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The Violence In The 'North american Psycho'

This chapter is targeted on examination of violence occurring in the booklet North american Psycho, depicting the effect of excruciating torturing images on viewers and detailing possible meanings of precise brutal moments.

3. 1 FAMOUS BRUTAL SCENES

The novel's reception was a controversial theme right from the start of its publication because the reserve has paradoxically reached its fame mostly thanks to approximately 5% of its complete content, where the numerous kinds of assault are defined in a great depth. ѕThe various murders and acts of torture could be seized upon as effectively really the only content price scrutinizing; and considered in addition to the remaining book, they are simply so objectionable that the "meaning" of the book could be reduced to sensationalist exploitation. " (p. 24)

Why, indeed, are viewers so astonished and shocked by detailed displays describing torturing, erotic violence and cruel killing? It is only what marquis de Sade depicted in his catalogs two hundred years back. In the complete era nobody, not Ellis, has made up anything new plus some passages are even motivated by de Sade: using animals for torturing victims, pouring acid onto genitals or arrangement of victims so that they appear to be crucified.

Unlike during reading de Sade, here the disgust from reading such bestialities is intensified by an extended waiting for the horror. De Sade is mostly disgusting from the beginning to the end but in North american Psycho a audience is obliged to undergo one third of the publication, which has never-ending enumerations of brand names, luxurious overcharged restaurants and people's labels that are neglected easily. It is just a long waiting around and catching some hints that do not uncover any depth of its interpretation yet. Therefore this little bit of dialogue ends up as a cynic response instead of a genuine confession:

ѕPatrick is not really a cynic, Timothy. He's the young man nearby, aren't you honey? "

ѕNo, I'm not, " I whisper to myself. ѕI'm fucking evil psychopath. "(p. 19)

During the waiting, comments in regards to a brain in a refrigerator or bloody bed linens occur there however the first real narrated take action of violence is described after one third of the whole book. After a time consuming explanations a audience is confronted with something, which activates his creativity very brutally. As yet there was no need to endeavour; it was just passive acquiring of boredom.

These notoriously famous extracts are (not only by feminists from Country wide Organization for Women ) considered to be a detailed instruction manual how to wipe out women. Indeed, it's the matter of reality that feminine victims do show up more regularly than anyone or other things here but Patrick Bateman also decides men, children and even pets or animals. The choice often seems to be driven by instantaneous decision. And although the explanations are add up to a high-quality food preparation menu ѕHow to prepare a head detail by detail", overwhelming bulk of people ought to know their own limitations of hurting other folks and call such murderer a beast. This designation is not so proper. Needless to say, humans do show common behavior with animals - they both battle to make it through, they defend their territory and they defend themselves when sense in a menace. The one with best ready weapons wins; that is the legislations of the jungle. But only humans torture and destroy for his or her own pleasure and gratification.

3. 2 PROFILE OF THE SERIAL KILLER

For the whole time the key phrase ѕmass murderer" looks in the e book; for example Patrick uses this specific term for labelling himself, his friends such as this lexical collocation when discussing famous serial killers, which is Patrick's most liked reading, and so on. Faktem vak je, ѕe toto oznaЌen je chybn. Masov vrazi vyvraѕd mnoho lid ve stejnou dobu na stejnm mstє, kdeѕto sriovЅ vrah sv obєti likviduje postupnє a v delm Ќasovm єseku. Patrick je bizarnm pkladem vraha sriovho. Jako dal znm vrazi tohoto typu, i on se jev jako potomek fantazijnch vЅtvorЇ symbolЅze de Sade uvedenЅch v praxi, ovem jetє vce a intenzivnєji.

To understand what "serial killer" in connection with Patrick Bateman more properly, it is vital to describe the entire characteristics of serial killers first.

Family is the first and most important cultural group every person gets in touch with. Members of a family, mothers most importantly of them, have the primary influence on a child's personality and its own development. Unpredictable, abusive or too rigorous family members often cannot talk about their descendants as properly as it would be in a normal, useful family. Typical feature hidden within the childhoods of many serial killers is sexual molestation practiced in it by members of their own families. The other features are alcoholism, unlawful former or personality disorders. Children brought up in these conditions often follow these cases. Negative effect on males is also triggered by over-domineering mothers who raise their sons in the shadow of the superior woman personality.

