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Theories And Ideas Of Counseling And Psychotherapy School of thought Essay


Mr. Alberts, a 28-year-old unmarried accountant, looks for appointment because âI feel I'm going nowhere with my entire life. Problems with his career and sweetheart have been escalating and are triggering him increasing problems. Mr. Alberts just lately received a critical job review. Although he's reliable and his work accurate, his output is low, his management skills are poor, and he has issues with his supervisor over small issues.

The patient's fiancée lately postponed their date for your wedding. She said that, although she respects and love him, she is ambivalent because on many events, he tends to be remote and critical and he's often uninterested in sex.

Mr. Alberts describes himself as a pessimist who got difficulty experiencing pleasure or contentment. He says that, dating back to he can bear in mind he has always been alert to an undercurrent of hopelessness, sense that his life is hard rather than worthwhile living. Mr. Alberts was raised in a suburban community and went to public academic institutions. His mom is a silent person, routinely âmoody, distant, and depressed. Soon after the labor and birth of Mr. A's sister, three years his junior, his mother became very depressed and was hospitalized. She responded well to ECT and experienced no more psychiatric care and attention. Mr. Alberts' father, now deceased, was successful running a business but was also overbearing, critical, and intimidating and drank to excess. Mr. Alberts says that he value him but never thought these were close.

The patient did well academically in senior high school and college or university. He participated is some public activities but was shy and was considered gloomy rather than fun to be with by almost all of his classmates.

In college, Mr. Alberts benefited from counseling after splitting up with his first girlfriend. During this time period, an internist offered him amitriptyline for migraines, which provided good relief from both the headaches and the thoughts of hopelessness. In retrospect, he feels that this was a very good amount of his life. He started a fresh job and romantic relationship, functioned well, and almost seemed to take it easy. However, when he discontinued the medication after 3 months, he seemed to slip slowly and insidiously back to his previous talk about of pessimism and hopelessness.

Although he's usually stressed out, he has never had depressive episodes that met criteria for a Major Depressive Disorder: He has never been suicidal or had prominent suicidal ideation and hasn't experienced significant issues with weight loss, insomnia, or psychomotor activity. For a few months at the same time, however, Mr. Alberts' energy levels are diminished and his capability to focus impaired. He views himself adversely, sensing he has little to provide. He's always surprised when others like and value him. When he's depressed, his sex drive is reduced and he has difficulty keeping an erection, which frightens him.

Mr. Alberts has durations when he withdraws from friends and cultural activities, but with effort, he always would go to work. Some weekends, he continues to be in bed in circumstances of deep inertia. Before, he'd sometimes drink exceedingly however now has only an intermittent glass of wines. He does not recall every having times of extreme energy or elation. Mr. Alberts says that he identifies his strong need to please others, to obtain approval, and avoid conflicts. He seems extremely anxious when forced to deal immediately with a hostile situation. He will take satisfaction in his acknowledged perfectionistic attributes.

Mr. Alberts shows up early on for his visit, is conservatively dressed, and initially appears outgoing and affable. As the interview progresses, however, he becomes tearful as he talks about his problems and acknowledges his frustrated mood. There is absolutely no proof a thought disorder or of hallucinations or delusions. His perception is impaired by his inclination to deny and repress emotionally laden materials. His view is intact, as are his orientation and recent memory space. His intelligence appears to be high-average.



Case Synopsis (Essential Information)


Mr. Alberts is seeking counseling as he sees himself at a spot in his life where he seems to be lost. "Personally i think I am going nowhere with my life. " Problems at work and with his girlfriend are causing Mr. Alberts increased stress. He is seeking counseling to help.

Facts about Mr. Alberts:

28 12 months old unmarried accountant

Engaged, date for your wedding recently postponed

Grew up in Suburban community going to public schools

Successful academically in high school and college

Did take part in some communal activities

Family history

Mother - tranquil, periodically moody, remote control, reports record of depressive disorder with good reaction to treatment

Father - (deceased) overbearing, critical, intimating, reviews problems with drinking

Oldest child - has sister 3 years his junior

Previous positive experience with counseling

Mr. Alberts is early for his session, conservatively dressed

Insight is impaired credited to repression or denial of mental issues

Intact common sense, orientation, and recent memories

Intelligence is apparently high-average

Issues as related by Mr. Alberts:

Career Related

Recent critical job review - reliable and accurate but reported low productivity, poor management skills, and issues with supervisor

Relationship related

Fiancée lately postponed the wedding, as she feels "ambivalent" about marrying Alberts. She records he is critical, remote, and frequently uninterested in making love.

