Most professionals desire a few theories to returning up their thinking and to help give material to their recommendations. A few theories and models give us a concrete and rational foundation for decision-making. These are especially helpful when thinking about how precisely to tackle an issue and how to work through what is going on. They are useful too when devising ideas and writing communications strategies, explaining principles to acquaintances and clients or supplying focus when we need direction. They are my ten top theories, the ones I have found most useful in over thirty years as a specialist, consultant and lecturer.
One of the oldest and simplest ideas about communications came from Shannon and Weaver (1949). But Shannon and Weaver weren't PR experts; they worked well for Bell Mobile phone Labs in america. Shannon and Weaver were focused on issues about reliability and efficiency in telephony. Their model is both easy to understand and generally suitable and this formerly made it appealing to not only people working in PR and marketing communications but also academics who have since developed more sophisticated models and ideas to explain the procedure of individuals and organisational marketing communications.
Shannon and Weaver's original model - categorised as the transmitting model - consisted of five sequential elements:
An information source, that produces a note.
A transmitter, that 'encodes' the concept into signals
A channel, that provides the signals, which have been adapted to allow transmission
A device, that 'decodes' the subject matter from the signal
A destination, where the message happens.
They also included a 6th element, noise, thought as any interference with the subject matter travelling across the channel that could change or impair the signal and so change the initial message into different things from that supposed.
This 'transmitting' model, which includes been around for a long period, is slightly simplistic. Nonetheless it does serve as a reminder to experts about the basic processes involved in communications and in PR. It's also the basis for public scientist and expert on propaganda Harold Lasswell's explanation of communications as being
Who says What to Whom in What Channel using what Effect
Shannon and Weaver argued that we now have three problems when considering communications:
The technical problem: how effectively can the communication be sent?
The semantic problem: how precisely is the meaning 'conveyed'?
The efficiency problem: how effectively does indeed the received interpretation affect behaviour?
They assumed that sorting out the technical problems would essentially solve the semantic and effectiveness problems (and that really is simplistic).
You can see that we now have a few issues with this model. It is linear and one-way - there is absolutely no engagement with the recipient. The sender is named the 'information source' - it is not a sophisticated sender. The receiver is apparently a unaggressive and accepting, a simple and prepared absorber of information, rarely a critical interpreter of what they're exposed to. There is absolutely no way to evaluate whether the receiver has accurately picked up the communication - and then thought it or acted upon it. There is no consideration of the framework of meaning (is this tutor to mother or father, politician to floating voter?). Nor to when - in conditions of time - the communication occurs. But then again this theory was devised by and then for telecommunications engineers. As a result this simple model cannot represent the complex mindset of the human being or the physiology of the mind. Nor will it really accommodate the prevailing romantic relationships between sender and recipient, or the infinite ways a note can be encoded in terms of words and pictures. Also it does not allow for the initial characteristics of the multiple channels that may be use d to receive the message across and this affect how a message will be seen and interpreted.
So theor y an example may be a useful start point.
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Invention and technology have a huge part to try out in the development of corporate communications. James Carey was an American educational and journalism specialist. In his book Communication As Culture (1989) Carey reviewed the development of the telegraph and its own understated role in future advancements in communication. The non-electric telegraph was invented by Claude Chappe in 1794 and was a visual system using semaphore, a flag-based alphabet, and depending on a line of vision for communication. The optical telegraph was eventually changed by the electric telegraph, the invention of Samuel Morse. Morse turned out that signals could be sent by line and, to facilitate this developed the Morse Code. The first information dispatched by electric telegraph was in-may 1844. The death knell for the electric telegraph was included with the invention of the telephone in 1877.
So before the nineteenth century the movement of information was more or less exactly like the carry of goods or people and both were referred to as 'communication'. Prior to the telegraph (and calling) most decisions - particularly business and politics decisions - were made 'face to face'. Carey argued that the telegraph '. . . allowed for the very first time the effective parting of communication from travelling. . . '. So after the telegraph, when communications could travel faster than folks, horses or trains that shipped them, everything modified, in conditions of how humans communicated across distances and over time. Geography became irrelevant, permitting communities to go away from the local, towards the countrywide, and international or global. The telegraph allowed people from one aspect of the world to talk easily with someone on the other side of the world.
How quaint this seems in today's digital world but this can help us look at the origins of modern communication. Because this shows to some extent where plain English originated from. The short short telegraph demanded a prose style that Carey known was more 'slim and unadorned". Think about a tweet. So those years back it was the easy old telegraph that first called for the plainest of writing and, as a knock-on impact, changed just how news was written. At exactly the same time style became more objective because these words would be read by individuals of many different beliefs and views, from a number of communities, parts and countries.
Technological advances continue steadily to have an enormous impact about how we practice marketing communications - on what information work, on how we encode our communication, on what programs to use so that the receiver views and hears it accurately and so on. The meaning of the message comes from the procedure listeners, visitors and/or viewers proceed through when they make sense of what they see, listen to and feel. Interpretation is not 'extracted' from but 'constructed' by the meaning. It's clear that, while we won't need to be tech, everyone working in the field of communications must keep up to date with trends in technology because you can bet your bottom money they will have a direct effect of professional communications practice.
