Posted at 12.01.2018
Literature review helps the researcher to find necessary data to aid the studies. Before this research is being conducted, it is necessary to examine and analyze earlier related studies and on the similar research issue. This step is vital since such review can provide valuable information about this issue. Literature review also offers a guideline for the researcher in performing the study.
This chapter presents the books review regarding the explanation of time management, students' course time, students' day to day routine and the way to improve the students' time management.
The utilization of time in daily life ranges relating to individuals. It can be influenced by the environments, surroundings, people, and the duties that they perform. The utilization of time may possibly also affect just how individuals live, no matter who they are. It is undeniable that people need the perfect time to do our day to day routines to be able to reduce stress and produce better effects of what we do.
The way we utilize time could affect just how we live. This includes students of higher learning. The way they use their time could have an impact on their performance during their studies. After that, their organization of their daily regimens might be influenced as well. However, lots of the students don't realize their usage of their time during their studies. Many of students in higher learning organizations ignore the importance of a good way to spend time during their research. The realization on good time management is essential to change the existing conditions of the students.
2. 1 Time Management
Time management can be defined as the way of how individuals control their time throughout their daily life. Time management is very important in order for us to ensure that everything and whatever we do will flow according from what we plan. Doing duties promptly is one part of a good time management. One of the good practice in undergraduate education is to focus on time on task (Chickering et al, 1987). Here, it could be related to a well-managed time. Students' perceptions on time management are different and this will lead them to different ways of handling time. This is further split into two parts, academics and cultural life.
2. 1. 1 Taking care of Academic Activities
Academic time management means that the students focus on the academic period in the classroom or collection. Students might do this maybe because of this when they are clear of other things every time they are in category. Engagement of the students will add how they use their time. This is of involvement here refers to the amount of physical and mental health energy that the students devote to the academic experience (Astin, 1984). Whenever the students believe that they have to involve in a particular activity, they will focus more on this subject where their time will definitely be allocated to that particular subject.
Students believe that enough time that they spend for academic is determined by the things or the duty that receive to them. Each particular process might take a while to complete and this affects what sort of students control their time.
2. 1. 2 Managing Friendly Life
Apart from having time for academic purposes, the students also need time for their social life. According to the definition given by the online MacMillan dictionary, social life refers to "the time that is spent enjoying oneself with friends and the opportunities to do exciting things that occurs in particular place". Having public life is important for students as they can discuss whatever problems that they are having and also decrease the stress level that they are having throughout their period of studies. It is shown that appointment students sociable and psychological needs at home, in the neighborhood, with learning companies are linked with better patterns at learning corporations, more positive behaviour and values about learning companies, and improved academic performance (Micheal E. Woolley, 2009). Thus, sociable conversation of the students are vital for their success in their studies.
2. 2 Importances of Students' Time Management
Each of everybody living have their own needs. This also pertains to students who are learning atlanta divorce attorneys part of education level. To get along well with other aspects of life, some accomplishments may be obtained by completing particular needs. Regarding to Maslow Hierarchy of Needs, suggested by Abraham Maslow (1943), every individual needs to achieve particular needs before achieving the others. In the level of safeness, time is important where this consists of the safeness of mind and body as well. This condition can be achieved by having enough time for resting and winding up.
In the TESL students' context, sufficient time means having time to relax and also recalls back the lessons discovered in class during their free time. This also pertains to the option of time to allow them to socialize with others. Students are usually occupied with their responsibilities and tasks and other issues. As normal human beings, sufficient amount of time should be accessible to make sure that day to day activities can be carried out without the problems. What it means by free time is the availability of the space of their time that's not being occupied by any activities such as classes or other duties. By having this type of space, the students may rest themselves both literally and mentally.
In order to make leisure time available, the students should however practice a good time management. Time management is vital for the students in order to achieve the right condition where they can perform their task without any issues that may influence their day to day routine. The matter of their time management is also related to the students' self-satisfaction. Student satisfaction is the subjective perceptions, on students' part, of how well a learning environment supports educational success (Celia C. Lo, 2010). Time availability is one of the factors of students' satisfactions, in which they will make time to execute their daily routine including their responsibilities or assignments well and also have enough time to rest and socialize.
2. 3 The Need for Good Time Management
A well-implemented time management may results positive outcomes or leads to what we are doing. This can be focused to the performance of the students in their class room, how they manage up using what these are doing beyond your class and exactly how they manage themselves. In a long term, a good time management skills also bestow satisfaction and true contentment (Wan Zah Wan Ali et al, 2008).