Self appraisals from Mr. Alberts

Pessimist, difficulty experiencing pleasure or happiness

Strong need to please others, get endorsement, and steer clear of conflict

Proud of his perfectionist traits

Lifelong current of hopelessness "life is hard rather than worth living"

Not suicidal

Typically depressed

Low energy levels

Inability to concentrate

No issues reported such as weight reduction, insomnia, does not meet clinical explanation for depressive episode

Withdraws from friends and social activities, always would go to work with effort

Some weekends, continues in bed

Negative view of self

Reports sense he has little to offer

While he have well academically in institution, he was timid, considered "gloomy rather than much fun to be around by most of his classmates. "

Axis I: Axis II: Axis V:

Sigmund Freud - Psychoanalytic Therapy

The Theory

The personality theory as produced by Sigmund Freud is the cornerstone to mindset today as well as a major contributor to how modern culture thinks about mental processes. The psychoanalytic approach argues a most our activities are controlled with an unconscious level. The goal and focus of the approach is to help make the unconscious conscious through talk remedy.

Freud argues that the majority of our patterns is controlled with an unconscious level through the psychic buildings of the identification, ego, and superego.

ID - The identification is the kid of the psyche. It really is governed by the pleasure basic principle; essentially, if it seems good then I want it now. There isn't regard for effects or impact this behavior may have long term on us or those all around us. If we deny the Identification, what it wishes tension is created. This tension is highly uncomfortable and creates nervousness. The Id's needs are based on our intuition. A tiny baby operates solely on ID. The infant cries and screams when it's hungry, worn out, sleepy, or wants attention.

EGO - The ego is the "professional" of the psychic composition. The ego is governed by the reality rule, delaying gratification until a far more appropriate time or in a few case replacing the desired gratification with a more acceptable and safe version of gratification. This release of stress is referred to as cathexis. The ego functions contain thoughts, memories, belief, and cognition. It really is logical. Ego uses the countless different defense mechanisms when essential to help reduce stress and anxiety and invite a person to come back to a state of balance.

SUPEREGO - The superego is the "angel on our make" as often depicted in cartoons arguing for a great or our conscience. The superego is governed by morality as defined by our culture, us, and our point of view of the world. The conscious defines our activities as right or wrong revealing to us what we can not do. Whereas, the ego ideal determines our goals and explains to us what we can do. Superego is where guilt is established.

Freud argued that each person exists with a certain amount of psychic energy. This energy is diverted and distributed among the Id, Ego, and Superego. As each folks is born with a place amount, it's the job of the ego to keep this energy balanced. This creates the condition of balance described above. When there is an imbalance or if the ego will not retain enough of this energy to keep control, unusual habits will persist. For example, if one is managed by the Identification, they are controlled purely by impulse and instinct. This can be highly dangerous both psychically and psychologically. If one is handled by their superego, then that person may very well be moralistic, wooden, and extremely uncomfortable with pleasure of any kind. A healthy person will stay logical with the ego in charge managing all the intuition and needs.

There are three types of nervousness in this model, Neurotic, Moral, and Sensible Anxieties. These three represent worries that the balance will never be looked after properly.

Neurotic Nervousness - dread that the Id will take charge. This is a dread that the person's patterns will be dictated by instincts leading to becoming an outcast or various other form of consequence.

Moral Anxiousness - fear that the Superego will need charge. This is a fear that the person's tendencies will be dictated by a strict conscience leaving the person suffering from high guilt or shame.

Realistic Panic - Fear based in fact and typically handled by the ego. This is a fear of actually incidents and dangers within an individual's environment.

Thoughts on Freud

The psychoanalytic procedure argues that a most our actions are controlled by using an unconscious level. This first argument is amazing in that it proposes that of a person's behavior is essentially determined based on prior experience. This methodical determinism eliminates to some personal responsibility and areas that human action is a byproduct of our mental operations. To think that each action has corresponding response is very comforting for the reason that it allows for an explanation for many human behavior. For example, this process makes legal profiling seem more like science allowing us to ignore the somewhat artistic procedure or skill that is essential generally in most successful profiles. While it might be comforting to believe human patterns would be that predictable, I believe this is also a tad unreasonable, as humans, have proven consistently, can sometimes wonder and devastate even the ones that know them best.

