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Theories and rules for planning and enabling

The aim of this essay is to identify and discuss the importance of relevant ideas and principles of learning and communication. I'll analyse the impact of ideas of learning. I am going to aim to identify and discuss the correlation between my very own teaching procedures and learning theory and develop new strategies to improve my teaching. Also, I am going to write about the impact of the approaches to promote inclusive learning.


As explained by Wilson, L (2009), a theory is "something which either tries or has shown to explain something" Wilson, L, (2009), pg 350.

As validated by Wilson, L (2009) in the psychology of learning there are three main classes of theory that relate the study of human behavior:

The Behaviourist School

The Cognitivist School

The Humanist School.

Each 'school of thought' tries to explain why people behave in a certain way.

Behaviourism learning theory

Behaviourist psychologists have analyzed learning in animals by instructing them simple responsibilities and chasing it up with an incentive when they did well. Behaviourist psychologists believes that "behaviour is discovered from things seen around them or from the surroundings, or that folks respond to stimuli and that learning and the ability to learn requires a change in behavior" Wilson, L, (2009), pg 351.

Behaviourism originated with the work of John B Watson, an American psychologist whose work was based on tests of Ivan Pavlov. Watson claimed that psychology was not concerned with your brain or with real human consciousness but rather with behavior learning which focuses on the physical activities of the learner. This is determined by the environment and is dependant on the idea that individuals learn to respond in particular ways because those behaviours have been rewarded before and therefore can be repeated. So long as the individual perceives that the behavior is rewarded, they are likely to repeat it. Skinner, 1974, confirms "Giving immediate reviews whether positive or negative will permit a learner to behave in a certain way".

If the effect is gratifying, the behavior will be strengthened in the foreseeable future; if it is dis-satisfying the behaviour will be weakened.

Thorndike explained "when particular stimulus-response sequence are followed by pleasure, those replies tend to be 'stamped in'. Reactions accompanied by pain tend to be 'stamped out' ". This is now known as 'The legislation of impact'.

Skinner, 1974, thought that behavior is a function of its outcomes. Skinner developed the idea of 'operant conditioning', the theory that we behave the way we do because this type of behaviour has already established certain consequences in the past. This reinforces the reasons my learners will behave the way they certainly to certain situations in the class because of their previous negative experiences with the education system.

"ultimately, of course, it is all a matter of natural selection, since operant fitness is an evolved process of which culture practices are special applications" Skinner, 1981, pg 502.

Another way to check out behaviourism is the 'ABC' which stands for Antecedent - behaviour - effects.

Behaviour psychologists claim that "inappropriate behaviour is prompted by a situation they call the antecedent, and behavior usually has desired consequences for the misbehaving university student. Behaviour can be altered by changing either the antecedent or the effect or both".

Petty, G, 2004, pg 119.

I will now discuss the coaching and learning strategies in terms of

Behaviourist who's works in my practice and support inclusive learning.

The behaviourist theory allows positive behaviour to be strengthened. It's important to bolster positive behaviour right from the start as this pieces standards for everyone learners including people that have learning difficulties

The behaviourist theory allows acknowledgement of good behavior choices

It reminds students of class room rules, as bad behavior in the class will be followed by negative effects, such as disciplinarians or stoppage of EMA payments. (EMA means Education Maintenance Allowance given to young people in post 16 education)

This theory also allows students with time and space to rectify their behaviour

The behaviourist school of thought confirms the importance of:

Using positive reinforcement to get students back in task,

Carefully re-explaining duties, and

Setting targets which can be measured.

Behaviourist theory confirms that some sort of prize or 'encouragement' is crucial. "Human learners are encouraged by an expected prize of some sort (such as praise);learning won't take place without it. effective educators put huge focus on pleasing their students with reward, attention and other encouragement. . a student whose work is usually marked immediately is more stimulated than one who expects to hold back weeks for encouragement in the form of praise, or understanding of success. effective instructors continuously pay back and encourage students while they will work, so reinforcement is almost immediate" Petty, G, 1998, pg 7

I believe positive reinforcement is vital with the Btec group I teach as affirmed by Petty, G, above. The types of positive support I take advantage of through my coaching is:



Reward of some sort, i. e. , chocolate, or permitted to leave a few momemts early,


Progression opportunities,

Verbal/written feedback

Recognition utilizing the students are a good example to all of those other class,

EMA bonuses after reaching a objective goal on ILP,

Day trips for the whole group

The chance to get a good reference to be able to progress onto a level 3 course.

Behaviourism is approximately 'conditioning' the learner to respond to exterior stimuli (i. e. educator). Positive reinforcement induces learning.

