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Theories of Management and Motivation

Keywords: Organisation, management, management, theories


Leadership is the character which every organisation desires to see in their staff and the person who's self motivated and who are able to motivate the associates become a good manager. Authority is only inspiring the team head is the one would you it, creativity is nothing but motivation. So command and desire is a chemistry which may take any trial to success. The control and desire chemistry is mainly helpful in general management sector whether it is in business or in the team; every individual posse's leadership however the one who techniques on the go become a perfect leader.

The main aspect a leader is made up is a eyesight for the certain purpose. When a job or project is taken over by way of a company the company searches for a head who posses knowledge on the task and eyesight how to build up the project, use colleagues and present the company a profit onto it. A leader will influence the duty to be persisted and change to be taken spot to make the company profitable.

There are several theories on leadership by great market leaders some of them say that "leadership is an action not position or person". These ideas help to make a perfect leader, all these theories are suggested and used by great market leaders and managers but latest management considers a head who follows his role.

Leadership ideas:

Considering leadership unveils school of thought giving different management ideas such as Great Man theory, characteristic theory, behaviourist theory, situational command theory, contingency theory, transactional theory and transformational theory.

Great man theory is the one proposed before twentieth century where it says that market leaders are given birth to with the skill and head should be a man this lead to another theory characteristic theory.

Trait theory:

The characteristic theory increased from the concepts of the 'Great Man 'procedure. This theory contributes to identify the key characteristics of an effective leader. People who acquired the people as identified by the characteristics methodology are isolated or shortlisted and those are recruited as market leaders. This type of approach was usually implemented in armed service and still employed in some of the region.

According to the characteristic theory the individual who got the following skills is said to be a trait.

  • Ambitious and success oriented
  • Adaptable to all types of situations
  • Co operative to all or any the members in the organization
  • Highly effective or energetic
  • Dominative
  • Good decision making ability
  • Self-confident
  • Adaptable to stress conditions and
  • Dependable.

These will be the characters which will make a person characteristic plus they should posses some skills which are

  • Skills
  • Intelligent
  • Skilled conceptually
  • Creative
  • Fluent in speaking
  • Tactful
  • Self determined and self belief
  • Skilled socially

When these varieties of skills and characters are discovered in the person, the person is recruited in the team.

Behavioural theory:

The trait analysis doesn't give any conclusive results and it was hard to assess even more critical issues such as credibility, integrity and loyalty. This leaded the focus on be diverted on to the behaviour ideas. The behaviour theory focuses on human romantic relationship and success performance as well.

According to behavioural theory the manager is convinced that the working environment should be like an entertainment place where the expenditure of mental and physical efforts is treated to be play and break. The thought of manager can be an person with average skills not only learns to accept but also seek responsibility. The individuals will automatically learn to exercise self-control and home direction to achieve the goal or aim for. The organizational problems may become imaginative and creative.

Contingency theory model:

This theory illustrates that there are many ways for the administrator to lead the team to get best end result. Based on the situation the director can find a best way to get the best results.

Fiedler done contingency theory relating compared to that he searched for three situations which specify the health of a managerial job.

  • Head and team member relationship
  • Work framework or task structure
  • Position and power

The director should maintain connection with their associates to go along and create assurance and make them feel free to take into account the task and present their suggestions to help the duty to be completed. Project framework is the job highly set up or unstructured or in between. The power shows how much specialist a manager does posses.

This theory rates the manager if the manger is marriage oriented or process oriented. The task oriented professionals gets success in such situations where there is good innovator and team member romance and structured tasks or duties doesn't matter if the position electricity is poor or strong. And get success when the project is unstructured and has any sort of good vision with a strong power and position. The factors which affect the duty such as environmental variables are combined in a heavy some and differentiated as favourable and unfavourable situations. The duty focused management style is determined by the favourable and unfavourable environment factors but the marriage management style remains in the middle by taking care of or changing the parameters to accumulate using their style.

Both varieties of managements acquired their edges to be good when all the performance and team work very well in the responsibilities. There is absolutely no good or bad management in these two managements. Task enthusiastic management style leaders do best when the team functions well and they are good in obtaining good sales record and performance better than their competitor where as the relationship oriented leaders are helpful to gain positive customer support and build a positive image to the organisation.

Transactional and transformational control:

Transformational command "is a relationship of common simulation and elevation that turns the followers directly into leaders and could convert market leaders into moral agents"

Transformational authority is conversing with the market leaders and the team members to take them to raised level something similar to a leader can become a moral agent and the follower can become a innovator.

Transactional leadership approach builds the individual to finish the certain task such as job done for the time being.

Some of the dissimilarities between transactional and transformational command are

Transactional design of leadership builds a guy to complete a certain activity while transformational styles creates a member to become leader.

This targets task conclusion and tactical style of management where as transformational leadership focus on strategies and missions.

These are some ideas of the authority which shows what sort of leader work on different situations and how different leaders respond to get success in the organization.