In their childhoods there may be seen bedwetting by practically teen get older and fascination with open flame (caused usually by them). The less repeated but still common is torturing weakened pets or animals and sexually enthusiastic proposals to children of the same age group.

In spite of the cruel conditions they increase up in, such people tend to be characterized by the IQ that is highly above the standard range (which means 130 points and even more), although some of them have IQ only on the average level. For example, mixed IQ of the famous cannibalistic couple, Henry Lee Lucas and Otis Toole, was only about 160 tips.

Despite being very intelligent, they are really neither successful at school nor throughout their working service providers. In overwhelming majority of cases murderers find only menial careers as manual workers and they are not able to keep it for a long period of the time.

As significantly as their appearance is concerned, they are generally white men below the age of forty. Their physical appeal is undoubtedly poor and they often do not know hot to treat other gender in long-term human relationships.

Patrick is and extraordinary serial killer, indeed. Many of these quality features do not apply on him. There is very little information about his family; just a brief reference to his mother, dad and brother Sean, but nothing about any pathological behavior taking place in their family. Patrick's IQ is probably quite high, though it is not mentioned anywhere. Readers can only estimate it as they read his narration. But he has no troubles keeping his job, his long-term romantic relationship with Evelyn is nothing at all complicated for him and his physical elegance is appropriate as to the is required from son from the upper-class society.

The most dazzling fact which does not really match a profile of the common serial killer is the choice of methods and victims. Patrick's head is apparently available to any idea, no matter how uncomfortable it is. Thus a reader learns various varieties of using a nail gun, jumper cables or even cream cheese to inflict insufferable pain. He indeed usually does indeed use a knife or a gun but does not seem to truly have a favourite tool or tool unlike genuine serial killers, who preferred just one type of eliminating for their whole ѕcarrier". The famous Boston strangler used only his own hands to choke women to death, Peter Kurten's most liked tool was a hammer, Ed Gein ѕThe Leatherface" loved his chainsaw and so on. Patrick is not so monotonously oriented. Vєtinou na sv obєti vyzkou nєkolik things a db na to, aby obєҐ ped smrt co nejvce trpєla. It is often doubtful whether in the end the fatality is brought on by pain, exhaustion, exsanguinations or fright.

Patrick is also a cannibal. From time to time he consumes parts of his individuals victims, but the reason is attention and insanity alternatively than perverse tastes or even some type of a feeling of inside connection with the person. Within the unshot, people as specific personalities mean nothing for him:

"while I grind bone and extra fat and flesh into patties, and even though it does sporadically permeate how unacceptable a few of what I'm doing is, I simply remind myself that thing, this gal, this meats, is little or nothing, is shit" (p. 332)

This sheer emotional impasibility is typical for malignant narcissists, who are organised social murderers experiencing lack of empathy, feelings of guilt and natural devotion towards other people. In spite of that, they might be quite popular in society or even thought to be being pitaѕliv a tajupln. Tento popis je Patrickovi vlastn - his attractive vzhled, uhlazen chovn i spoleЌenskЅ status, as well - to ve svєdЌ pro vysokou spoleЌenskou prestiѕ a s tm spojen egocentrick chovn. Tyto povrchn єdaje mnoha lidem okolo nєj obvykle staЌ, aby si vytvoili svou vlastn chybu prvnho dojmu. And their view is well-founded. What reason could such a good looking and rich young man have to destroy on a massive scale without remorse? And who would he actually choose as his victims?

Z єdajn stovky obєt, ke kterЅm se Patrick pozdєji piznv for an answering machine, se do narrated parts dostane pouze mal Ќst of these: dark-colored homeless Al and his dog, prostitutes, ex-girlfriend, colleague from work, small child. . . This is the incomplete list of Patrick's victims and here are two facts - the victims do not know each other plus they result from assorted cultural classes and ethnical groupings. The latter the first is highly improbable occurrence for a serial killer for such murderers are focused on a specific kind of individuals, most of which are young women or prostitutes, but children or ethnic minorities are common, as well. The within rule appears to be clear - one murderer per one kind of victims. Patrick's guideline on the other side differs - the more the better, whoever or whatever it is.

Patrick likes playing with other's fates. Most importantly it is him who chooses whether somebody continues to be alive or whether they die.

