The Two Nation Theory and Demand of Pakistan

 

TWO Region THEORY AND DEMAND OF PAKISTAN

TOPIC:

TWO Land THEORY AND DEMAND OF PAKISTAN

CONTENTS: PAGE

  • WHAT IS TWO Country THEORY- A INTRODUCTIONARY PHASE4
  • HISTORY OF TWO Country THEORY5
  • COMPARISON BETWEEN MUSLIMS AND HINDUS WITHIN THE EYES

OF TWO Region THEORY5

  • TWO Land THEORY PRIOR TO THE MUSLIM DOWNFALL6
  • WAR OF INDEPENDENCE-18576
  • HINDI URDU CONTROVERSY7
  • TWO Region THEORY AND SIR SYED AHMED KHAN7
  • CONCEPT OF TWO Country THEORY FROM HINDUS8
  • TWO Region THEORY AND ROLE OF ALLAMA IQBAL9
  • FORMATION AND POLITICS OF ALL INDIA MUSLIM LEAGUE9
  • TWO NATION THEORY IN THE Eye OF QUAID E AZAM10
  • LUCK NOW PACT 191611
  • KHILAFAT MOVEMENT AND ITS EFFECT ON TWO Region THEORY:12
  • ROLE OF TWO Country THEORY IN DEMANDING OF PAKISTAN12
  • LAHORE Quality 1940 AND DEMAND OF PAKISTAN13
  • TWO Land THEORY IMPORTANCE AT PRESENT:13
  • IMPORTANCE OF TWO Region THEORY IN WHOLE SCENARIO14
  • REFERENCES15

INTRODUCTION

WHAT IS TWO Region THEORY- AN INTRODUCTIONARY Stage:

Two Region Theory's phenomenon fundamentally sprigged up with the advancement of Islam in the Sub-Continent. The sense was very unique about Pakistan's creation that it was generally predicated on ideological commitments in the light of Islam. The essential concept behind Two Nation Theory was Muslims and Hindus was two different nations from every expects, So It was the right of Muslim to possessed their own homeland in the Muslims majority regions of Sub-Continent, where they can live their life regarding the majestic teachings of Islam. And this concept was basically adequate in supplying surge to two different political thinking that have been sensible in partition of Sub-Continent.

Quiad said:

We should have circumstances in which we could live and inhale and exhale as free men and which we're able to develop according to your own signals and culture and where principles of Islamic public justice could find free play.

The concept of Two Land Theory was given by Islam because Islam has different character types and temperament. Relating to Islam, there are just two nations in the world; Believers and Non Believers.

HISTORY OF TWO Land THEORY:

The background of Two Country was as old as the Muslims in India. Although Muslims and Hindus have been living together for years and years in the sub-continent, however they never tried to progress a working romantic relationship between the other person and they always lived as a two individual countries, two discrete cultural systems, two independent civilizations and two different civilizations. There was always a concept of two nations (Hindus and Muslim) following the advent of Islam in the Subcontinent. But, it was transformed in to a theory after the war of Independence 1857. Sir Syed Ahmed khan is recognized as a Dad of Two Country Theory. First time Syed Ahmed Khan became aware that Muslim and Hindus cannot live along and considered Muslims as another land and demanded a distinct homeland where in fact the Muslims can routines their approach to life corresponding to Islam.

Ideology of Pakistan required form through an evolutionary process. Historical experience provided the bottom, with Sir Syed Ahmad Khan started the period of Muslim self-awakening and began to aware the Muslims for modern education after Muslim downfall in South Asia under the Hindus bulk, Allama Iqbal provided the philosophical reason to Sir Syed's idea and Quaid-e-Azam recognized and converted the idea in to a sensible work and changed it into a political reality.

COMPARISON BETWEEN MUSLIMS AND HINDUS WITHIN THE Eye OF TWO Country THEORY:

There was such a huge difference between Hindus and Muslim modern culture. The major difference was of faith. Muslims were thought on the oneness of God and Hindus worshiped many gods. Their way of living, their religious festivals was totally modified. Muslims believed on the equality of men while on the other hand Hindus were divided in to different cast. In spite of living together for a long period, the Muslims and Hindus were incapable to coexist and cooperate with each other. This comparison played a great role for both Country Theory to be been around in sub-continent.

TWO NATION THEORY PRIOR TO THE MUSLIM DOWNFALL:

Muslims were governing the India for many of the years. It is true that there was no such theory when Muslims were ruling in the India. There have been no such concept of majority and minority when Mughal Emperors possessed a electric power. When British influence was increased there, so that was the time of Muslim downfall in India. As the Muslim downfall happened, then there was a period of Two Country Theory. This possibly could be for the independence from the British rule but, it's very clear that Two Nation Theory came soon after the Muslim downfall in India.