On the other aspect Behaviourism theory does not consider any distinctions between students, therefore, specific learner needs may be compromised. Not absolutely all learners react to situations (stimuli) in the same way. The behaviourist theory will not give students a person way of expanding as proved by Petty, G: "weaker students in a few classes are establish work that is so difficult for these people that they never experience genuine success. Partly because of this some students almost never, or never get reward or encouragementas a result many learners simply give up". Petty, G, 1998, pg

I will now discuss the Cognitivist school of thought and the Humanist school of thought.

Cognitivist learning theory

Many ideas and assumptions of cognitive psychology can be followed back to the first decades of the twentieth hundred years; Edward Tolman's cognitive theory (1932), Jean Piaget's cognitive development theory, and in some way challenges the constraints of behaviourism on the foundation that behaviourism reduces human behavior to simple cause and result. In newer times, both theories have tended to merge into a comprehensive cognitive - behavioural theory in just as much that they both consider that new learning must be built on existing learning, which can only just profit the learner. Where they certainly disagree is about how the training should be conducted.

The cognitivist believe learning is an activity of acquiring knowledge through thought, sense and experience.

Most educationalists believe that useful learning:

Is different then keeping in mind facts and techniques, it is making contructs or personal meanings,

Must be organised by the learner and then built-into the learner's existing knowledge,

Involves expanding cognitive skills such as the ability to reflect critically, to judge, to analyse, to think creatively and also to solve problems.

Petty, G, 1998, pg 303

Cognitivists believe that the learner should be asked difficult or searching questions that will encourage the learner to believe things by which in turn will help the learner make their own sense of what they are studying.

So I urged the learners to think for themselves and build upon the data and confidence through the extra workshop procedure.

Although both ideas have tended to merge, the cognitivist college still looks at the thinking operations associated with learning, whereas the behaviourist theory ignores these.

Cognitivist give attention to the student and exactly how they gain and organise their knowledge. Students should be trained to believe for themselves. The teacher facilitates an activity of 'inquiry training'. www. theoriesoflearning

Humanist learning theory

Humanist theory works on the idea that the learner needs control of their own learning and the tutor becomes more of a facilitator in this particular learning environment. The following draw out from my Btec Product 7 verbal and non verbal lessons plan evaluation is the way the learners had taken control of their own learning.

"After the electricity point was completed I then exhibited the value of non verbal communication in interviews. I did this through demonstrating types of negative body language and pose and eye contact. Whist I got accomplishing this learners were pondering for themselves and asking questions" (Btec level 2, device 7)

It stands to reason then that I should not have to make my students would like to learn but the emphasis is absolutely on the 'natural desire' of them to want to learn. The Humanist way also believes that it is necessary to have a good working environment. This induces the learners then to consider new ideas rather than to hesitate of making mistakes as making problems may also be evaluated by do it yourself evaluation. The ongoing self applied analysis by the learner means that they can continue to boost themselves and form a belief in one's capability to boost.

"Learning is no result in itself; it is the means to progress to the pinnacle of self development, where Maslow conditions 'self actualisation".

www. humanisticapproachestoteaching

Although there's a vast diversity with the three learning theories they do involve some common ground with one another. Cognitivist and Humanist theory having the most frequent ground. They all agree that learners act in response better with positive support and compliment is given when the learners have completed their task, thus, achieved. In addition they consider that new learning must be built on existing learning.


To be able to use specific learning strategies successfully teachers will need to know the average person needs of every learner in their group.

For the same purpose it's important that initial analysis process is completed in the context of knowing in regards to a learner's aspirations and learning goals.

This is not simply 'us needing to discover more about you' but 'us working with you to see how we can best respond to your aspirations and goals'.

Practitioners need to discuss with learners if they feel they have

any particular regions of power and areas that they find especially difficult.

When repeating this they need to remember that learners are likely to require

a confidential environment in which such discussions can take place. Often, when this analysis occurs in a supportive environment, learners will quickly share this information. Professionals also need to find out whether there are specific approaches to coaching and learning or any types of support that have helped a learner before. These may be fairly simple alterations, for example, a learner that has a slight ability to hear difficulty may need always to stay at the front of an organization while those educating her need to be careful not to turn away from the group while speaking.

Following the above mentioned process as an Specialist as i produced task briefs for different systems I must consider my learners preferred style of learning aptitude and strength mapped up with the awarding body criteria's. I have to be very careful about covering the learning effects as well as producing different variety of tasks which protects different learning styles to make my learners in a position to complete the goes by, merits and distinctions marks.

For the college and regulatory need each of my assignment briefs has to be internally confirmed by the fellow member of the personnel to maintain toughness. And this process repeated again once i marked learner's work, to internally verify my marking to check on whether it is up to the typical and consistent with every learner.