I will admit that Freud's approach is an excellent big picture way to start to see the world and how to explain personality. I think it is weak in several ways. It is hard to state that the examination of what occurs unconsciously can ever be accurate. After the therapist defines the unconscious to a patient and gives a framework and way to research this information, risky is created that the unconscious thoughts might very well be transformed in the process of obtaining sought after cathexis. From a personal standpoint, I find that there is a great mercy in some repressed memories. I am uncertain that reliving the details of that event could ever before be helpful. Understanding the reason for an irrational habit, while it might be helpful, is not really a strategy about how to correct or all the behavior going forward.

Another weakness of the theory is that the environment as well as impact on a person's performing is not included within the equation. The person may be experiencing insomnia because work has got extremely stressful. The client might be thinking of cheeseburgers because they forgot to eat before dinner with no latent interpretation. It is merely as the old expressing will go, "Sometimes a cheeseburger is merely a cheeseburger. " If we do not take into account the current incidents and environment, then a huge little bit of the mental puzzle maybe overlooked.

Analysis of Mr. Alberts

Mr. Alberts presents with increasing stress due to problems at the job and with his fiancée, going out of him sense "I'm going nowhere with my life. " He seems to have lost a few of his inspiration in life. Based on the recent critical job review, Mr. Alberts is doing his work reliably and accurately. He's however fighting those areas of his job that want he connect to other individuals i. e. management skills and issues with his boss. This routine of social stress and concern with others is a steady pattern in Mr. Alberts' life.

He is commonly remote control and critical with his fiancée. He is also often bored with sex.

He does well in university but was "shy and considered to be gloomy rather than fun to be with by most his classmates".

He views himself as "having little to provide" others.

He is obviously surprised when others like or respect him.

He has long periods where to avoid the strain of others he withdraws from them. This protection works with peers but as he still causes himself to visit work, he's unable to completely withdraw from others.

He state governments he has a strong need to please others while also admitting that he seems he is incapable of doing so.

This discord of Mr. Alberts need for individuals verses his recognized reality to be undesirable to them is creating great stress and anxiety for Mr. Alberts leaving him feeling lost and having a hard time enjoying his life.

In Freudian style, one would need to analyze Mr. Alberts' recent to determine where this stress began. He describes his mother as being remote and tranquil. She does not appear to have been a solid reassuring presence for him. She also appears to have been experiencing depressive disorder. While treatment worked after the delivery of Mr. Alberts' younger sister, this will not mean that her patterns of frustrated thinking could have been transformed. ECT treatment after all does not help one learn new ways of approach the world. Through modeling and his desire to be appropriate to his mom, Mr. Alberts may have learned her gloomy thinking patterns. This would explain while his classmates looked at him as a "downer rather than much fun to be around". This might also account for his self-described negative views of himself, pessimistic attitude and difficulty experiencing pleasure of delight.

Now why does Mr. Alberts' associate himself more with his mom than his dad? It seems by Mr. Alberts accounts that his daddy was "overbearing, critical, and intimidating and drank to excess. " All of these qualities are characteristics that Mr. Alberts will not see in himself. While the client performed at one time drink to excess, he has discontinued that tendencies and limits himself to only 1 glass of wine. Any difficulty. Mr. Alberts did not see himself as having anything in common with his distant daddy. Perhaps Mr. Alberts failure to connect or feel close to his father has an opposing effect in his life and in protection to his inability to believe that he is "manly" like his dad, he choose instead to become like his mom. In place, the Oedipus Organic was not completed. Mr. Alberts was never in a position to figure out how to identify along with his father. This leaves Mr. Alberts stuck fixated in the Phallic Phase.

Carl Jung - Analytic Mindset Therapy

The Theory

Carl Jung is the creator of Analytic Mindset. He argued that the purpose of life is to get self-actualization (the realization of the whole self applied) using psychological process to integrate the ego, collective unconscious, archetypes, and personal unconscious. Jung differed from Freud for the reason that he observed our energy to be less powered by sexuality but instead more of a generalized life energy or libido. Furthermore, Jung argued our behavior was continue somewhat than being dictated exclusively by our pasts.

The process where a person creates a complete self is taught by Jung in the context of the "hero's journey". This is actually the personal fable and myths of our own lives that people create even as we attempt to understand the obstacles of life allowing us each an opportunity to grow more into the idealized version of our own best home. Jung argues that the most important human discord is between your Personal Unconscious and the Collective Unconscious.

