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The Use Of Leadership And Desire In Management Tourism Essay

This report is basically based on the analysis of the utilization of Management and Motivation in Management in a culturally diverse business Environment with special thought to the preferred case study is NOVOTEL Hotels in UK.

As hospitality industry it self engaging with differing people in several culture it will clearly understand how to manage this variety in hospitality industry. It could be manage in various ways. From these pathways employee inspiration and the leadership is an effective approach which is needed to be studied.

In this analysis first consideration was given to clearly identify the books record of the three principles as leadership, determination and cultural diversity through the analysis of theories, concepts b y looking at articles, publications, web articles, literature etc.

Then after that the consideration was presented with to the case study including identify the business and its situation and the way the organization handles the cultural variety by using the authority and the determination. Then predicated on the research study, analysis and conclusions were discovered.

As a standard this study is targeted on studying the importance of cultural diversity as a musical instrument for improved upon organizational development without great deal of thought as an administrative issue and it can be the path to increase competitive periphery and success, if it efficiently handled.

About the Organization

Novotel is one of the hotel brands of the Accor group which works in mid level headquartered in France. Novotel is Europe's major hotel string and one of 12 internationally-renowned hotel brands owned or operated by Accor, the French hotel group.

Currently they are having 400 hotels and resorts in 60 countries, situated in the centre of major international places from business districts to tourist destinations. Form those hotels there are 266 hotels in 23 countries within European countries.

So here the special awareness was given to NOVOTEL hotels in UK. The bottom level analysis was done in NOVOTEL London West.

Literature Review

The literature review of this analysis was mainly centered on three main areas. i. e Leadership, Employee Motivation and cultural variety.

Leadership

Leadership means the power and willingness to lead and encourage several people. It offers improving team performance and success as well as articulating eyesight for business improvement. Market leaders should play three important assignments in the organization namely interpersonal assignments, informational roles and decisional jobs. These roles require a range of skills such as producing peer relationships, undertaking negotiations, motivating subordinates, resolving issues, establishing information sites, making decisions with little information and allocating resources.

There are two distinctly different types of market leaders - one who works together with and through others, such as those who head organizations, associations and so on, whilst others are path leaders/visionaries such as heads of state, armed forces commanders etc. Among the many definitions of control, two can be considered the best - (a) the ability to get remarkable performance from typical people, and (b) the ability to get follower.

Basically the varieties of authority can be recognized the following:

1. Autocratic style

2. Democratic style

3. Free Rein

4. Charismatic

5. Situational

Source: Study Material. [1997]. Organizational Behaviour. Indian Institute of Management and Technology, Chennai

Autocratic Style

It may be called as authoritative or directive style too. In this style of leadership the leader centralized the power and decision making in him and exercise complete control over the subordinates. He models the group goals and constructions and strategies for work. Throughout the autocratic style of control, the group decision is relegated in a tight situation and evolves quick decision making process. Frequently this kind of leadership develops dissatisfaction among associates. But rate and efficiency are required when working in an organization, the autocratic design of leadership yield good results.

Democratic Style

This is a contrast style of management in comparison to autocratic command. Person opting for this style is similar to a theory " Y " innovator which invites decision writing. Here the authority is decentralized. The decisions are appeared after assessment with the participants. He is a participative type of head, attaches more importance to people and work. This form of leadership boosts the morale and satisfaction of employees. In addition, it avoids conflicts in the group process. The democratic style sometimes creates lethargy and laziness among users and develops heart of non-corporative often.

Free Rein

It is a full delegation of authority to the subordinates, so that they must plan, encourage and control and in any other case be accountable for their own action. The free rein style head avoids electricity and relinquishes the management position. More specifically the first choice may lack self confidence, fear or failing etc. The main problem in this specific style of authority is the fact that it tends to permit various products of an organization to proceed. When working in a group if indeed they work as a team, if the team itself very effective then this free rein style may successful, as they can work without any sort of interference.

Charismatic

This kind of management is more dominant as well as perhaps an aggregate of other management styles. This style produces strong enthusiasm and might have as its targets. The development of a 'common eyesight' - valued distributed by organizational customers. The breakthrough or creation of value related opportunities and activities within the construction of the quest and goals of the business and the introduction in associates of power and increased control of their own destinies, both independently and collectively.

Situational

This management style which changes their style depending on person or the group they are working with and on the problem. Situational style is important because people and tasks have to be handled differently, with respect to the situation and their level of development.