WAR OF INDEPENDENCE-1857:

It is clear that following the Muslims downfall in South Asia, British were ruled over it. So, the conflict of Independence was considering an attempt by the folks of Sub-Continent to remove the British guideline of their homeland. But that try was failed. And this influenced all the neighborhoods living there in Sub-Continent. Both Countries; Hindus and Muslims needed a component in conflict of Independence. Some provinces like Punjab and Deccan weren't in favor to support this battle but they performed partially make an effort to join this battle of Independence. Some sepoys at Noshera and Mardan tried to revolt.

The failing in this war causes a lot like political causes, economical causes, and spiritual causes, public and military causes. The Political causes including doctrine of lapse, Annoyance of rules and says, Confiscation of areas and many more. Political triggers like New Agrarian coverage, Devastation of local industry, Permanent settlement, Unemployment. A couple of Religious triggers too like Propagation of Christianity, Jihad Movements and Anti Islamic regulations.

British thought that Muslim was in charge of the Battle of Independence and for that reason Muslims were accepted as insiders. On 11 May 1857, Bahadur Shah Zafar was announced publicly as the Emperor of India. Then the Delhiwas ruled by the rebels and the Europeans, who needed refuge there, were massacred there. The killing of European military continued and the quantity of people of east provinces joined up with the rebels. On July 1857, the tide turned and Nana Sahab was defeated at Fatahpur and

later at Bithur. The British isles captured Bahadur Shah in September of 1857 and two sons of Bahaur Shah were killed by the Uk by the reason that the English residency at Lucknow was recaptured two times later.

The Sikhs and the Marhattas was sided the United kingdom and this take action of Sikhs and Marhattas was possibly the key reason of inability. The East India Company was exterminated and the British isles Crown was sustained to govern Sub-Continent. Then by the result of this War of Independence, an Imperial Legislative Council was created in British India. Following this Warfare of Independence, Both Muslims and Hindus were fought together and enough time of Two Country Theory began.

HINDI URDU CONTROVERSY:

India was the labor and birth host to India. But there were not only Muslims that used Urdu terms but all the neighborhoods in India joined hands for the proliferation and improvement of this new dialect. Then some of the visible Hindu leaders started the movement from the Urdu and their demand was to displace the Urdu from Hindi. This situation made the Muslims to come out in order to protect the importance of Urdu terminology. This dialect controversy got a great impact on the life span of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan because this, he was great supporter to Hindu-Muslim Unity. Hindi Urdu Controversy was the starting of the area of separation between Hindus and Muslims which will gradually increase and this was a day when both the Nations thought that these were separate from each other.

TWO Region THEORY AND SIR SYED AHMED KHAN:

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, a great Muslim leader and a great philosopher. Every time, Muslims was required by Sir Syed to get modern education. Sir Syed was an initial man in Sub-Continent record to present a expression "TWO Region" for Muslims and Hindus and created an idea to become pioneer of Two Country Theory. Syed Ahmed Khan tried his level best for the Muslims understand their differences with the Hindus numerous expects including religion, social, terminology, and international

identity and for this reason he diverted attention of the Muslims towards Two Nation Theory.

The possibly main reason for which Sir Syed created this theory is the downfall of Muslims, Muslims Hindus controversy, terms problem, and the hatred by Hindus and Uk upon Muslims of South Asia. Because of Hindu Muslims non approval habit, Syed Ahmed Khan realize that the both Nations cannot live jointly any more. During the Hindu Urdu Controversy, he came ahead with Two Land Concept and announced that Muslims were another Region. He said:

I am persuaded now that Hindus and Muslims could never become one land as their religious beliefs and way of life was quite specific from one another.

CONCEPT OF TWO Region THEORY FROM HINDUS:

Actually, the concept of Two Land Theory was originated by the Hindus. It is a historical proven fact that Hindus and Muslims are two independent nations. However the Hindus got given the building blocks to both Nation Theory, years ago. There is some thin mindedness of Hindus. They considered themselves more superior from the other races living there in Sub-Continent. There is also a ensemble system by Hindus itself. A number of the Hindu leaders hated Muslim a great deal, and there aspiration was of rebuilding a great Hindu empire. One of these said:

"There was no place for them (Muslims) in the Hindu culture he envisioned".

So the hate advertising campaign was well in place against Muslims. This factor and many more forced Muslim head to demand a separate homeland for the Muslims of South Asia, where they could techniques their way of living and use their own ethnic and religious principles.