Motivation in Management:

Theories of desire:

The theories of inspiration can be divided into 3 wide categories.

Reinforcement ideas - emphasize the means through which the procedure of controlling an individual's tendencies by manipulating its implications takes place


Content theories - focus primarily on individual needs - the physiological or psychological deficiencies that we feel a compulsion to reduce or eliminate.

Process ideas - give attention to the idea or cognitive techniques that take place within the intellects of people and this control their patterns.

Early Ideas of Drive:

  • Hierarchy of Needs Theory
  • Theory X and Theory Y
  • Motivation-Hygiene Theory

Contemporary Ideas of Drive:

  • ERG Theory
  • McClelland's Theory of Needs
  • Cognitive Analysis Theory
  • Task Characteristics Theories
  • Goal-Setting Theory
  • Equity Theory

Hierarchy of Needs Theory:

Abraham Maslow hypothesized that within every human being there is a hierarchy of five needs:

  1. Physiological.
  2. Safety.
  3. Social.
  4. Esteem.
  5. Self-actualization.

Maslow then classified these 5 needs into lower-order needs and higher-order needs. Lower-order needs are needs that are satisfied externally: physiological and safe practices needs. Higher-order needs are needs that are satisfied internally (within the individual): public, esteem, and self-actualization needs.

Theory X and Theory Y of Douglas McGrogor:

McGregor concluded that a manager's eye-sight of the nature of human beings is based on a certain mixture of assumptions and that he / she tends to mildew his or her activities toward subordinates matching to these assumptions:

  • Employees normally dislike work and, whenever you can, will try to avoid it
  • Since employees dislike work, they must be coerced, handled, or threatened with abuse to achieve goals
  • Employees will avoid duties and seek formal direction whenever possible

Motivation-hygiene Theory:

According to Herzberg, the factors leading to job satisfaction are dividing and particular from the ones that contributes to job dissatisfaction. Cleanliness factors include factors such as: company insurance policy and administration, supervision, interpersonal relations, working conditions, and salary. Motivator factors include factors such as: attainment, acknowledgement, the work itself, responsibility and expansion.

Hygiene Factors

  • Company rule and management;
  • Supervision;
  • association with supervisor;
  • Work circumstances;
  • Salary;
  • Relationship with peers;
  • Personal life;
  • association with subordinates;
  • Status;
  • Safety

Motivator Factors:

  • attainment
  • credit;
  • Work itself;
  • Responsibility;
  • progression;
  • Growth

Contemporary Ideas of Inspiration:

ERG Theory:

ERG Theory suggested by Clayton Alderfer of Yale College or university: Alderfer battles that we now have three groups of core needs:

  1. Existence
  2. Relatedness
  3. Growth

Existence group is bothered with providing our basic materials presence requirements. Relatedness group is the desire we've for maintaining important interpersonal relationships

McClelland's Theory of Needs:

McClelland's theory of needs focuses on three needs:

  1. Achievement
  2. Power
  3. Affiliation

Cognitive Analysis Theory:

Allocating extrinsic rewards for behavior that had been previously intrinsically rewarded will decrease the overall degree of motivation. (This idea was proposed in the overdue 1960s. )The interdependence of extrinsic and intrinsic rewards is a genuine phenomenon

Task Characteristics Theories:

These ideas seek to recognize process characteristics of jobs, how these characteristics are put together to create different careers, and their marriage to employee motivation, satisfaction, and performance.

Goal-setting theory:

Specific and difficult goals lead to higher performance. Feedback brings about higher performance than non-feedback. In addition to feedback, 2 other factors have been found to impact the goals-performance marriage. They are:

  1. Goal dedication.
  2. Sufficient self-efficacy.

Equity Theory:

Individuals make comparisons of their job inputs and results relatives to prospects of others and then respond so as to remove any inequities'. Stacy Adams proposed that this negative tension state provides the inspiration to do something to improve it.

There are 4 referent comparisons that employee may use:

  1. Self-inside.
  2. Self-outside.
  3. Other - inside.
  4. Other - outside.


The change in the command theories time by time says that the first choice should posses certain characters which lead the organisational success whether to believe in retaining a relationship or even to go on tactically the director or the first choice should take action to the problem and get success by the end. Depending on the companies motive the leader should behave or behave with the associates to attain the target. Usually preserving a good relation really helps to make the team members life easy and deal with the work gladly. The associates become more impressive and achieve focuses on easily where as with tactical style leadership may create some sort of strain on the team members, there is absolutely no guarantee that atlanta divorce attorneys situation relational ship management is successful. the leader should conform himself for the problem and act corresponding to a specific situation. We've mentioned above only a assortment of the motivation ideas and thoughts of the many proponents of management. In some of the ideas and opinion presented, however, one can observe some 'glimpses' of the individual and how, perhaps, he or she could be determined. This is gratifying in itself. But, as observed earlier, practice has been around progress of theory in this field, so why don't we now proceed to the realistic area of management of human behaviour and motivation in the workplace.

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