The United States Essay

Although Kennedy was surrounded by efficient and skilled military specialists, intelligent advisors, and intelligence agencies, having been not able to orchestrate the process in which these professionals can advise him with a great unbiased and a well thought-of solution. The method was mistaken for a number of crucial reasons, and ultimately led Kennedy to make the awful decision of "covertly" entering Cuba. The first reason could be caused by the heavy involvement and influence of CIA associates -Allen Dulles, and Rich Bissell without the strong resistance from other folks in the committee. These representatives were focusing on the task since the Eisenhower administration, and were so heavily used making the expedition happen that they forcefully advocated the invasion (pg. 366 Decision Making process). The CIA reps manipulated with key data such as the existence of an easy escape hatch out and about armed service support in case the bannissement fail to dethrone Castro's administration. Moreover, other individuals inside the committee did not cross-examine Dulles and Bissell in a manner that may have dislodged the faulty presumptions underpinning the plan. Even when the Joint Chiefs and people in the room such as Dean Rusk were made aware that the back up plan have been dropped, these individuals continued to assume that contingencies were in place without bringing up any concerns. The deeply held presumptions influenced by CIA associates become historical in these individuals. This is mirrored in the actions of Leader Rusk when he dismissed the referendum recorded by Chester Bowles other the invasion (pg. 369), without creating much thought.

Secondly, the CIA reps ignored and excluded essential mem...

... he scenario and whom could deliver a fresh perspective to the discussion posts forged the groupthink ambiance. Moreover, the presence of the Leader at critical meetings eliminated the psychological safety that was necessary for interpersonal making decisions within the persons. The Leader realized the importance of healthier discussions by not going to all the meetings that took place during the Cuban Missile Turmoil situation (pg. 375). In addition , the reduction of position and positions from group discussions allowed individual users to readily defend their arguments. (pg. 377). Moreover, by assigning one group to be the devil's advocate intended for the suggestions provided by the other group (blockade compared to immediate army action, pg. 377), Kennedy tackled the groupthink ambiance that was ever so present in the decision-making process in the Bay of Pigs circumstance.

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