The collective unconscious comprises of the recollections, archetypes (universal ideals) and stored experiences of previous years. The non-public unconscious comprises of the individual's remembrances and stored experiences. An individual is established during the procedure for separating the ego (awareness) from personal. The self is an unconscious force that we're able to organ framework for our complete psychological system. This technique begins at beginning and continues throughout life. The first 50 % of life is spent trying to separate the ego from personal and the second 50 % of life is spent trying to reunite those causes through strengthen consciousness of the ego-self axis. Self-acceptance of faults, advantages, and a realistic sense of one is what strengthens this technique and allows for successful living. The success of this process is determined by integrating both mindful and unconscious while still keeping mindful autonomy.

During the development of Self, we create personality types. Jung cited six different personality types. These are the construction for what sort of person considers and relates to the world as well as others.

Introversion - Orientation inward, toward self

Extroversion - Orientation outward, toward others

Thinking - logical or reasoning

Feeling - established more on emotion

Sensing - direct belief, not judgmental

Intuiting - Discovering future possibility, hidden interpretation and symbols

Thoughts on Jung

Jung looked at individuals in a much more optimistic way than Freud. He focused on each person's capacity to go toward individualization and wholeness through self-realization. He had not been deterministic in his methodology. Each person has the ability to choose his or her response to challenges and become the sufferer, survivor or thriver. As the long-time thriver, I quite definitely appreciate the notion through my inside wisdom i am not limited just because traumatic events appear. I have the energy to interpret how those events will have an impact on my future development by creating my very own story. This enables me to cast myself as the heroine and also to share some of the intelligence gained with others suffering through similar experiences.

As with Freud, Jung's approach was predicated on analysis of inside thought processes. It is impossible no matter hours are spend with another person, to truly know all their experience and what they are considering a specific event. I do trust Jung for the reason that, all we will ever truly find out about another is the storyplot created and honed by that each that one chooses to share with the world. Jung's approach does take the environment and the influences of others more into consideration. The people in one's environment serve as catalysts to help the hero along with each trip.

It is comforting to learn that we are able to find habits and Archetypes that appear to be similar for everyone. The notion that all person retains a bit of the previous decades' knowledge is interesting. I like the notion that we am tied and grounded to past generations. I really do not know that is something we can empirically establish.

Jung does leave room for the realm of spirituality, arguing for intuition and the unconscious brain. He seems to argue that world depends too much on knowledge and logic. That is intriguing to me as he also argues for the necessity of balance in life to be healthy. It really is ironic that a person of the founders of the technology and analysis of Psychology would dispute for less science and reasoning.

Analysis of Mr. Alberts

In Mr. Alberts' personal storyline, he has cast himself as the victim. He is caught by his recognized perceptions of any overbearing father and calm and remote mom into the belief that he is somehow inadequate to get the love and esteem of others. That is shown but his delight when "others like and value him. To reinforce this role and view of himself, Mr. Alberts has didn't answer the decision to trip. He seems to complete the needed tasks with little to no eagerness. For instance:

He completes his job in a reliable and correct manner, but with low efficiency, poor management skills, and conflicts with a boss who is requesting more.

He is apparently almost ambivalent towards his fiancée as he remains "universal remote and critical and is often uninterested in sex. " He appears to be completed precisely what he deems as necessary no more.

He performed well in university but remained shy and participated in limited interpersonal activities.

By refusing to have close human relationships with other individuals, Mr. Alberts does not allow the affect of a Coach, Shapeshifter, or Trickster to encourage him frontward in the purpose of reaching self-actualization. Instead, he appears to be stuck aptly sensing "I'm going nowhere in my own life. "

Mentor - An internalized tone learned from another

Shapeshifter - An traditional tone challenging us, keeping us off centre to permit us to gain more middle.

Trickster - A reality check that allows us to retain an authentic view of ourselves, our situations, and the inconsistencies in life.

In the Psychic Life Cycle, Mr. Alberts experienced rejection from both parents as well as peers. This created alienation from Personal resulting in annoying low targets from others and low objectives for himself. It could be argued as Mr. Alberts is finally trying for therapy, he'll finally have the ability to find acceptance, be able to reconnect with do it yourself, regain some inflation and lastly be restored to a far more sensible view of what Mr. Alberts provides those around him. In a way, the counselling will hopefully, be able to repair his self-confidence and present him the capability to relate with others and discover his life's call and become successful in the pursuit of his search.