Managing Public Relations compiled by Grunig and Hunt (1984) outlined four models for how organizations can chose to practice public relations. The four models developed more or less chronologically through the twentieth century. This is the most often cited theory of pr and these theories remain relevant, taught within graduate, post-graduate and vocational qualifications over the UK and overseas.
Press agent model - a proven way communication where a business instructs an audience what it desires it to believe. Little or no research to find out audience's needs interests or inclinations to buy into the organisation's objectives. This is the simple, original, historical model for PR with the concentrate on getting favourable coverage (ie publicity) for your organization, cause, super star, brand via the multimedia.
One -way copy of information
Little or no research
Information is not always accurate
'all promotion is good publicity'
Public information model - a journalist's method of public relations, offers truthful exact information about an organisation leaving our damaging or harmful information. This model developed virtually as a reaction to attacks on large companies and government businesses by investigative journalists. The leaders of these organizations needed more than simple propaganda peddled by press realtors to counter the problems with them in the advertising. So they hired their own journalists to do something as pr experts, and press handouts were written and sent out to give their point of view and explain activities. That is also the model where essential information is provided to the people and persuasion or frame of mind change is not essential. Cases might be allowing people find out about the weather, about highway traffic, or internally about new consultations and soon. The way is very much "let's get the facts out".
One - way transfer of information
Some analysis on effectiveness
Little or no research about the audience(s)
Used frequently by government
Truthful and accurate
Two-way asymmetrical model - emphasises a change in behaviour or behaviours in the audience only relative to the targets and goals of the company. Persuasive communication really has its origins here. In 1917 during World Conflict 1 US Leader Woodrow Wilson set up The Creel Committee (AKA CPI - Committee on Open public Information). Committee members included the so-called founder of modern pr practice, sociable scientist Edward Bernays. Communications took a far more scientific methodology that made the practice two-way with practitioners both seeking information from and presenting information to publics. Ideas presented by Bernays were those of propaganda, persuasion, and the "executive of consent. " This model is obviously at work when attempts are made to influence publics to adopt a preferred point of view or behaviour. Research provides input into the process (for example research into why people buy a new car help manufacturers create motivating relevant announcements).
Two-way transfer of information
Research done to persuade audience(s)
Messages intended to persuade
Model slanted in favour of organization
The two-way symmetrical model - uses research to raised understand the audience and to deal with disputes. Each get together - the sender and device - is prepared to alter announcements - and even behaviours - to support the other's needs. The two-way symmetrical model employs research and other types of two-way communication. Unlike the two-way asymmetrical model, however, it uses research to help in understanding and communication somewhat than to identify messages probably to inspire or persuade publics. An example might be management and workforce in an appointment process enabling a change of plans and practices leading to higher production and better pay and conditions. This model includes ideas and rules like telling the truth", "interpreting your client and public to one another" and "management understanding the viewpoints of employees and neighbours as well as employees and neighbours understanding the viewpoints of management. " It is perhaps a communications ideal as much organisations are unwilling to 'go all the way' and employ so totally with viewers as they wish to retain the concept of control. Maybe it's argued that modern tools and digital communications is forcing even the most reluctant company to have to consider this model seriously to keep a competitive or an honest position that enhances reputation.
Behaviour change on both sides
Research done to comprehend, not manipulate, the audience
Strategies include discussion, bargaining, negotiation, dialogue, compromise
Best model of communication?
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Arguably one of the key tasks of corporate and business communications is to influence others to 'comply' using what you want; which might be to understand a concern, engage in argument, like or like or support your viewpoint, or respond a different way.
Robert Cialdini, Regents' Professor Emeritus of Psychology and Marketing at Arizona State University has made influence his life's work. Having seen extensively how affect works by learning "compliance experts" (people skilled in getting others to do what they want them to do - salespeople, fundraisers, recruiters, marketers etc) he publicized, in 1984, "Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion. " I was given this book after i worked well in the advertising industry and I get back to these ideas again and again.
Cialdini attained what he called his six 'weapons' of effect and we can easily see these six principles at work in many successful PR and communications programmes. But do be mindful - impact in the wrong hands becomes manipulation. There are numerous good examples when this thinking has been used for wicked ends. Use these approaches for good, not to persuade visitors to do things that are wrong. Examine your conscience and apply this thinking ethically
People generally try to 'come back a go with'. They invite people to come to evening meal having been invited themselves; they pay back bills; they treat others as they are treated. It's 'youmeyoume'. This leads us to feel obliged to offer concessions or discounts to others if they have offered them to us first because we feel uneasy if we feel indebted to them. For instance you'll supplying money to a fundraiser that has given you a little badge or sticker; a free tasting of a fresh food product in-store may make you get a pack; you may end up buying more from a supplier if indeed they have offered you preferential conditions first. You will often use this basic principle by simply reminding the other person of how you have helped them in the past. Key thing is to provide - a service, information or a concession. Your concentrate on will then be primed to come back the favour. To make use of reciprocity ethically to affect others, identify targets, and think about what you want the mark to do. You can then identify what you can give to them in exchange.