"I'm wanting she realizes that this would have took place to her no matter what. That she would have finished up lying here, on the floor in my apartment, hands nailed to content, cheese and cracked glass forced up into her cunt, her brain damaged and bleeding crimson, no matter what other choice she may have made; that if she had gone to Nell's or Indochine or Mars or Au Bar rather than M. K. , if she acquired simply not used the cab with me to the Upper West Side, that all could have happened anyway. I would have found her. " (p. 315)

It is like Patrick can predict what goes on in the foreseeable future because he himself is the main one and the one inventor of the impending events. So welcome to his own world of horror.

Jakkoliv misogynn se zd bЅt PatrickЇv postoj vЇЌi ѕenm, je dЇleѕit poznamenat, ѕe prvn vyprvєn akty nsil are comitted against men and pet dogs, first of which is a homeless Al and his dog Gizmo. Al je Ќernoch a jeho zmrzaЌen Patrickem je vyjdenm tdn nenvisti, kter je navc podpoeno dvєjm obrzkem Patricka, krЌejcho through the antigue district below Fourteenth Street. ernoi mu zde nabzej split and ѕsomeone in a Jean-Paul Gaultier topcoat takes a piss in an alleyway. " (p. 123) The avenues are soiled and messy a potuluj se zde podivn lid. This isn't where Patrick belongs to. This isn't his area of the city. Why not make it smaller plus more vulnerable by mutilating a bit of that? The invisible allegory on basic class hatred is apparent here as the upper-class consciousness is built up on loathing everything that is not rich, powerful and white, which is merely different. The best they can do for these people is to have a piss in their 1 / 4.

The other serves of violence devoted against men are murders. First an old queer and his sharpie and then Paul Owen, his acquaintance and a well-known figure in the upper-class contemporary society. Associated with the same thing for both of these - envy. Sharpei is a desired dog of Patrick's so he's jealous about the old man running a perfect one and Paul Owen is accountable for the legendary Fisher account, a precious stone among rocks of the investment-banking world.

Aѕ doposud se nijak neprojevil jeho sexuln apetit, a pokud ano, lo o bezvЅznamnЅ pohlavn styk with no show of ferocity. But it is the first episode with the two prostitutes, Christie and Sabrina, a reader gets the impression of Patrick behaving in an unhealthy way towards women.

"I stand up and walk over to the armoire, where, next to the nail gun, rests sharpened coating hanger, a rusty butter knife, matches from the Gotham Pub and Grill and a half-smoked cigar; and turning around, naked, my erection jutting out in front of me, I carry these items out and explain in a hoarse whisper, "We're not through yet. . . " One hour later I am going to impatiently cause them to the door, both of them dressed and sobbing, bleeding but well paid. Tomorrow Sabrina will have a limp. Christie will most likely have an awful black vision and deep scratches across her buttocks brought on by the cover hanger. " (p. 169)

The women are terrified and wounded but nonetheless alive. And viewers are given nothing but a hint, which irritates their creativeness. They only know the finish of the episode because Patrick as the inventor of occasions to vyjaduje naprosto precisely in the foreseeable future form.

Substantiation of the images about Patrick hurting and injuring women occurs for the first time in section called "Lunch with Bethany". Bethany is an ex-girlfriend of Patrick's. They satisfied coincidentally and she asked him for lunch time. During their getting together with Patrick found her guilty of two important things. ". . . she confesses that her sweetheart is Robert Hall, the chef and co-owner of Dorsia, that restaurant of which Patrick does not have any success in scheduling desks; and she instructs him, giggling, that his award objet-d'art, his David Onica painting, is hung upside down on his living room wall membrane. She has thus one-upped him socially as well as culturally, . . . " (p. 41) So she needed to die. And now, finally, all the expected but inexplicit happenings happen: nailing her hands to the ground, biting her hands off and eating them, slicing her nipples off and chopping her tongue. How can readers be prepared for that? For such explosion of bestiality and torturing madness. Is this little or nothing else but what Patrick has been doing to women at all times concealed behind the face mask of credibility? Is this what he has been steering clear of in his narration as yet? At the end of all, this may be the way his world works and he just wants showing what he is able to do as a vengeance, as a defence of his gigantic ego.

However, these abnormalities do not end with Bethany. Au contraire. se zd, ѕe od tto chvle se spe stupЛ†uj. Bєhem druhho setkn uѕ Christie ani ta druh one (tentokrt je to nєjak dvka jmnem Elizabeth) naѕivu nezЇstanou. Dvє dal dvky, Tiffany a Torii, jsou take zmasakrovny. Za absolutn top v Patrickovє kreativitє je povaѕovna epizoda s krysou being lured into a girl's vagina poten sЅrem Brie. In cases like this Patrick is not even thinking about the girl's name.