Alfred Adler - Individual Psychology

The Theory

Adler presented the idea that individuals are primarily motivated by our need to be superior. This is not in an arrogant sense. We have been motivated to be the most effective that we can be. We strive to reach our very own capacity of superiority. This is of this superiority will change from individual to individual depending after their talents and weaknesses. In contrast to our desire to be superior, we have been also determined by our fear of being poor.

As each person is born as a helpless baby, we live each created experiencing inferiority. These feelings set the development of personality into action. Jung argued two major factors affect feelings of inferiority, delivery order and our environment. Whether we could born first, second, or third influences how exactly we view the world and ourselves because this influences the most influential relationships in our young lives, the partnership with our parents.

Oldest child - performed obtain full attention of parents until most recent child born, tend to be sensible, hard working, may have dread youngest child will take love of parents

Second child - always shares attention of parents, will work as if in a race, will try to outdo more mature sibling

Middle child - may feel neglected, view life as unfair as aged and more radiant siblings viewed as having more of the parents' love and devotion, or may be pressed into role of peace keeper.

Youngest child - baby of the family and may be spoiled, seen as having a special role in the family.

Only child - has lone attention of parents, high achiever, may have difficulty learning to talk about or be team player.

Our environment can also create inferiority thoughts. If we've a physical weakness or defect in the eyes of those all around us, we will have to compensate for this weakness by becoming superior in another manner. For instance, my friend Keith was created with Cerebral Palsy. He will never play soccer, but he's an amazing and charismatic loudspeaker. Taking Keith as an example, he used his fear of being physically second-rate and became ambitious in learning how to speak and express his alternative will to be sure that his lifestyle matches the amount of success and view internally he organised for himself. Keith's decision to be influential, well learned and active is regular with Adler's idea that self applied is more than simply instinct and need. Our habit is purposeful in assisting us obtain enough power and control to satisfy our desire to attain superiority.

Thoughts on Adler

Adler's more humanistic strategy is appealing. He argues that all person gets the capability and capacity to surpass his / her own superiority level. This allows that every person is born with the ability to be successful in his or her own way. The very thing I possib about the theory is also its biggest limitation. For Individual Psychology to reach your goals, the client has to have the desire to want to change their behavior, the capability to agree to responsibility, and the determination to explore childhood and previous family history even if she or he will not truly start to see the relevance. A therapist practicing this theory runs the chance with some individuals finding the therapist as better at making life decisions and may want to count on the therapist alternatively than taking responsibility with regards to own life.

Analysis of Mr. Alberts

People learn how to balance other and our selves. It is the process of attaining circumstances of our own superiority and interacting with the prospects of relatives and buddies, where we and create our lifestyle. The lifestyle or vision of that which you are to become is established generally prior to us turning six. To be always a successful adult, we have to learn through the influence of those all around us to have to keep this vision (Fictional finalism or life plan) somewhat flexible to allow continued growth.

Mr. Alberts appears to be trapped with his inferiority feelings that he cannot connect well with other. Adler argues that we now have three basic widespread life tasks we all strive to meet of creating friendships, building intimacy, and adding to society. With this in mind, it isn't amazing that Mr. Alberts is seeking help. He is struggling to obtain close connections of any kind. He is not near to friends who he is able to withdraw from for expanded periods. He's fighting his fiancée scheduled to being remote, critical, and even fearful of the most intimate action of love-making. Even his hope to contribute to culture via his occupation is in jeopardy scheduled to his critical job review. Each one of these factors contributes to increase Mr. Alberts' concern with inferiority.

Mr. Alberts is the oldest child. He was three years old when his sister was created. At that time his sister was created, his mother experienced increased major depression and needed to be hospitalized for treatment. A first-born child will already be coping with fears that the new sibling in his parent's sight has supplanted him, but this fear will be compounded and heightened to likewise have the mother increasing in her remoteness due to depression and eventual hospitalization. The case study does not talk with the partnership of the youngest to her parents, but Mr. Alberts does survey that he didn't have a close regards to either as he detailed his father as overbearing, critical, and intimidating and his mother as tranquil, moody, remote, and stressed out. This isolation in childhood within his own family energetic contributes to feeling of inferiority and incompetence in understanding how to relate with his peers as life prolonged. With chance, the therapist can dwelling address Mr. Alberts' private logic and help challenge any errors in his thinking to help him establish more meaningful interactions allowing him to perform the three universal life goals.