There are numerous key qualities of good control such to be impressive, entrepreneurial and visionary. Market leaders need to be courageous, bold and eager to decisive. Among other features is the capability to think strategically, identify the big picture and have show up back plans. Some of the main or key attributes of the leader are to motivate and motivate, be committed and encourage those around with empowerment.

Good clear communications, verbally and by body language are inherent qualities of good authority. Effective leader must explain evidently what they want, what they wish to achieve and exactly how. The capability to make one's people feel important and believe that what they do have great value are excellent virtues of good authority.

Strong, positive leadership can't be achieved without good clubs. A good leader must have the capability to pick the right people and providing training/training and ensure that they carryout responsibilities they can do best.

If we consider about the command in hospitality industry with connection with this particular study, the need for high-quality leaders in the hospitality industry has been willingly recognised and sometimes appears as significant to the long-term protection of the industry. In recent years, the industry has gone through something of any sea change in its gender structure, with increasing numbers of females graduating from hospitality and tourism administration lessons. This proposes that the gender composition of managerial position can be done to modify in the medium term, with simultaneous changes in the typical leadership style valued in the industry.

Motivation

Motivation is an inner drive to behave or take action in a certain manner. These internal conditions such as desires, wants, goals, activate to move in a specific direction in behavior. It means it can be an inner mind-set, which programs or directs behaviour towards the achievement of pre-determined goals. Which means this part is actually considering about this of research.

If we take hierarchy of needs theory by Abram Maslow, he advised that needs is accessible at a number of different levels, from basic physiological needs as hunger, and then safe practices needs like shelter, after word communal needs like love and affectionate and then esteem needs like identification and finally self esteem like power. When achieving basic needs of worker which is the physiological needs, the result of rewards are less because in this stage salary is the most important thing for physiological and protection needs. However when it comes to the esteem and social needs the effect of rewards and recognitions are high. Incentive can be a award gives at a stage, or it's rather a tea with CEO or it's rather a 1000 $ cheque for a worker gives for and accomplishment. But again when it comes to the do it yourself actualization stage the necessity people need more vitality as he has recently completed the other stages of needs in Maslow theory.

And again if we take another motivational theory which is the two factor theory by Fredrick Herzberg, he took the view at two levels, physical level and mental health level. Accordingly satisfiers are called as motivators and dissatisfies are called as hygiene factors. Consequently motivational factors of a worker in an company can be determined as achievement, acceptance, responsibility, personal expansion and for a few employees work itself a motivator. And at the same time Hygiene factors can be identified as working conditions, company regulations & supervision, salary, other benefits & job security, interpersonal romantic relationships, and quality of supervision.

Another theory of desire is the expectancy theory which says that an worker will be encouraged to exert to high level of effort when he or she believes that effort will lead to a good performance appraisal; a appraisal lead to organizational rewards such as benefit, salary increase or a promotion; and that the praise will meet the employee's personal goals.

There are benefits that an business can perform through the employee motivation. Following are some of the factors that people can commonly identify.

Motivation ensures better usage of resources and reduces wastage.

Motivation will bridge the difference between "capacity to work and the willingness to work"

Reduces problems like labour turnover, absenteeism, indiscipline & grievances

Improves productivity

Improves assistance and team spirit

Improves knowledge and skills among employees

Acceptance of organizational change

Reduces conflicts and misunderstanding between the employer and the employees

Cultural Diversity

What is Cultural Variety? We cannot find a common definition on social diversity, but based on the charted management institute description in 2008suggests the ethnical variety means "valuing the dissimilarities between people and the ways that those distinctions can donate to a richer, more creative and much more effective environment. "

It doesn't means only the race that your contemporary world recognizes, but also the variety can be identify as race, age, gender, sexual orientation, impairment and religious/belief. Gr¶schl and Doherty (1999) talked about that "the basic concept of controlling diversity allows that the labour drive involves diverse inhabitants of people". Among the key aspects of cultural diversity is the fact paying amount to assorted dynamics is not only an moral responsibility, from the business essential.

In a business the need of interacting with a diverse workforce will be needed the 'diversity competence'. From these competencies effective cross communication is the most crucial factor when working with the cultural diversity. The features needed for effective cross-communication can be recognized as follows.

The capability to simply accept the relativity of others own knowledge and perceptions

The capacity to be non-judgemental

A tolerance for uncertainty

The capacity to understand and communicate admiration for other's ways, backgrounds, values and beliefs

The capability to show understanding

The capability to be flexible

A determination to realize new patterns of behaviour and belief

The humbleness to recognize what one does not know

Apart from the above competencies organizations should be informed through the ethnic diversity recognition education and training. It'll lead to counteract of the beliefs of employees and they'll feel that they are simply benefiting from creating a diverse workforce may help incorporation instead of work.