Patrick does not know overall majority of his victims. People from lower-class population just do not participate in his world of luxury and others, like Bethany or policemen (many of them he shots in section "Run after, Manhattan"), aren't part of his social world. Bethany was his partner at college nevertheless they broke up many years ago so they do not talk about any common acquaintances. Policemen or other victims from regular middle-class culture, for example his neighbour Victoria or the child in the zoo, are just anonymous to anyone he is aware of and therefore there may be no future connection with Patrick as a think.

But then there still remains Paul Owen, a person popular to everyone. Possession of Fisher bank account, with a set of advantages and privileges, makes him to be an icon for Patrick and his friends. It is an absolute need to access the bottom of the unknown that Paul Owen is the right person to own such an admirable bank account and what pluses there are included. A tak Patrick zamluv stЇl v Texarkanє a snaѕ se z Paula vythnout informace. Ale Paul je ochoten sdєlit pouze povrchn, banln informace a odvd od tohoto tmatu pozornost. Big miscalculation, because later it is such a pleasure for Patrick to vyuѕt pleѕitosti that Paul Owen is completely confident that Patrick Bateman is actually Marcus Halberstam, and trim him into portions with his axe. Then he goes to Owen's apartment, leaves a message in his answering machine (jeho hlas je tomu Owenovu єdajnє aѕ incredibly similar) and "sends" him to London.

Some time after that occurrence he uses Owen's apartment for the most detrimental imaginable torturing and getting rid of two females; Tiffany and Torri (both of them mentioned above). So not only does he wipe out his "god of the investment-banking world", he also znesvєtil his temple. Along with the most ironic simple fact about that? Kdyѕ je Patrick vyslЅchn detektivem, vyetujcm zmizen Paula Owena, zjist, ѕe tento detektiv jiѕ pro nєj alibi dvno m.

"Now where were you?" He laughs.

I have fun too, though I'm not sure why. "Where was Marcus?" I'm almost giggling.

Kimball continues smiling as he appears me over. "He wasn't with Paul Owen, " he says enigmatically.

"So who was he with?" I'm laughing still, but I'm also very dizzy.

Kimball opens his book and for the first time provides me a somewhat hostile look. "He was at Atlantis with Craig McDermott, Frederick Dibble, Harry Newman, George Butner and"- Kimball pauses, then looks up - "you. " (p. 263-264)

Mutual interchangeability performs its special role here as Patrick learns that v den Owenova zmizen byl єdajnє se svЅmi pteli at Atlantis. And Marcus Halberstam was there, too. So is it just another coincidence and distress of names made by someone else or was Patrick really at Atlantis and now he does not remember it? Would it not be possible that he just made the murder up?

Patrick as a murderer combines many styles, tools, weapons and most significantly completely different kinds of individuals. With a great amount of exaggeration, his head could provide as a handbook for serial killers called ѕHow to spend your leisure time in a creative way". Such a account could not actually fit into just one single person. Ellis has generated an assortment of various psychopaths, which is prepared to wipe out absolutely anyone and anything. He admits, though, that it's much more impressive for him to eliminate somebody who had a worthwhile former, built personal carrier and was bounded by many people who miss them.

"It's so much worse (and more enjoyable) taking the life span of anyone who has hit his / her prime, who gets the beginnings of a full history, a partner, a network of friends, a job, whose loss of life will upset a lot more people whose convenience of grief is limitless when compared to a child's would, perhaps damage many more lives than simply the meaningless, puny fatality of this young man. " (p. 288)

Thus Patrick feels only a mournful despair to get killed a small boy with no real history. And it could be easily assumed that getting rid of animals is not so enjoyable, as well, unless there's a direct connection with who owns a particular canine.

Patrick is a serial killer, a necrophile, a cannibal, a erotic sadist, an innovative murderer and so on, except being truly a pedophile. These deviations show that Patrick is targeted on him being in superiority over his weaker victims. Additionally, it may imply that he chooses this way to compensate some kind of inferiority complex of his. But where will it really come from?