TWO NATION THEORY AND ROLE OF ALLAMA IQBAL:

Allama Iqbal was born in Sialkot on 9 November 1877. He was well educated, philosopher and called as a Poet of East. Pursuing many of the peoples, Iqbal do his work by the way of his poetry and school of thought. Iqbal was one of individuals, who for the first time gave the idea of Two Land Theory. Iqbal made it clear that the Muslim of Sub-Continent possessed their own reputation from Hindus on the bases of the culture and religion. He said:

"India is not really a country. It really is a Sub-Continent of humans owned by different languages and practicing different religions. Muslim region has its own religious and ethnic id".

Allama Iqbal presidential address to the 1930 Allahabad treatment of the All India Muslim Little league spoke of the Punjab, North Western world Frontier Province, Sindh and Baluchistan united in a single express. He though that the final fortune of the India was another state without the British guideline. He offered some long terms and short terms solution for the independence and his have difficulties from words was initially advertised from the system of Muslim Little league.

According to Iqbal:

"I remained the supporter of the idea however now I am of the view that preservation of different Nationhood is useful for Hindus and Muslims beginning. To have the concept of solo land In India is without doubt poetic and beautiful but impractical regarding present circumstances".

FORMATION AND POLITICS OF MOST INDIA MUSLIM LEAGUE:

All India Muslim Category was founded on 30 December 1906 by Mohsin ul Mulk at Dhaka. The English was very miserable at the forming of this new party. But that is also a fact that the All India Muslim League was a pro-British, and was later very

criticized by the people. The Minto-Morley reforms or the Indian Council Take action 1909 was transferred as a development following the formation of most India Muslim Group. The Muslim Category was a party saying to be the only real consultant of Muslim interests in India. Muslim League's seeks and targets was to create of loyalty between your Muslims and Uk Government which was became the key reason in the creation of Pakistan, And to remove any myths from either part, to safeguard the spiritual and politics right of the Muslims of the Sub-Continent. There is a main role of Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the doubtless innovator of Muslim League and surfaced as the Quaid-e-Azam of the Indian Muslims.

The leading goal of most India Muslim Little league was to put forward the demand for the independent homeland for the Muslims of India. And for this demand, they started to support two country theory. They done it and informed the people of South Asia about Two Land Theory that Muslims and Hindus was to different Nations and they cannot live alongside one another. So, after a long struggle and politics, in 1940 the All-India Muslim Group orchestrated the demand for independent Muslim condition for the Muslims of India. Mohammed Ali Jinnah, The Sole Spokesman of AIML, played the role of religious communalism and provincialism in building the activity for PakistanÛ

TWO Land THEORY IN THE EYES OF QUAID E AZAM:

Quaid e Azam do a long prolonged have difficulty for the freedom of a separate Muslim condition and Jinnah also required reliance on Two Region Theory.

Quaid said:

We have to have a State in which we could live and inhale as free men and which we're able to develop according to your own lamps and culture and where principles of Islamic social justice could find free play.

Quaid e Azam was a solid defender of Two Region Theory and he considered the Muslims another nation from every aspects. He said:

"Pakistan came in to being the very day when first Non Muslim became female. "

Mohammad Ali Jinnah experienced a great 14 things and these things granted by the All India Muslim Group, that was reunited, under the management of Quaid e Azam as the basis for just about any Indian future Indian constitution. These demand were taken to the round desk convention, but were overshadowed by Allama Iqbal's demands.

LUCKNOW PACT 1916:

On December 1916, an agreement known as Lucknow Pact made by the Indian Country wide Congress leaded by Maratha innovator Bal Gangadhar Tilak and the Muhammad Ali Jinnah from the All India Muslim Group on the other side. The pact was about the structure of the federal government of India and about the relation between your Hindu and Muslim areas. By signing this pact, the Quaid e Azam was participating in the role of Ambassador of Hindu Muslim Unity. But, following the return of Mohan Das Gandhi to India, this pact mislaid its importance and the cooperation did not last long.

There was a general over split electorates. In the minority provinces, like UP where Muslims constituted 14 percent of populace and are given 30 percent representation. In Madras, Muslims composed significantly less than 7 percent of the population but received 15 percent representation. But, this didn't favor Muslims as they were continued to be a minority. In return

Bengali Muslims surrendered twenty five percent, and in Punjab ten percent of the entitlement. This reduced the Muslim bulk to minority and turned out prejudicial to the Muslims.

It was the very first time when Congress accepted the Muslim Little league as the politics party of the Sur-Continent representing the Muslims there, As Congress agreed to separate electorates, in simple fact considered the Muslims as another region. Thus, they accepted the idea of the Two Country Theory.