Functional skills again support inclusive learning as it is essential to utilize different functional skills (British, maths and ICT) within my delivery. I achieve this by following the useful skills mapping criteria provided by Edexcel. This ensure and support me in my scheme of work that there is combination of delivery for the learners in my own lessons to boost their real life skills and make them inclusive in the lesson.

According to the Warnock Report:

The purpose of education for all learners is the same; the goals are the same. However the help that individual learners need in progressing towards them will be different.

(DES 1978)


A source of information is;

"Anything that you utilize to augment your coaching or learning strategy, or whatever you make your students to work with, can be termed a learning aid or a learning resource". (Reece & Walker, 2000:195)

In this section I am discussing all the actions and resources I take advantage of in my coaching.

I will be critiquing the number of activities and resources that are available to me in my place of work and curriculum area. I will also analyse the talents and problems of the resources, and, describe and examine how these resources are modified to meet the needs of my learners to promote inclusive learning.

As Wilson shows, resources are the equipment and products that a professor will use to market learning. They can be classified just as that learner styles are labeled and for that reason a teacher will be able to choose resources to meet specific needs, thus differentiate to meet learner needs.

The purpose of using activities and resources for a educator is;

"To increase the probability of keeping interest, holding attention and increasing the speed of learning" (Walkin: 2000; 95).

Reviewing Resources

"Teachers worried about the facilitation of learning alternatively the function of teaching organise their time and work rather diversely than conventional educators. Instead of spending great blocks of your time organising lesson programs and lectures, facilitative instructors focus on providing all sorts of resources that can give students experiential learning in accordance with the students' needs". (C Rogers; 186; 1996)

Resources are used to measure the learner's interest as well as bringing some realism into the lessons.

The main resources and activities which I found in my teaching consist of:

Interactive Mother board (Group activities)




Text book

Workbooks/Worksheets (Individual activities)


Flipcharts (Group activities)

Games (Group activities)

Posters (Group activities)

Internet websites

Digital Camera

Newspapers/Periodicals/Books (Person and group activities)

People/Guest speakers


The learners I train should work on their individual task work taking a audio, visible and kinaesthetic resources available to them in a facilitating environment. I am going to discuss the uses of some of these resources which I commonly used and how they are modified to the learner's needs and promote inclusive learning.

These resources are as follows:

Games using Interactive panel are generally seen as fun and have been quite effective in building human relationships and permitting the new learners to feel a part of the team, motivating music as well as visible skills. Task centered discussion cards on different topics have worked really well and have amazingly been some of the sessions which may have been the most constructive.

I could summarise the session by requesting them the way they felt about participating today's time, what assumptions that they had previously made and how those may have transformed. Similarly, in terms of media argument the TV has been used and we have discussed sociable and business issues via the utilization of films and chat shows.

Use of surveillance cameras has been a positive source of information for the course and help me to market inclusiveness in my sessions as some of my Btec learners give inclination to practical pursuits like role play and display rather than survey writing. The pictures and saving clips taken produce excellent information for folders, skills and help them reflect on past activities.

The Photocopier is another important learning resource as it is in regular use and is vital for copying learner's help evidence and allows staff to photograph handouts and reading material. When working with handouts it is essential to provide pictures and clear wording to add learner's who are afflicted by dyslexia. Also, the teacher needs to be mindful of stereotypical images, reading and understanding levels and negative terminology when providing handouts.

Flipchart is another tool which I frequently use atlanta divorce attorneys day teaching. In a recent I used flip graph to go over 'verbal and non verbal' communication.

I always make sure I've a good shade variety of marker pens and I firmly connect the flipchart newspaper to the stand, facing the learners.

At beginning of this procedure, I asked the learners to make clear what 'verbal and non verbal communication' means to them. The flipchart was written on by the learner's while in its standing up position at the front of the group, which involved them waking up and walking to leading of the course. I came across most learners, when asked, were pleased to pen their ideas before the class. This is best for self-confidence and the flipchart found in this way can also help the students, empathise with the problem of classroom management. One gal especially loved this and was very eager to work with her leadership qualities to inspire the group to call out answers.

Dynamically, in the next task in this time, I used the flipchart newspaper and located it onto furniture, with papers, business mags, glue, highlighters and scissors. I asked the learners to go over with in group trim images and wording out, and form their own verbal and non verbal poster. Utilizing the flipchart in this manner allows for kinaesthetic, aesthetic and auditory stimulus. This motivated other learner's to get involved. The use of different coloring markers was also important for visual stimuli and helped all the learners feel included. This promoted an interactive and autonomous class environment. I was able to accomplish this exercise by causing vocal tips to keep them alert, this appeared to work and maintained them all involved.