Modern world has accepted that the social diversity within an organization is not really a negative aspect. This diversity may be in the organizational personnel or it might be the clients. However controlling this diversity is not really a easy job.

As above mentioned this diversity more or less can be managed by the use of effective communication. In the literatures we will get three ways to manage cultural diversity as follows.

Communicating - creating responsiveness amongst every employees on diverse ethics of peers from first to last communication

Cultivating - facilitating acknowledgement, maintain and support of every member of staff victory by every other workforce

Capitalizing - linking variety to every business treatment and plan such as series planning, reengineering, staff enlargement, performance management and review, and compensation systems

Many organizations use different solutions to manage the diversity. For example Tabra Incorporation, a miniature maker of costume jewellery and trimmings in California contains self-effacing workforce. Mainly this labor force was comprised with immigrants from many under-developed countries like Laos, Mexico, India, Vietnam, Tibet, Cambodia, and so forth. Therefore the method that utilized by the organization to provide the popularity for the value of their ethnical association, is the fact that as slightest 10 to 12 diverse flags forever hanged up from the roof of these major production service which symbolizes the countries of derivation of the labor force.

The proprietor of the organization notice as 'I would love for this to be always a miniature United Nations where everyone attainment next to and welcoming each other's customs as a substitute of just put up with it'.

Some of the authors say that the ethnical diversity is an advantage fir organizational success, if it could be managed successfully. According to Cox and Balke (1991) main benefits associated with multi-culturalism that may use for organizational success as;

Achieve cost effective competitive advantage through the effective management of multi culture companies

Helps to promote minority friendly reputation among potential employees

Ability to draw in better customers that includes a variety of social backgrounds

Various collection of workforce are evident to be more imaginative and competent in turmoil resolving as contrasted to homogenous cluster

Capability to supervise ethnical variety enlarges overall flexibility and suppleness of a business to ecological transformations

Several managerial paradigms can be identified as follows;

e. g. Hotel Nikko in Sydney Australia has exclusive border that employees of the personnel in direct visitor contact areas which differentiation in converse with thirty four diverse languages.

Similarly Qantas Journey preparing food has 66 ethnic groups on staff, through a number of overseas-born cooks. So enthusiastic varied 'social' kitchens provide Qantas a enormous competitive advantages by offering food foundations on clients cultural style and needs.

Case Analysis: NOVOTEL Hotel

Here the chosen organization for the study is NOVOTEL hotels. Novotel is one of the hotel brands of the Accor group which performs in mid level headquartered in France. Presently they have got 400 hotels and resorts in 60 countries, situated in the centre of major international metropolitan areas from business districts to tourist destinations. Form those hotels there are 266 hotels in 23 countries within European countries.

As of 2009, there are 395 Novotel hotels in 60 countries with 71 872 rooms and employs over 30, 000 employees:

Europe : 266 hotels in 23 countries

Asia : 51 hotels in 11 countries

Pacific : 34 hotels in 5 countries

North America : 7 hotels in 2 countries

South America : 19 hotels in 6 countries

Africa : 13 hotels in 10 countries

Middle East : 5 hotels in 3 countries

Novotel is Europe's largest hotel chain and one of 12 internationally-renowned hotel brands possessed by Accor, the French hotel group.

In a bid to create a more distinctive offering to customers, Novotel is positively opening 'new generation' hotels. These supply the similar degrees of service as standard Novotels but quality an elegant and modern design.

Four of new hotels - Novotel London City South, Novotel London Greenwich, Novotel Edinburgh Centre and Novotel London ExCeL - have used a drama-based strategy as part of customer service training preceding to opening.

Novotel hotels are involved in the worldwide environmental and societal certification programme 'Green World'. Under this programme 124 hotels are dedicated and 50 hotels are certified by 31 December 2009.

As an leader within the hotel business, Novotel's strategy has anticipated its clients' possibility of environmental concerns and corporate cultural responsibility.

In 2007, within the scope of Accor's Globe Visitor In 2007, within the scope of Accor's Globe Guest program of lasting development, Novotel focused on an international programme of environmental and cultural certification: Green World. This assurance was selected because of its autonomy and focus on the troubles of global travel and leisure.

The key aim of this section is to find the useful data available on the study. Fundamentally in this review the secondary data will be highly required from NOVOTEL hotels group. The total annual reports, monthly information, accounts done by several departments of the business, previous researches on NOVOTEL hotels group will be the highly important books in this survey.