For the students, a good management of energy can help them to cope better with their day to day activities including their studies. For example, when they are experiencing too many classes in one day, their attention period is reduced, as they might be tired as the consequence of with them for previous class on a single day. This will likely definitely result in the loss of performance in class as well as low involvement in the classroom. However, if the students are experiencing flexible time throughout their entire course learning, they may be able to react or behave in a different way in classes. Time management of the students are vital to ensure the time flow should go well and without proper management of the time, the tasks designated to the students may not be completed as designed. Furthermore, the level which students can achieve particular development goals is a primary function of commitment they devote to activities designed to produce this gain (Astin, 1984).
Good time management will not only make life easier and well monitored, as we can see that students who manage their time well, they'll be more ready for the school that will need place. Relating to Campbell and Svenson (1992), cited by Misra and McKean (2000) effective time management strategies increase academics performance. Therefore, it is vital for students to manage their time properly in order to make certain that they can perform better in their study. Students will flourish in their learning if they are good in handling their life. The students who did not manage to keep their jobs or assignments routine will have troubles in dealing with other tasks down the road.
The highest stress level experienced by the students is by means of setting up themselves for examinations, the competition among themselves to get good levels and things that are related to time management (Mastura Mahfar, et al 2007). It could be said that to be able to reduce the strain level, students can change or enhance their way of handling time throughout their studies. According to Macan et al (1990), Briton and Tesser (1991), and Tureman and Hartley (1996), cited by Zulauf and Gortner (1999), time management skills and educational performance are positively related. Thus, a great time management skills will lead to an improved performance or successes during studies.
2. 4 Studies on Students' Use of Time
A study conducted by Wan Zan Wan Ali, et al (2008) entitled "Kemahiran Pengurusan Masa Pelajar Universiti Tempatan: Position Dan Hubungannya Dengan Pencapaian" or "Time Management Skills Among Local Colleges Students: The Status and Correlation with Achievements" is to learn how Malaysian universities students deal with their time and how exactly does it influence their achievements throughout their studies. A complete quantity of 3025 students from seven general public and two private colleges across various research participated in the analysis. Data was gathered using a group of questionnaire and examined descriptively using t-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation. Findings of this study found that generally, time management skill of the respondents was generally at modest and significant variations were founded between gender, 12 months of research and areas of research.
In another study conducted by Brint and Cantwell (2008) entitled "Undergraduate Use And Academics Results: Results From UCUES 2006" reported that category attendance and out-of-class analysis time are regarded as strongly associated with academic engagement and college or university GPA. This means that the way students manage their time for classes and exterior learning have an impact on their grades. The analysis was done by focusing on two other uses of energy as influences on academic results, which includes the students who are devoted to productive engagements with friends and community as opposed to passive entertainments, and students that connect time consumption to campus life, rather than separating them from campus life.
The finding of the study leads to the actual fact that "activating" uses of your energy are associated with higher levels of academic engagement and higher GPAs. Activating here's along the way students use their time with the needs of this particular time. However, uses of the time that connect students to campus life show inconsistent results.
According to Zul Azhar Zahid Jamal (2004) explained by Wan Zah Wan Ali, et al (2008), students who can control their time properly will receive numerous benefits aside from their upsurge in academics performance.
The action of managing time can be seen as the way students put their work in spending time according to their needs on doing things or activity that receive to them. Whenever a good time management is not practised, several down sides you can do to individuals such as becoming less effective, having the sense of worries, waste a lot of precious time, being demanding and the most crucial is the failing to complete the duties or works given on time. This can be supported by the declaration where good time management can help productivity and minimise stress (Lay down & Schouwenburg, 1993).
The use of your time among students also has been researched by Wan Zah Wan Ali et al (2008) and Brint and Cantwell (2008) in their research. Both studies studies figured students have their own way of managing time where these distinctions do have an impact on the performance of the students. Corresponding to Wan Zah Wan Ali et al (2008) in the same study, time management skill of the respondents was at average and there are some differences one of the respondents, which were set up between gender, year of review and areas of research.
2. 5 Summary
Many of the studies and research stated previously listed about the importance of good time management and how it might have an effect on students performance and day to day routine. The positive results of good time management skill during studies are apparent and mentioned in many of the previous research. Apart from the benefits in academics aspect, good time management also impact students' public life where they can socialize expressing themselves with the same minute ease the stress or pressure that the students have throughout their research.