KHILAFAT MOVEMENT AND ITS OWN EFFECT ON TWO NATION THEORY:

The Khilafat Activity did become the reason to significantly fortify the Two Region Theory that was became the most crucial basis of establishment and demanding of Pakistan. Muslims of India acquired an emotional connection to the khilafat. They thought that Ottoman Caliphate as the only real surviving icon for the Muslims of South Asia. Gandhi joined up with this Muslims frame of mind in the khilafat. Quaid e Azam had not been in favor to support this movement and wrote to Gandhi and alert him about this activity but Gandhi ignored him. The Quiad backed some form of non-cooperation and he was contrary to the schools, colleges, legislation courts and of foreign goods. He thought the folks of South Asia would be harmed by these boycotts.

As the consequence of this motion, All India Muslim Little league was weakened. Many Muslims were ruined while migrating to Afghanistan, as Afghanistan closed down its edges.

Its failure, came to the realization by the Muslims, that, if indeed they wanted to make it through in the Sub-Continent, they must rely independently strength and political destiny. The activity later offered momentum to the have difficulty for the independence and for another homeland for the Indian Muslims.

ROLE OF TWO NATION THEORY IN DEMANDING OF PAKISTAN:

The Two Country Theory had played a essential and lone role in demanding of Pakistan. Every Muslim head took benefit of this theory. Many happenings had been took place with the role of Two Nation Theory and every Muslim leader, who was simply the supporter of an independent Muslim state, do dependent on Two Country Theory. The complete period of Freedom from 1857-1947 was just relied on Two Nation Theory. After

the Hindi-Urdu Controversy, Muslim noticed that these were a separate region from Hindus and they started to demand for another homeland.

LAHORE Quality 1940 AND DEMAND OF PAKISTAN:

The All India Muslim Group held its twelve-monthly session from March 22 to March 24, 1940, at Minto Playground, Lahore. The Lahore Quality is totally observed for the formal adoption and implementation of Two Region Theory. According to M. A Jinnah:

"The Hindus and Muslims participate in two different religious philosophies, social traditions, and literatures. They neither intermarry nor interline, and even they belong to two different civilizations which derive from conflicting ideas and conceptions".

The All India Muslim League was stronger after the Luck now Pact, between 1937 and 1942, the All India Muslim Category earned 46 out of 56 seats in by-elections. This success was due to Lahore time or resolution since it provided the Muslims of India, a fresh aim and course. Lahore image resolution was basically predicated on Two Region Theory because it was final steps towards utilizing the Two Nation Theory and Demand of Pakistan.

TWO Land THEORY IMPORTANCE AT PRESENT:

The Two Country Theory in India was submit to protect the protection under the law of minority and to protect the minority from bulk. Muslims, when they was minority in India, struggled hard to accomplish individual electorates, But after Pakistan came up in to being there exists one example, General Ziaul Haq do set distinct electorates from the desire of minorities.

Now, there is absolutely no need for Two Region Theory because, if we consider it, Pakistan would be segregated directly into many parts. We can not implement any theory in every place; theory is not for all the times, it might vary from time to time. So, if we discuss Two Country Theory, so there is no idea of this theory now in Pakistan.

IMPORTANCE OF TWO Country THEORY ENTIRELY SCENARIO:

The entire liberty activity revolves around both Country Theory which became the foundation for the demand of Pakistan. It means that the Muslims of the Sub-Continent were another nation with their distinctive culture, civilization, books, history, faith and social prices. Islam the faith of Muslims was predicated on the concept of Tauheed and for that reason could not be merged in any other system of religion. This means Islam gives us an idea of Two Region Theory. Muslims of India would finally have a separate homeland, as they could not live with the Hindus in Sub-Continent. The demanding and reaching of Pakistan was only predicated on the Two Nation Theory and completely revolving for this theory.

REFERENCES:

URLS:

  • http://storyofpakistan. com/the-ideology-of-pakistan-two-nation-theory/
  • http://storyofpakistan. com/two-nation-theory-the-myth-the-reality/
  • http://ajmalforum. blogspot. com/2011/07/lucknow-pact-december-1916. html
  • http://www. cssforum. com. pk/386748-post13. html
  • http://www. slideshare. net/TrUeJournlism/ideology-of-pakistan-and-two-nation-theory

BOOKS:

  • PAKISTAN TESTS BY M. R. KAZIMI
  • PAKISTAN STUDIES BY HAFIZ ASHFAQ AHMED
  • NAZARIA E PAKISTAN BY PROFESSOR MUZAFFAR MIRZA
  • THE IDEA OF PAKISTAN BY STEPHEN PHILIP COHEN

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