The answer appears to be really simple and you will be closely analysed in the next area of the chapter "Violence". His complex has its origins in the interchangeability of individuals individuals. Patrick desires to be exceptional in some way, in order long as it isn't easy for him to be recognised in the culture where money has its primal role, he will be looking for another area where he can rule.

3. 3 Electric power OF IMAGINATION

If a person feels hated, intimidated, humiliated, neglected or disregarded by the other people, they escape with their own world where they create their own guidelines and nothing bad can happen to them because they're masters of the fantasy. How can this match Patrick? Without the doubts, he is a good looking, young, successful and abundant man but attentive readers notice that there are a few rozpory, kontrasty, zarѕejc fakta in the booklet that show Patrick is much less perfect as he seems to be for the first vision or as he thinks. To begin with, he goes to work but he is never seen to be actually in a working process (because he never is). There is no need for him to work because Pierce&Pierce belongs to his family. All he does is having set up sessions in luxurious restaurants by his secretary Jean. Then readers find out other surprising irrefutable facts. Patrick gets the worst business card among his friends and co-workers, he is permanently unsuccessful in booking dining tables in Dorsia; the most prominent restaurant in the town, he is not able to buy good-quality drugs or get a limousine for Evelyn and he cannot bear in mind one of Tom Cruise's famous videos when talking to him in a lift. In the end these discoveries visitors are forced to conclude that he's not capable of living among such demanding and snobbish upper-class people. In fact, he is not able to cook anything. When he attempts to get ready a girl's brain as a meal, he admits having never cooked properly before.

Patrick is caught in what Gregory Bateson in his work "Steps to an Ecology of Head" called "increase bind". ". . . - a situation in which whatever a person does indeed, he can't succeed. It is hypothesized that a person caught in the two times bind may develop schizophrenic symptoms. " (p. 201)

Patrick tries really hard to make a good impression but all that happens is that he just preserves his status to be an interchangeable number of the upper-class population as he does not own any valuable possession admired by others (unlike for example Paul Owen and his Fisher bank account). In the world of male dominance he will not differ at all because it is only money and image that counts. Since he has nothing at all more to include than sufficient sum of money and reasonable image, his imagine being exceptional and recognised cannot become actuality. Here, the impossibility to gain is symbolized by Patrick's common existence that is not enough for him. Solution could be (imaginary) break free to a location where he has remarkable power over others.

Patrick does not seem to be a schizophrenic, though, of course, if he really is, then his mental decease is probably in its early stage. His behavior demonstrates minimal symptoms associated schizophrenic personalities. But "minimal symptoms" still does not imply "none". Although Patrick is apparently fully conscious almost all of the time, sometimes there are vulnerable moments he is captured in. Chapters "A View of a Thursday night Afternoon" and "Run after, Manhattan" end in the center of sentence. It looks as though Patrick during his narration all of the sudden fainted or lost consciousness. Everything is so puzzling and puzzled, including him. He may have been drugged or this disorganized thinking was a clear proof his continuing mental splitting. It only contributes to questions that have been irritating readers' minds for a long time: Does he really murder? Is he a terrifying serial killer? Is it not only a hoax via Patrick's sick head?

It has been recently noticed that a few of Patrick's deeds are highly doubtful; Paul Owen's murder most importantly. The majority of his victims were potentially supposed to provide as a revenge for offences against his infantile ego: the sharpei, Bethany or dark-colored homeless Al. Considering Patrick's pathetic effort to get that promotion and his systematic inability in everything he does (except killing), readers may be met with the hesitation whether it is a genuine, real revenge or maybe imaginary the one that takes place only in his fantasies.

The most bewildering thing that even promotes these thoughts is the great amount of women Patrick has butchered. The overall idea would be that there should be a huge hatred inside that man. The explanation for killing so a lot of women can have two absolutely different explanations.

First, his partner Evelyn is wii way to obtain intimacy, love and desire for his personality that might be sufficient for him. Nor is Patrick successful to make deep impression after (???) other women. He is merely an empty pack to them with nothing fascinating inside. Evelyn doesn't have to value Patrick's pastimes because she has her own ones. Prostitutes do not wonder what Patrick's job is basically because it is enough to allow them to be well paid by him. Courtney just would like to have sex with him. Therefore Patrick has his revenge on assorted women for the lack of their (standard female's) interest.