Differentiation is another very important aspect to consider when planning lessons and resources. Differentiation is "wedding caterers for the needs of all learners to reduce obstacles to learning" Wilson, 2009;396

When considering differentiation, it is important to consider factors such as below, in order to ensure the resources and the lesson suit and meet up with the needs of all learners. These factors being;

Learning styles





Prior learning and experience


Specific learning complications; dyslexia, ADHD.

In my coaching I identify for different needs by doing the following:

Using coloured newspaper for special need learners when doing handouts/worksheets

Use of different fonts/font sizes

Assigning Learner Support Assistants to learners who require it

Having extension duties/activities for further able learners

Different tasks/questions for lower/higher level learners

So finally, In planning and providing lessons I take advantage of a range of inclusive activities and resources to promote and keep maintaining an inclusive learning environment you need to include all learning styles. Planning differentiation using extension activities and encouraging learners to choose their preferred method of learning, where possible also causes inclusive learning in my classroom. Additionally it is a legal requirement to encourage the participation of most learners, by promoting equality and variety. Leicester University is committed to offering educational opportunities to a variety of students.


The basic principles of teaching relate with effective communication and should be visible within the lessons plan. By communication is intended the whole environment of effective teaching.

Effective Communication with learners:

The first account is the area environment, which is area of the preparation. There are a variety of room seats arrangements possible, and I've attempted several.

One problem area is verbal. A tutor who mumbles to the table, who swallows words, who speaks in a monotone manner, who says unexplained complex and specialist terms, who does not repeat things and speaks too quickly, is less effective

There are non-verbal barriers to communication too. A teacher needs to have the right physical appearance. For myself, as a cognitive co-learner, I prefer a more casual dress style but if I was too scruffy then it might look as if I did not care and attention or was not professional.

To become a effective teacher, I have to talk to my fellow workers with in my own department or beyond your department because of their advise and experience to boost my teaching and management as CTL.

Feedback to CTL regarding learners behaviour and absentees

Advice from curriculum area administrator regarding course cost sheet.

Standardisation meetings with associates to maintain good degree of standard.

Ask advice to inside verify person, to enhance the task briefs.

Request to admin staff for different accounts, timetable and room changes. Sort out learners EMA/ALG payments etc.


Taking thought of the course which I am leading in my curriculum area, I identify the value of LLN&I 2 yrs ago, once i was involved in the functional skills delivery and go to training regarding "embedding functional skills into vocational subject matter".

In this year Btec specification there may be clear suggestions about which useful skills should be strategically integrated into the teaching of each subject.

As a practioner I apply least main in literacy, dialect, numeracy & ICT skills to boost my very own practice by following below points

At the start of the academic year my job is to analyse the LLN & ICT needs of the learners, through primary assessment and Specific Learning Programs (ILPs)

Taking the LLN & ICT needs into consideration when prepared my teaching time which include different activities to pay LLN & ICT skills.

Use of different resources which support minimum central effectively.

Evaluate the potency of LLN & ICT delivery within the prepared learning session to boost and support learning.


Talking about my strength I can detailed up few that i think I am good as a teacher.

knowledgeable in my subject area

Able to adjust lessons to numerous learning styles and capacity levels

Excellent communicator

Good class room management

In summarised I believe that I am always enthusiastic and supportive. I encourage learners for success and whenever you can make an effort to ensure that group ideas and plans are achieved. I promote optimism by exhibiting positive attitudes about the future, e. g. course development or job potential clients.

Although above strength makes me assured teacher, but I believe I have to polish my knowledge and experience in area of LLN & I and learn how to adapt LLN & I better in my lesson ideas.


Yvonne Hiller (2005, pg81) says that, '. . . Kolb's pattern accounts for how people can abstract generalizations from a concrete experience and devise ideas for future experimentation predicated on their reflections. . . ' Using Kolb's routine as a principle in my own reflective practice, I've learnt that by utilizing a feedback strategy, I could listen to my students about my delivery, and I can see where I could reinforce my teaching; and make advancements in the manner I address the lessons and students. I have learnt as well that by approaching my students within an Unconditional Positive Respect (UPR) they feel relaxed with the new environment and the new knowledge acquire, as they can see i am there with those to help them rather than to judge their learning. Reflecting as well, on my own earlier learning experience, and combining it with my new knowledge from ideas; I have learn clearly what happening when learning process is occurring and how I can reinforce and use strategies in a good way to support my students.


In finish, and in my own personal opinion anybody who want to become a facilitator need to be aware of these approaches and more, to be able to meet students needs. Behaviourism and Cognitive way interact so we the facilitator can offer appropriate help to our learners and learnt as well from them.

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