Existential Therapy

The Theory

Existential Theory is founded on the belief that while we could essentially alone on the planet, we all long to be connected to others. People want to know that we are essential to the people around us. Unfortunately, the truth is that while we do need others, we cannot count on people; we must come to comprehend that we are ultimately by themselves. The four ultimate concerns need to be understood, encountered, and ultimately handled alone. While everyone encounters concerns, each must navigate his / her own path. The ultimate concerns are fatality, freedom and responsibility, existential isolation, and meaninglessness.

Death is not seen as a negative pressure in life. Somewhat it is argued that fatality ultimately provides interpretation to life. Knowledge of limited time on the planet and the certainty of death serve as catalyst supporting individuals see their time as valuable, important, and ultimate determination to find so this means with the little time allotted.

Freedom and responsibility - Liberty can be regarded as a part of being human. We are all responsible for the options made and the producing consequences. Our company is free to choose how we react and what so this means we assign to any given event. While this independence can be terrifying, it is something that people cannot avoid. In case a person simple selects not to make a choice, then that is also a decision. Once this is recognized, then it becomes more evident that each person has responsibility as well. Life and exactly how successful we are at living is a direct result of the many alternatives both large and small that individual makes through each day. One is responsible for the options made, actions, and even for failures to take action. Ultimately, we are the masters in our universes based after how we choose to deal with life, other, and most essentially ourselves.

Another truth of the individuals condition is that people are ultimately by themselves yet constantly trying and looking for relationships. From the acceptance of our own freedom, knowledge of impending death, and the practice of in charge choices, a person can choose an genuine life where he listens to his own internal voices to ascertain a value system. To be truly authentic speculate if this trade to understand that the only real one who can explain himself is himself. Only after having a person discovers their true inner self, allows it and is able to find calmness with the person they are becoming will he have the ability to reach out as a whole and complete person to create a wholesome affirming relationship with another being. In this process, as well as perhaps as a catalyst to the expansion process, a person must first experience Nothingness. Nothingness is the data that alternatives beyond this very point in time and the existing circumstances are present. We aren't yet all that we could and might become and so the process of finding our most true and real self commences.

The process of determining an interior core and opinion system is not automatic. It takes time, courage, and a determination to face panic. There is a potential for lack of previous friendships, strained family connections, and internal have difficulties when one begins to investigate long held beliefs. Even as we are people under structure at all times throughout lives, constantly accepting and rejecting new ideas, striving for new goals, new friendships, new understandings, we must find comfort within ourselves. After all, the only one who will travel along with you for the entire voyage of life through all the changes, growth, and setbacks is you.

Another distinctly real human trait is to find meaning. Why are we here? What is my goal in life? People instinctively search for the meaning behind their presence. Another distinctly individual experience is the discovery that life does not inherently hold so this means. This knowledge is especially terrifying. To learn that each of us is responsible for using our liberty to regulate how we will interpret the earth to find interpretation. This insufficient inherent so this means is the absurd. This is the minute when the realization that the indifferent world is actually indifferent and the seek out personal meaning commences.

Victor Frankl developed logotherapy. That is a therapeutic process whereby individuals are difficulties to find meaning and purpose. This is accomplished through tapping into a basic individual motivation known as "Will to Meaning". Will to meaning is a desire for living whereby we've the capability to chose and discover meaning in every action and thought. We can find and specify ourselves and finally answer the questions of "Who am I? Why am I here?" through work, interactions, difficulties, and even hurting.

The basic measurements of the human condition, corresponding to existential way, include (1) the capability for self recognition; (2) liberty and responsibility; (3) creating one's personality and establishing important romantic relationships with others; (4) the seek out meaning, purpose, values, and goals; (5) stress as an ailment of living; and (6) knowing of death and nonbeing. (Corey, 2009) These basic sizes are dealt when we each face the ultimate concerns. This process is on-going throughout our entire lives. Each of these dimensions are addressed each time a challenge or dilemna no matter what size or small is confronted. Matching to Yalom, an ultimate concern presents itself. Nervousness is felt. Then your individual has the choice to either respond in bad faith with a defense mechanism or even to respond in good beliefs with a real response.

Anxiety occurs in the normal process of trying to have an authentic life, hearing our inner voices of who we are to be, and building meaningful associations with others. You can find three different kinds of anxiousness.

Existential Anxiousness - the consequence of facing the four ultimate concerns

Normal Stress - the correct reaction to facing a situation that is utilized as a drive for change.

Neurotic Panic - an out of proportion response to an event. This kind of anxiety contributes to the use of body's defence mechanism.