Apart from that study, reports, Theories, abstracts etc will also be required in this research, this will be required to identify and specify the employee drive strategies to compare with the command done by the NOVOTEL hotels. Review what are the approaches that they are using will be talked about under the analysis and studies.

Before doing the evaluation and conclusions the consideration was given to develop PEST analysis on the business in order to identify the macro environment of the business. And it'll create a better evaluation through this detailed understanding.

Political Factors

Stable Politics environment of U. K.

Growing awareness of the environmental thought, U. K Government is planning activities to ensure aviation reflects its environmental effects.

Tax on aviation petrol and VAT on air tickets. Government's taxation regulations and decision about the increasing the petrol prices have influenced the buying ability of the individuals in U. K.

Economic Factors

U. K economy is benefiting form progressive low inflation rate.

In U. K, unemployment is low. Regarding to labour market reports in Average ratio is 4. 8 per cent. When unemployment is low, Job self-confidence is high and it will lead to the self-assurance spending by consumer is also high.

The UK's lack on trade in goods and services stood at 3. 2 billion -likened with the revised deficit for January of 4. 4 billion.

Exchange rates are favourable for UK residents for exploring abroad credited to strong position of English Pound up against the other foreign currency. "Euro" used as an individual money in many European countries, is also secure resistant to the other foreign currency.

The drawback is the fact that disparities between the wealthier elements of the country, not absolutely all in the south east of Great britain, and pockets of deficiency, are certain to get wider, with implications for travel demand. These are likely to influence the expansion of the united kingdom resident travel market.

Social Factors

A great pattern has been observed in U. K human population about diet and medical issues in the modern times. This craze leads towards the necessity of more fitness night clubs and organic and natural food for the people from U. K Changes in the framework of the populace because of the immigrants from European countries, Asia and Africa etc. This will directly impact for food patterns and focus is needed from hospitality industry

Continued concerns over safety and security while travelling are found in the U. K residents.

Lifestyle changes have also been influencing the U. K travel market for a number of years. Delaying the start of the family and a rise in the number of households comprising lovers with two profits are the primary movements of the changing life style. Changing fashions also have an have an impact on on the market, but those are difficult to predict.

Technological Factors

The fast development of technology has effects on the businesses in UK and all over the world. Changes in the technology will results to change the way businesses operate i. e. Internet scheduling for seat tickets and holidays.

Faster changing development in technology creates a need to respond quickly for different businesses to be able they want to keep up with the competitive environment by providing the same ground breaking services such as meditation in hospitality industry, which their competition are offering.

Analysis & Findings

This section of the study is mainly focusing on the topic area that The use of Leadership and Determination in Management within the culturally diverse business Environment in NOVOTEL hotels. Consequently research was done by analysing how the leadership and motivation principles have been used in NOVOTEL hotels in UK in just a culturally diverse business Environment.

Organization offers Control Training

NOVOTEL hotel categories offer leadership training programmes for the personnel. Providing control for the personnel will lead for positive end result as they learn hoe to attain goals and objectives as they'll implement the knowledge for the working environment. Market leaders accept accountability and responsibility. Put them ready where they can show this. Let them achieve strategic objectives. Whenever we consider the management of the NOVOTEL hotel groupings we can identify pursuing characters.

1. Market leaders come in different flavours.

There are different types of market leaders and you will probably encounter several type. Both formal and casual leaders practice an assortment of command styles.

2. Authority is a process of becoming.

Knowledge on command theories and skills may be officially gained by enrolling in leadership seminars, workshops, and meetings by the staff. Daily relationships with people provide the prospect to see and practice authority theories. Collectively, formal and casual learning will help to gain leadership methods, gain control handy.

3. Control is shared.

Leadership in NOVOTEL is not the individual responsibility of one person, but instead a distributed responsibility amongst users of an growing team. A head belongs to an organization. Each member has obligations to fulfil.

Official authority positions are simply just additional responsibilities aside from their duties as participants of the team. Effective management requires members to accomplish their shared duties. Starting as several individuals, associates and leaders work in direction of the forming of a successful team. In this light, social connection plays a significant role in authority.

4. Leadership styles rely upon the situation.

Leadership is not depending on only one style even as we examined at the books review. It'll depend on the situation it means generally situational leadership will there be where in fact the management style which changes their style depending on the person or the group they are working with and on the situation.