The second justification is a controversial one - Patrick may be considered a gay who hates women just from a homosexual rule. Many homosexual men are temporarily struggling to endure their orientation and sometime they loathe or injured either objects with their needs or women who are not found attractive for them any longer. Thus they try to solve their issues with sexual id. Therefore eradicating women is also revenge for Patrick. It's possible that he does that as some sort of compensation. It really is fact that he believes some of them are fairly and the guy can rate them but as far as the usage of these can be involved, their mind and heart and soul is deeply underestimated. There is nothing but flesh that remains, and even love-making start flesh is not reasonable for him.

Series of confrontations with Luis Carruthers could possibly be the key proof of Patrick's latent homosexuality. First of them happens at Yale Team. Patrick chov odpuzujc pocity vЇЌi Luisovi because, relating to him, Luis is a pathetic jerk with a lame sense for fashion and paradoxically blessed man to be going out with with such attractive woman (Courtney). It is just a momentary idea to kill him so he attempts to achieve that in the men's room while Luis is pissing into the toilet. But this is often the point break where Patrick as a killer fails. Through the strangulation Luis becomes around and kisses Patrick's wrist. His sixth sense somehow told him it was an extended expected job of love. Patrick is out of the blue frozen; not only unable to kill him but even not capable of expressing anything insulting. Given how effectively and heartlessly he normally kills his victims, this look at will need to have been a whole inability for him.

When they meet again, Patrick says he does not find him "sexually attractive", which is something a little different than telling him that he is not really a gay. Luis is which means only one Patrick cannot get rid of even if he sought and designed to. No one can be absolutely sure about Patrick's sexual orientation but that man, Luis Carruthers, stayed alive for one reason - he is a homosexual - and this is the only real truth that is kept.

The violence in the booklet could be comprehended on the level of fantasy. It really is Patrick's revenge for interpersonal insults determined against his fragile ego as well for his potential failure to put on with that idea that he might be a homosexual; the inability to admit he is one particular he treats with contempt.

His ridiculous living throws him into the imaginary position of an effective killer as often as possible and maybe too often because sometimes it appears he is struggling to recognise whether particular event really took place or not.

Let's have a look at Paul Owen's circumstance. Patrick reputedly murdered him in his own apartment, got rid of his body, "sent" him to London and later used Owen's apartment for the most brutal and disgusting butchering that is defined in the reserve. So far, this story has were quite credible but in the section "The Best City for Business" the stability of the narrator totally falls apart.

After time, in other words, Patrick profits to the criminal offense scene to check what occurred to the physiques (Tiffany and Torri) he still left there. However the building appears different, the keys do unfit in to the lobby door, the elevator operator is employed there (he had not been there before) and Owen's apartment has changed completely - the furniture has been changed, new equipment has been added and the wall surfaces have been painted white. The cleanness is a total opposite to what Patrick remembers. The white surfaces, above all, glow such as a metaphor of innocence. It really is a new starting of visitors' understanding to the story. Each one of these facts along create an assumption that Patrick hasn't been there before. Nothing at all could have happened here.

Nevertheless, he matches Mrs. Wolfe there, a real estate agent, who seems to know something. She may, but she'd rather just forget about it and pretend nothing happened, than lose her money for the apartment. But after all the readers revealed, they could insist this all is merely the impression given by the point of view of the narrator. Patrick is met with the disillusionment of not being the inventor of all events. This is fact which has nothing to do with what he made up in his dream. This feeling only repeats when he says Harold Carnes about Paul Owen. Not merely does Carnes blunder Bateman for Davis (later for Donaldson) but he also respect his confession as a good joke. Patrick insists he wiped out Owen but the only response he gets is:

"But that's simply not possible. . . It's not, " he says, eyeing me worriedly.

"Why not?" I shout again on the music, though there's really you don't need to, adding "You stupid bastard. "

He stares at me as though we were both underwater and shouts again, very clearly over the din of the team, "Because. . . I had formed. . . supper. . . with Paul Owen. . . twice. . . in London. . . just ten times in the past. " (p. 373)

What a wonderful coincidence! Harold Carnes possessed evening meal with Paul Owen in London - the same place Patrick acquired "sent" him following the murder. The truth is that Carnes made mistake with the surnames so he might well have possibly mistaken Paul Owen, as well. But at the end of all, it may also be Patrick who cannot bear in mind brands properly (though it is highly improbable because Paul Owen was accepted and respected by his friends and others).