The goal is to reside in with only a small amount neurotic stress while utlizing the healthy normal panic to contribute to on-going progress and a well-balanced life.

Thoughts on Existential Therapy

The Existential Procedure is very attractive. If we are each, responsible for how we react to the globe and our circumstances not only liberty but also control are given. It provides a strategy to have control over how exactly we answer, if we find happiness, and how exactly we identify ourselves.

For people who won't accept responsibility and consistently blame others will not be in a position to be helped by this process. As our culture is growing in its entitlement mentality, it may become increasing more challenging to find clients prepared to accept responsibility.

The Existential Approach lacks a organized approach. That is both a negative and positive. This enables therapists and clients to build up an extremely customized approach. At the same time, with so many different voices and viewpoints approaching together to build this approach, there's a certain degree of almost mysticism that is necessary. This approach appears to be more art than science in some ways.

Analysis of Mr. Alberts

Mr. Alberts is experiencing living an inauthentic life. His response to the best concerns and basic individuals sizes has lead to neurotic anxiety thereby departing him stuck. He is responding to life with body's defence mechanism rather than truly authentic methodology, utilizing normal stress and anxiety as desire for change and growth. Mr. Alberts is giving an answer to the fundamentals of human conditions in the next ways presently:

Capacity for self-awareness

Impaired insight predicated on his tendency to refuse and repress psychologically laden material

Negative view of personal, feeling has little to offer

Always astonished when other like or value him

Freedom and responsibility

He explains himself as "pessimist who experienced difficulty experiencing pleasure or enjoyment". Mr. Alberts is not agreeing to any responsibility to choose pleasure. He represents his state to be as a passive state.

He suffers from depressive shows and hides from his friends, fiancée and the entire world opting rather to stay in bed. Mr. Alberts is employing this drawback as a defense mechanism to permit him never to have to face having challenge of building an intimate romance with himself or others.

Creating one's identity and establishing important associations with others

Mr. Alberts is attempting to create his own id. "He identifies his strong need to please others, to obtain approval, and prevent conflicts. "

He is attempting to create significant human relationships with other. He's distant and critical with his fiancée, even avoiding sex. He previously difficulty creating prolonged friendships through university as he was seen as "gloomy rather than fun to be with. "

Mr. Alberts will not be able to create well balanced life affirming connections if he's not able to find peacefulness within himself. He needs to be a entire and complete one who can find things to like about himself before he will be able to form solid human relationships.

Search for so this means, purpose, worth, and goals

Mr. Alberts appears to be lacking in interpretation, goal, or goals. "Personally i think I'm going nowhere with my entire life.

Anxiety as an ailment of living

Mr. Alberts is living in a constant state of neurotic anxiety. This is evident in his information of life, his connections, and the increasing distress that motivated him to seek counseling.

The body's defence mechanism of repression, withdrawal, insufficient responsibility for his life situation also indicate an unhealthy approach to anxiety.

Awareness of death and non-being

Perhaps if Mr. Alberts was made more alert to death, he could find motivation to get meaning. Death can be a positive motivator to find purpose.

Person Centered Therapy

The Theory

Person Centered Therapy calls for the view that each person has the inner resources to develop and prosper in life. This approach espouses a person is the foremost source and specialist by himself experience and with the capacity of reaching a personal potential. To be able to accomplish optimal development and reach their own probable, an individual needs to receive popularity and positive respect from those around them.

We all seek positive regard from others. Problems can come up when folks are confronted with conditional worthy of. One must decide whether to incorporate these other views as "me" or reject them as "not me". This process creates and helps to form the self-concept, or way the main one involves see herself. "I am a good woman. " "I am smart. " "I am always promptly. " As a person seeks to get positive regard from others, one runs the risk of sensing it is much easier to "be this sort of person who" as identified by others. Instead of living an authentic existence, the person's intrinsic personal information and their common sense is defined instead by others. This leaves a person surviving in circumstances of incongruence creating unease and nervousness.

Anxiety is established when a person's self-concept comes in to conflict with one's own view clashes against how many other say "ought" to be the circumstance. The stress will continue for as long the person is constantly on the rely on the conditional view of others because of their own self well worth. Therefore, so long as the person is constantly on the strive and make herself fit into the field created by others, she will always struggle. This struggle causes defense device like denial leading to detrimental living.

It is merely when the individual commences to trust herself that the stress will ease and begins to experience true personal liberty will she expand allowing her to reach self-actualization. In order to become a fully performing person four goals have to be reached.

