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Theories in Comparative Politics

Michelle Elaine Mora

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Section I: Identifications

  1. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions- Necessary and sufficient conditions are causation conditions that became known as Mills Method. [1] Necessary and sufficient conditions are significant because they allow a medical/cause/effect way to study politics. A necessary condition is defined as a circumstance where in fact the absence within an event, the event cannot occur. It can even be present in the function, however the event can still not arise. For instance, gas needs to be present to start out an automobile, but a car could still possibly not start if gas is present. An adequate condition is defined as if the cause is present, the event must occur. The function may still happen without the cause though. For example, if an security alarm goes off each day, the individual will awaken, put it's possible that the individual will awaken regardless of the noisy alarms. Necessary and sufficient condition is the fact the event will appear, if and only when, the cause exists.
  2. Social vs. Liberal Market Economy-Social market current economic climate is defined as an economic system where industry and commerce are run by private business within limits established by the federal government to ensure equality of opportunity and communal and environmental responsibility. [2] Features in a interpersonal market economy, are so it has highly coordinated business areas, strong unions, collective bargaining systems for salary, benefits and other place of work rights. A communal market market works in a large welfare point out where there are comprehensive public detail of communal welfare and employment protection. Example of a cultural market economies are Germany and Finland. A liberal market current economic climate is the one which is non-market founded coordination; it allows for free market without federal intervention. Features of a liberal market economy are it is uncoordinated, has a competitive business environment, poor union, utilizes fragment bargaining with labor and capital, and it is a residual welfare condition. Types of a liberal market current economic climate is the US and Canada. [3] Public and liberal economies are essential because they provide two various ways to approach overall economy.
  3. Dictators Dilemma- The dictator's dilemma is thought as an authoritarian's ruler's repression on its residents creates fear, which then breeds uncertainty about how such support the ruler has. In response, the rulers spend more resources than is ration to co-opt the opposition. The greater the repression, the greater the problem. [4] The dictator spends multiple resources on areas where they feel may have some sort of threat to the program. An example of the dictator's issue is African authoritarian regimes in the 1960s and 70s, certain areas were lavished with infrastructure for the dictator to get support. The dictators dilemma is significant because it explains how dictators never truly know how much support they have got and helps understand how dictators try and gain/keep support for themselves to remain dictators.
  4. Cap and Trade System-The cover and trade systems, which is an incentive centered system, is thought as a market based pollution control system where the government sets a standard limit on how much pollution is satisfactory and issues vouchers to pollute, to each company. Then each company is free to trade their vouchers. [5] For instance, if one company faces high costs to reduce their pollution levels they can buy more pollution vouchers from others that can have low air pollution levels at a low cost. Critique of the cap and trade system is that you will see a high degree of pollution at certain resources. For example, in case a company has high air pollution vouchers and are located up river, the down river will have a higher concentration of air pollution. The cap and trade system is significant because it is one of the very most successful incentive systems and it maintains pollution low.
  5. Four Types of Welfare Plan- You will discover four types of welfare policy: means-testing, widespread entitlements, public insurance, and duty expenditures. Means screening is when someone obtains assistance because they have got dropped below a certain income lines. Means testing insurance plan is funded through basic taxation. Many know means screening as "welfare. " Examples of means testing in the US are SNAP and TANF. Common entitlements benefits that citizens receive evenly. Common entitlements are funded through general taxation, as everyone advantages from the policy. An example of universal entitlements in the US is education. As education level rises, poverty goes down, benefiting every duty payer. Communal insurance provides benefits to categories of people who have contributed to the general public insurance fund. Examples of general public insurance are communal security, unemployment insurance, and impairment. What folks pay in, they get out. Tax expenses are when the government gives the resident a tax respite and will not collect taxes for a specific reason. Duty breaks aren't paid for by direct federal spending, alternatively by not obtaining that money whatsoever. It permits a resident to have more disposable income. An example of tax expenditures in the US is the received tax credit which seeks to lessen poverty. [6] Welfare insurance policy is significant since it helps the general welfare of their state.

Section II: Essays

Essay 1-

Comparative politics is thought as the study and assessment of local politics across countries. [7] Politics is thought as the struggle in virtually any group for power that will give a number of persons the capability to make decisions for the bigger group. [8] How we review politics has transformed over the years and dramatic changes have took place in the last fifty years only. Greek philosopher Aristotle is seen as the first person to study politics as a science, but is politics really a science?