When talking to Carnes, Patrick loses his temper, becomes stressed and shouts at him. Eventually, he's left by itself in doubts about himself. Performed he destroy Paul Owen? The finish of this circumstance remains open up. He failed as a narrator but he decided to include this dialogue in his narration none the less. It may have as well been the writer who made that decision instead.

What about the other victims of Patrick's? The time has just come to take into account it retrospectively. None of them of his victims was absent. Neither bodies nor their parts were found. No neighbour ever complained about experiencing chainsaw or toenail gun. No headlines or articles in newspapers about brutal murders were imprinted. Did he kill at least someone? Here, the decision is left after readers.

4. WITHIN THE MORAL AREAS OF AMERICAN PSYCHO

What is the origin of the evil that had taken control of Patrick's head? To solve this question it is effective to ask what the foundation of evil itself is. It could only exist as the contrary of good but what's the right and objective way of dividing everything into good and bad?

It is the evolution that is changing human beings right from the start of their life, encouraging their permanent need to adapt to external conditions. Those who are able to keep up with the requirements of life are usually thought to be being flexible and strong devices whereas the vulnerable ones consider them being their enemies. It works the other way round, as well, therefore the division into what is good and what is bad or evil is totally subjective point of view. The only real difference would be that the strong or powerful people do not take their so-called enemies seriously for an extended period of the time. The clue is that almost everyone sees himself a good person and judges the others accordingly. It really is an unpleasant strategy that has its original roots in animal instincts.

Above all, it's the killing instinct that has sizeable relevance here. Animals eliminate an intruder threatening their territory, they wipe out for food or in conditions to be attacked, as has already been mentioned in prior chapter. The inescapable fact is that in jungle some of them (like predators) will be better than the other ones, just like Paul Owen is definitely more powerful than Patrick. But would it indicate that Paul Owen is a terrible character? Nobody should want a predator to cover its strength. It would be absurd.

Unlike animals, some of the weak unsuccessful people comprised their own strategy of interacting with their weakness. They started to look for even weaker victims to pay their cumulated anger on.

Patrick neither defends his work position nor social status (both of these being staff of modern territorial pursuits). It really is his narcissistic ego that is repeatedly insulted, but the concept remains the same - his potential foes (judged subjectively, of course) "attack" him and as a consequence he seeks you to definitely injure or eliminate as payment. Nowadays, killing is not an instinct anymore. It has been modified in to the perverse way of handling problems and therefore it is treated as undesirable since it is not appropriate for moral rules of present culture.

Strong people created ethics, regulation and moral codex, forbidding one to kill under the risk of being punished. In so doing, they invented online cages forcing visitors to control their natural defensive intuition and then the weaklings began to be dangerous for society. They became prisoners to themselves, caged like family pets in zoo, given by creators of the law and morale and forgetting their erstwhile instincts. As the problem of fact, the risk is based on minimisation and uniformity of such people which is just what happened to Patrick in American Psycho. He (maybe) unconsciously inserted the available gate to the zoo while the stronger humans stayed outside.

So Patrick lives among strong people who are able to match the moral rules. In this case, it could be for their possible insufficient involvement in others. Patrick, in concept, desperately longs for esteem and admiration but he never extends to that.

"And later my macabre pleasure sours and I'm weeping for myself, unable to find solace in virtually any of the, crying out, sobbing 'I just desire to be adored, ' cursing the earth and everything I have been taught: concepts, distinctions, choices, morals, compromises, knowledge, unity, prayer - all of it was wrong, with no final goal. All it emerged down to was: pass away or adjust. I imagine my very own vacant face, the disembodied tone via its mouth: These are horrendous times. Maggots already writhe across the real human sausage, the drool pouring from my lip area dribbles over them, . . . " (p. 332)

This "die or adjust" is the key competence that Patrick doesn't have at his disposal. He lives in this upper-class world but only as one interchangeable unit in a public of nameless faces. Understandably, he would prefer to be another person therefore he has chosen a two times life. His everyday activity consists of using mimicries - good orientation popular, advanced understanding of expensive night clubs and restaurants and know-how of proper behaviour. Some animals accomplish that, as well; it's very useful and useful, but it continues to be just a mask. Pretence. His desire life is focused on him in superior position. Whether it is illusion or not has been kept upon the average person decision of each reader however the fact is that Patrick must hide it, no subject how truthful or far-fetched it is.