Open to see - Allowing more alternatives and options. More options give us the liberty to select which ones we wish to actualize.

Existential living- Being an authentic person, receiving who we are, agreeing to responsibility for earlier decisions and our own personal faults, acknowledging our choices define our lives.

Organismic trusting - Trusting ourselves. This is actually the knowledge of the world around us, our internal platform, and functioning in a far more intuitive manner. We trust our resourcefulness and mental ability to selections despite are failure to predict the best outcome.

Experiential Freedom - Experiencing our very own God giving freedom to choose. We understand that it is within our power to choose activities and make decisions that lead us towards self-actualization.

In order to attain these four goals, a person may seek the help of a counselor. Carl Rodger assumed that for counselling to be effective three center conditions are essential. (Corey, 2009)

Unconditional positive regard - The counselor accepts the client non-judgmentally and with unconditional positive regard.

Empathic understanding - Counselor looks for to comprehend the client's thoughts, feelings, and personal meanings.

Congruence - Counselor can be an real person seeking self-actualization.

Thoughts on Theory

If our subjective truth (phenomenal field or a person's habits, thoughts, images, and ideas) create someone's world, then it only is practical that the only way to help and individual become well and reach their own potential is always to recognize that a client is a good authority on the client. The only chance we'd have to help another would be by understanding his/her inner frames of reference to begin the trip to self-actualization.

While this basic idea makes sense to my opinion, additionally it is one of the potential limitations of Person-Centered counseling. The three main requirements had a need to create the catalyst of change unconditional positive respect, empathetic understanding, and congruence audio more like ideals than actualities. I really do believe with practice this approach might be very successful, but it appears that there needs to be other requirements. Considering that the self (my capacity to be the observer and chooser for me personally) is my most important resource in training this approach, what's that self supposed to look like? Is there specific encounters or knowledge that I also need to have to become congruent and effective? The theory is sound if you ask me. The practice of the idea feels shaky. After all apart from learning the idea and everything that school can educate me, my personal life experiences, is there personal philosophies that I will be studying? Do I have to be a father or mother, deal with increasing age parents, or have a faced a similar problem as my customer to be effective?

Analysis of Mr. Alberts

Mr. Alberts has created a self-concept that entails him being truly a pessimist. Subception (subliminal notion) is handicapping him. Mr. Alberts needs things to fail and that he cannot and can not be happy. "Mr. Alberts identifies himself as a pessimist who got difficulty experiencing pleasure or contentment. " He is sabotaging himself to be able to keep up congruence between what he feels others expects from him as well as his own anticipations of himself. but was shy and was considered gloomy and not fun to be with by the majority of his classmates. " "He views himself adversely, sensing he has little to provide. "

Mr. Alberts uses avoidance as his security device. "Mr. Alberts' has times when he withdraws from friends and sociable activities, but with effort he always goes to work. " His other defense mechanisms are denial and repression.

Mr. Alberts has incongruence in his life. He seems he has nothing to offer others, yet he could gain a college education, exceeded the examinations to become CPA, found and courted a woman to the idea they are now employed, as he has friends to withdrawal from, he is successful socially. He has several successes in his life, yet he is still unable to see himself as a reliable man with something to offer, as he is apparently overly identifying along with his belief that he was which is failing.

Based on Person Centered Theory to be healthy, Mr. Alberts needs self-acceptance allowing him to be more open to experiences, failures or successes. He also needs begin to use in flexibility by acknowledging responsibility for himself and his own contentment to permit existential living. Once he commences to like himself, he'll hopefully be able to build his self-confidence in his capability to make decisions and trust his own intuition to allow for Organismic Trusting. With all this comes experiential flexibility, the data that he can be self-directed and responsible for his own life.

Gestalt Theory

The Theory

Gestalt as identified in Merriam-Webster Dictionary is "something that comprises of many parts yet is somehow more than or different from the blend of its parts". (Merriam-Webster) This meaning does seem installing for a person. We are all more than the amount of the parts. In Gestalt Theory, we are considered the consequence of our awareness of ourselves with our environment and our knowing of our relationships and impact of others around us. The purpose of this process is a person become aware and experience each instant as he or she is in it. By allowing ourselves to fully present and experience life, we become closer to our most real and complete selves.

Gestalt deals with the immediate second. It argues that genuine knowledge is the byproduct of what sort of person experiences as soon as he is presently living. How is the existing environment (both internal and exterior) influencing him right now?

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