Two types of Leaders

There are quarrels that Leadership shown and valued in the hospitality industry, that there have been two types of market leaders: "those in the hotel business and the ones in the business of hotels". Generally leaders in the hotel industry concentrate on the needs of employees and the provision of the high-quality service to friends. These market leaders are also determined as charismatic. In comparison, leaders in the business of hotels such as leaders of hotel real-estate savings trusts were found to possess exceptional financial skills.

However in the event study main recognition was done that to win in the hospitality industry the key need is for incorporate strong social skills with sound business knowledge and hotel operating skills-in effect, arguing a mixture of transactional and transformational management skills are needed to succeed in the hospitality field.

Cultural Difference

As NOVOTEL hotels are medium scale hotel group they are simply dealing with various kinds of culturally diversified customers. These ethnic dissimilarities may presence in different traits such as dialect, dress and customs, there's also significant variations in the way societies organize themselves, in their shared conception of morality, and in the ways they connect to their environment etc. Cultural variety is complicated to enumerate, but a good recommendation is consideration to be calculate of the amount of dialects spoken in an area or on the globe as a whole.

Managing Cultural Diversity

They provide training to ensuring the managing of ethnic diversity. Experts need to remove barriers to the successful incorporation of international personnel into the office and society even while benefiting all personnel, their organisations and the Irish travel and leisure product. Training programs could focus on training goals, which can be natural and job-specific. Training goals including growing worker cooperation among culturally diverse employees and increasing cross-cultural skills are an integral part of working out goals to encourage staff participation and eventually assist in making possible the gratitude of cultural disparities. Training programmes includes.

Orientation programmes are developed for recently-arrived international workers and it includes

Opportunities for career development;

British language

Skills training guides could be progressed into different languages,

for example, People from france, German, Spanish, Irish, Polish and Russian;

Ensure that service superiority programmes are result in several languages and allocated among all employees; and

develop and pilot an introductory "Welcome Workshop" open to all international

Prior to opening three flagship hotels, Novotel conducted an exhaustive two-day training program for front-of-house staff, featuring an interactive workshop on customer service. Shipped by Steps Dilemma, the rigorous course brought to life issues around dealing with customers, managing complaints and the importance of professional behaviour and appearance.

This will lead visitors to adopt to the new environment.

Employee Motivation

As some other organization motivation is a key factor that affects the daily businesses of the hotel industry. It is the key concern which pressures a worker to go over and beyond the call of work. NOVOTEL hotel group assume that employee motivation takes on an intrinsic role in their success. Accordingly organization offers quantity of benefits to the hotel staff that can be recognized as motivational factor.

Uniforms: provided and taken care of on the premises.

One meal each day in employee dining area at no cost.

Health, dental and life insurance coverage.

Employees of the month/year Administrator of the quarter/year.

Paid time off program - used for ill pay, day off, vacation.

Departmental incentives for safe practices/revenue generation/expense personal savings.

Higher pay than the other hotels: Salary increases will occur on the agenda for Union employees, or annually for non- union employees.

Promote within the personnel whenever possible. However, this is irritating because often employees suppose they are entitled to promotion based on seniority. Sometimes attendance/performance issues preclude allowing exchanges or special offers. Sometimes lack of required experience interferes. NOVOTEL Hotel trains many individuals in their jobs, even if indeed they experienced no experience; reassured jobs need a certain level of proficiency that must be developed into.

Conclusion

As hospitality industry it self engaging with different people in several culture it will clearly learn how to manage this diversity in hospitality industry. It could be manage in several ways. From these paths employee desire and the management is an effective approach which is needed to be analyzed.

In a business the necessity of coping with a diverse labor force will be needed the 'variety competence'. From these competence factors two factors are researched in this analysis as authority and inspiration through the research study of NOVOTEL hotel groupings.

Leadership in NOVOTEL is not the average person responsibility of 1 person, but instead a distributed responsibility amongst associates of an rising team. A innovator belongs to an organization. Each member has tasks to fulfil.

Prior to starting three flagship hotels, Novotel conducted an exhaustive two-day training program for front-of-house staff, presenting an interactive workshop on customer service.

Hotel group assume that employee motivation plays an integral role in their success. Accordingly they offer benefits such as Uniforms which suites with the ethnic diversity and also the hotel personality: provided and taken care of on the premises, one meal a day in employee dining room free, Health, dental and life insurance

So as an overall view of the study it can be proposed that it is very important to understand that cultural diversity as a musical instrument for improved upon organizational development without considering it as an administrative issue and it can be the path to develop competitive periphery and success, if it efficiently handled.

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