In his own world Patrick is a dreaded organiser who searches for revenge. When possible, his revenge is performed on the predators themselves, like in case of Bethany and Paul Owen. Its goal isn't only killing them, but also humiliating them entirely.

paraf. Nietzsche. . . finally, it is him who likes that exalting feeling that he's allowed to humiliate and mutilate a creature like something which is "bellow him"; or at least - in case that regulations itself, the execution of the consequence has been used in "the government bodies" -, that he is able to observed the creature being humiliated and mutilated. (p. 48)

Of course, quite step is weakening the victim. Thus Bethany was lured into Patrick's apartment and nailed to the floor and Paul was drunk and for that reason disoriented. The humiliation itself will not consist of killing them however in just how their body and ownership are cared for, because the death itself is the final abuse for both attributes. Victims forcibly end their lives struggling to survive any longer and Patrick, the punisher, loses them forever, therefore there may be nothing more to take pleasure from.

All the other murders are dedicated against obviously weaker people or family pets than Patrick is. It is pleasurable for him to start to see the suffering but even better to cause it in my opinion. He decides his victims very well - these are easy to beguile, easy to injure and without any potential chance to escape. Exactly these exact things make his life highly implausible. Everything will go well just too easily. A synthesis of something non-human and superhuman is exactly what must be covered in his skills.

If this all ever before been true, the type of law-makers could not even observe that devil terrorizing the town and breaching all guidelines? Only the intentionally blind ones. Only those who do not want to see the truthful biography of a man because the reality would be simply insufferable.

But who are those mighty authorities to make decisions about allowed and forbidden functions? Actually, no person even cares now. The guidelines have been used for years and years until they truly became just a behavior or convention that society is still alert to.

The eventual tragedy happens at the end of the publication where Patrick realizes his confession intended utterly little or nothing. He can easily see now his "masterpiece" from the relatively objective viewpoint; he gained a detached view over everything he has gone through: nonsense in the upper-class society's behaviour, trivial relationships, logic of his own life, murders he probably never determined and continuing disintegration:

"I'm having a sort of hard time paying attention because my automatic teller has began speaking to me, sometimes actually giving weird communications on the display screen, in inexperienced lettering, like "Result in a Terrible Picture at Sotheby's" or "Wipe out the President" or "Supply Me a Stray Kitty, " and I was freaked out by the playground bench that adopted me for six blocks last Monday evening ait it spoke if you ask me. Disintegration - I'm taking it in stride. " (p. 380)

There is a large probability that his problems will eventually develop in schizophrenia but also for now he is still in a position to function in contemporary society as an inconspicuous, almost unseen part. More paradoxically, he may laugh at his narration if he needs to because, whether at least a few of the horrors have happened or not, Patrick proceeded to go unpunished by the others. It is only his self-consciousness that has transformed and began to understand there is something evil inside Patrick's brain.

So why should he be so significant for viewers? Have he change anything in his world? Or possibly in viewers'? All they definitely know for certain is the fact that Patrick will not represent any historical real personality. He is just a fiction. Although visitors of books typically expect that villains will be punished for his or her bad deeds, Patrick is not.

First way of final considering him may be that he represents the collocation "stay unpunished" itself by being one of the upper-class society who is often informed to escape with troubles. The second way may irritate readers' opinions a lttle bit. For your time he might have as well served as a representation of people's brains. Not merely pathological personalities sometimes imagine reducing the attacker in two. Of course, not all people go so far using their dreams and fantasies. It can be enough to allow them to imagine verbal offence or a slap. It is better to stay with the image in one's head, though, because there is nothing worse than do something wrong by taking the "law" into one's own hands and then repent it hopelessly. Within the exclusive level there can never be any implications. It is right the contrary. By dreaming people will keep themselves on the sufficient level of self-confidence.

The real human Patrick is caged in has taught him one essential thing - staying passive is the simplest way of living. And he does indeed so, but his mind goes wild since it is simply impossible to suppress one's instincts completely. Here, morale and rules dictate the adaptation and enclose contemporary society in independent cages. Most of individuals make their cages comfortable and live their "happy" lives inside. Those unable to endure such limitation try to break the flat iron pubs around them or at least envision what it is like to be free. However they breach the rules in so doing.

To get away from from the morale methods to leave the real human zoo (which is world). For the present time, morale for folks is like zoo for pets or animals.

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