In the beginning years, scholars who research politics and administration would analyze it just as as philosophy. Scholars mainly centered on describing the government rather than evaluating, making generalizations, or offering solutions to problems within politics. This started out to improve with Aristotle commenced to research administration. Aristotle started to compare research on existing politics systems; he compared a hundred fifty-eight Greek city-states and decided the ideal political system. This was an empirical approach that may be confirmed and retested, causeing this to be the first methodical method of politics. [9] It wasn't until Nicolli Machiavelli that that the present day day scientific method of political research started, 1, 800 years after Aristotle's research. Machiavelli's methodology wanted to research different politics systems of present day government authorities but also to compare them to those of the past. Machiavelli then made generalizations about success and failures of different politics systems. Machiavelli work then offered solutions to predecessor's problems. Machiavelli's work was also empirical. [10] Despite the fact that Machiavelli is recognized as the first modern politics scientist it wasn't before behavioral trend in 1950-1960's that scholars started to create ideas and generalizations that may help explain and even predict political activity. [11] Throughout history just how politics is analyzed has changed considerably, but is studying politics in a methodical way possible? Is it really technology?

Simply explained, yes, politics can be analyzed as a research. One can develop a hypothesis, come to conclusions through qualitative or quantitative research, have self-employed and dependent parameters, and make advice based on research simply by using the same scientific method found in hard sciences such as biology and chemistry. An example of research using the clinical method is "The Correlates of Nuclear Proliferation: A Quantitative Test, " by Sonali Singh and Christopher R. Way. Experts Singh and Way's hypothesis is that we now have three different phases in relation to weaponization of nuclear weapons technology. They then created centered and independent parameters (democracy and democratization economic interdependence and liberalization, statues inconsistency/symbolic motivations). The writers then have quantitative trials with statistical methods and came to the conclusion that nuclear weapons proliferation is highly from the level of financial development, the external threat environment, insufficient great power security promises, an low degree of integration in the world overall economy. [12] Through this example, one can observe how the clinical method can be employed to political/ comparative research as well. There are some drawbacks to doing political research as a science. For example, it's possible that there surely is selection bias, there are limited numbers of cases, struggling to control variables, struggling to make cause/result relationship, and usage of cases is bound. Despite the fact that there are drawbacks to studying politics as a technology, the advantages of being able to pull conclusions and make tips on policy, government systems, etc, it is the best suited way to study politics and comparative politics.

Essay 2-

One of the best policy problems facing is post-colonial states is political sovereignty. Globalization, as it is a kind of imperialism, makes this problem harder to solve because of its history within these countries and there current occurrence or non-presence in a few. Globalization is defined as an activity whereby extensive and extensive webs of relationships hook up people across time and space. In countries such as those in Latin America who resided under Spain when they were colonized then immediately after gaining independence were imperialized by the united states have struggled to maintain a democracy and keep maintaining politics sovereignty without third world countries looking to part of and create their own forms of federal or play big brother to these countries, eventually giving them worse off than they were before.

Some challenges these countries face in globalization in post colonialism include specific things like establishing their own democracy, creating their own overall economy, and attempting to prosper in a fast growing third world. They also possessed conflicts over land, ethnicity, faith, gender, and equality. The largest problem is how these countries keep their political sovereignty without making globalization affect them.

[1] W. R. Clark, M. Golder, and S. N. Golder, Key points of Comparative Politics. CQ Press, (Washington D. C, 2009), 21.

[2]

[3] C. A. Drogus, and S. Orvis, Introducing Comparative Politics: Ideas and Situations in Context, CQ Press, (Washington, DC, 2012)

[4] C. A. Drogus, and S. Orvis, Introducing Comparative Politics: Principles and Situations in Context, CQ Press, (Washington, DC, 2012), 373.

[5] 583

[6] 543-545

[7] F. H. O'Neil, Necessities of Comparative Politics, W. W. Norton and Company, (New York, 2010), 2.

[8]F. H. O'Neil, Requirements of Comparative Politics, W. W. Norton and Company, (NY, 2010), 3.

[9] F. H. O'Neil, Essentials of Comparative Politics, W. W. Norton and Company, (NY, 2010), 7-8.

[10] F. H. O'Neil, Requirements of Comparative Politics, W. W. Norton and Company, (NY, 2010), 8.

[11] F. H. O'Neil, Basics of Comparative Politics, W. W. Norton and Company, (New York, 2010), 9.

[12] Sonali Singh and Christopher Way, The Correlates of Nuclear Proliferation: A Quantitative Test, Dec, 2004, Reached, May 1, 2014,

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