motivator, however nowadays people may choose to exceed acknowledgment, participation and heightened sense of well worth at the workplace. This is where empowerment plays an essential part in a company's progression as it is reinforced by R. French.

"Empowerment is the procedure by which managers delegate capacity to employees to stimulate greater responsibility in controlling the achievements of both personal and organisational goals". (French, R. , Rayner, 2008, webpage page 184)

By empowering employees this will make the personnel more satisfied, effective and determined throughout their working time. Through the entire years many theorists have tried to make clear what drive is by designing theories explaining how professionals should stimulate their employees.

The two approaches to drive are Content and Progress theories and they were shared in 1950s. Content theories explain the specific factors which could encourage people within the company by analysing the individuals' needs and hoping to believe what can inspire their behaviour. Alternatively an activity theory highlights the idea process by analyzing how and just why individuals determine one action over another at the company. This theory mainly targets the person's beliefs and exactly how certain performances will lead to rewards such as pay raise and campaign. While both content and improvement ideas are central in helping us to understand motivation this essay will concentrate on the content procedure in particular the traditional motivational theory of Maslow's hierarchy and David McClelland needs for achievement.

Abraham Maslow created the Hierarchy of needs theory in 1940-50s and also to today it's still favored by managers. He developed the hierarchy to comprehend human determination, management training, and personal development by creating five distinct levels. Maslow designed two main strategies lower order needs and higher order needs. Lower order needs includes Physiological needs (these are the most basic human being needs such as food, and normal water etc) moving one level up is security needs (which would be dependence on security, coverage and stableness).

After an individual has exceeded the low order needs mentioned previously, he or she moves on to raised order needs that happen to be Public needs (dependence on love, affection, marriage with another person), Esteem needs (respect, self esteem, need of esteem from others etc) and after achieving the prior 4 levels the person progresses to the desired level Self actualisation will encourage both employees and employers. (French R, 2009, webpage160)

However with every inspiration theory there's always been drawbacks. Maslow himself has been critical about the theory he created and in a affirmation he said:"My drive theory was shared 20 years before and in all that time nobody repeated it, or examined, or really examined it or criticised it. They just used it, swallowed it whole with only the slight modification" (Wilson, F. M 2004, site 146)

In approaching this issue Maslow's work has experienced a great deal of criticism to whether or not the concepts are different depending on culture. In countries such as Japan and Greece lower order needs such as security motivates employees to work harder more than personal actualisation. (R. Rayner, 2009, site 162). Alas those countries have lower occupations; therefore residents mainly focus on security needs alternatively than do it yourself actualisation.

Whereas some managerial companies overlook the lower order needs and go directly to higher order needs such self esteem and self actualisation. "Hall and Nougaim have found that as professionals advanced, basic safety needs became less important while higher order needs were more important but this could be explained by an activity of career change and advancement". Wilson, F. M (2004, webpage 147)

The above two statements suggest that individuals do not follow the original procedure for the hierarchy. Maslow is convinced that individuals are encouraged by unmet needs that happen to be in a hierarchical order; folks have to keep moving the hierarchy to be able to succeed, this method has not been followed credited to ethnical difference and managerial configuration.

Touching onto Alderfer's ERG theory he argues that Maslow's theory is not adaptable and as a result of the people may become frustrated because they are unable to move to another level. Alderfer has minimized Maslow's 5 phases into 3 levels: life needs, relatedness needs and progress needs. This theory is more flexible as people can downgrade an even if indeed they can't achieve the higher stage.

After having assessed Maslow's hierarchy theory, this article will now give attention to McClelland need for achievements theory.

People's needs keep changing as well as their job occupations. Some seek the need for achievement as a means of motivating themselves at the workplace. Over the years this observable reality has fascinated David McClelland. After spending twenty years studying at Harvard School McClelland and his associates tried to recognize the urge to accomplish. They began an extended research using Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) as an analysis of specific needs of differing people. This is a method that asks people to develop a spontaneous story for every image. David McClelland used the reviews from people and accumulated data and facts on determination. After a series of tests using the TATs technique, David McClelland could identify three needs, which he thinks are essential in understanding real human motivation and behavior. These are; the necessity for success (nAch), need for affiliation (nAff) and need for electricity (nPower).

Need for achievement is focusing on those individuals who seek to excel and therefore tend to avoid low and high risks situations. They have a desire to achieve something superior and get to underneath of problems as well as doing difficult tasks. They want regular feedback from managers in order to view their progress of these achievement. On the other hand dependence on affiliation is approximately creating harmonious connections with other individuals. This group of people may perform well in customer support and consumer interactions situations. Previous of David McClelland needs is need for ability, this assemblage of folks are mainly centered on taking control over others, manage their behavior or maintain charge.

Like Maslow's Hierarchy theory, David McClelland's received needs theory has its down sides and criticism from other theorists. Erikson proposes that 'The need to achieve is a behaviour that is merely attained and developed during early on childhood' therefore if it's not mastered at an early on stage it can't be achieved in mature life. French, R. Rayner C, Rees. G, Rumbles. S, Organisational Behaviour, 2009

However on the other side McClelland argues that the need to achieve is behaviour and it could be done through training in adulthood Ref: R, France, Organisational Behavior, 2009, page 164

McClelland has already put into practice trained in countries such as Kakinda and India and educated people to think, discussion and act as high achievers.

Other critics have disagree with the influencing qualities of business owners are prominent. High needs of achievements individuals are continually competing with standards of superiority'. Further, they are involved with tasks of moderate difficulty.

'The argument that need for success is the prominent motive disposition for business owners may be in conflict then with other research' (Langan- Fox and Roth 1995)

Wilson, F. M (2004). Organisational behavior and work. Oxford University press, page146 (Lowry 1982:63)

TAT test was also criticised by organisations due to the length of the evaluation and the complexness in conducting it.

Taking an neglect at most well know motivational ideas, I have been overcome by the demand and objectives each author expects from the individuals.

Theorists such as Maslow believe individuals are encouraged by unmet needs which are in a hierarchical order; folks have to keep moving in the hierarchy in order to achieve success. Whereas Herzberg claims that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not on the same range. He feels inspiration can cause satisfaction or no satisfaction, as well as health factors can cause dissatisfaction when absent no dissatisfaction when present. McClelland's dependence on achievement takes it future as he underlies Maslow's Hierarch theory - self-actualization. However McGregor's Theory Y equals much of Maslow's self-actualization level of motivation. His theory focuses on self-direction, self-control, and maturity control determination. Reward systems are a key point when professionals want to motive their staff. I assume that fulfilling extrinsic goals is an extremely common method used to inspire individuals at their work place.

Managers cannot follow one among the above theories as every individual has various ways in which these are motivated. I assume that motivation can't be forced onto an employee; it must come within them. In case a certain person will not enjoy their work environment it'll be impossible for them to be motivated. Over time theorists have tried out to create a theory to support the needs both employers and employees, therefore at the present time we have an enormous variety of motivational theories to choose from.

Having closely viewed Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory and McClelland's received needs theory, I have come to a final result that both theories demonstrate people's inspiration needs, however this a complex process because most individuals are not aware with their motives, their needs and objectives keep chancing. Each one of the above theories has its advantages as well as cons; it's up to the given individual to choose which of them is most effective.

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