Once we've committed to something, we're then more likely to go through with it because, says Cialdini, we humans produce an innate need to be consistent.
For example people who signal a petition promoting a fresh community facility are more likely to donate money compared to that cause when asked later. Get people's determination in early stages, either verbally or in writing. For example, if the marketing communications program is building support for the building of a fresh supermarket, communicate in early stages with stakeholders, and take their feedback and views into consideration.
This principle depends on people's sense of "safety in statistics" because people tend to follow similar others. For example, we're much more likely put some money into a dish for staff tips if there's money already in that dish, we'll buy something if lots of others have done so and provide testimonials that it is good and and we're much more likely to support a policy if support seems high already. The assumption is the fact if tons of other folks are doing something, then it must be Okay, safe to do, good, to do too. We're much more likely to be inspired if we feel uncertain and, another key factor, is whether those individuals already behaving a certain way are like us in terms of lifetsage and lifestyle. Internally you could utilize social substantiation when looking to get support for a new project by getting the support from influential people in your company whose thoughts others respect. And when you are available a product, say how many people make use of it and get them to recommend it on social networking sites.
We're much more likely to be inspired by people we like. And people will buy from people like themselves, from friends, and from people they know and value. Likability comes in many forms - people might be similar or familiar to us, they might give us compliments, or we may simply just trust them. . Put in the time and effort needed to build trust and rapport with clients and people you work with, and behave with uniformity. Develop your emptional intelligence together with productive listening skils. But don't try too hard to be liked by others - people can always spot a phoney. Companies that use sales people from within the community use the liking basic principle extensively and with huge success.
We feel a feeling of obligation or obligation to people in positions of specialist. That is why marketers of pharmaceutical products employ doctors to leading their campaigns, and just why almost all of us will do most things that our manager demands.
Job titles, outfits, and even accessories like vehicles or gadgets can give an air of specialist, and can persuade us to simply accept what these people say.
This principle says that things are more appealing when their supply is bound, or when we stand to reduce the opportunity to acquire them on favorable terms.
For instance, we would buy something immediately if we're informed that it is the previous one, or that a special offer will soon expire.
Here you may use both your own authority, and the power of others, as influencers.
When you utilize your own expert, be careful not to use it negatively. Our article onFrench and Raven's Five Types of Power has more on different resources of power, and talks about ways to use ability and authority favorably.
To use authority, get active support from important and powerful people, and have for their help in backing the theory. (Use Impact Maps to help you network with people who is able to help. )
If you're marketing a product or service, highlight well-known and well known customers, use reviews from skillfully developed, and talk about impressive research or figures.
Things like well-produced brochures, professional presentations, impressive offices, and smart clothing can also give authority.
With this process, people need to know that they're missing out if indeed they don't work quickly.
If you're providing something, limit the option of stock, placed a closing particular date for the offer, or create special editions of products.
This concept can be trickier to apply within your group if you're wanting to influence others to support your ideas or projects. You could, however, use urgency to get support for your ideas. For instance, you can identify the possible immediate consequences of the problem that your idea really helps to solve.
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Remember that these are just six ways that you can influence others. Use these principles alongside other tools including the Rhetorical Triangle, Monroe's Motivated Collection, Win-Win Negotiation, the Persuasion Tools Model, and the Minority Influence Strategy.
You can also use Stakeholder Evaluation and Management to develop support for your opinions and tasks.
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You can also use this tool when others want to effect you.
In these situations, bear the next points in mind:
Before accepting a free of charge gift or a discounted service, or before agreeing to listen to confidential information, consider whether you are going to feel obliged to provide the same or even more in return. Should you decline, so that you don't feel indebted?
Before agreeing to a course of action, even at a very preliminary level, think about the consequences of for you to decide. Will you feel so invested in this new course of action that you will not want to change your brain?
Though everyone else is pursuing a particular route or buying something, it may well not be best for you. Avoid falling victim to the "herd mentality. " You may decide that it is best to go against the tendency.
When you feel enticed to buy a product or join a service, consider whether you've fallen under the spell of an especially likable salesperson. May be the salesperson similar to you, familiar for you, or extremely complimentary?
Carefully please note your a reaction to authority figures. Gets the person you're negotiating with brought about your esteem for authority? Will you be making your choice because you want to, or are you swayed by an "expert" opinion? And does indeed this person genuinely have the authority he's implying, or is he basically using the symbols of that authority?
Before you land for a sales pitch claiming that a product is running out of stock or a discount deal is soon to expire, reconsider. You don't want or need the merchandise now, or has its insufficient availability captured your attention?
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The Six Guidelines of Affect were created by Robert Cialdini, and shared in his 1984 booklet, "Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion. "
The concepts are: reciprocity, determination, social proof, liking, specialist, and scarcity.
You may use the six ideas once you want to effect or persuade others. However, it is also useful to use them with other tools. And, by knowing about the rules, you can become resilient to people who make an effort to use them to control you.
You also need to make sure you don't misuse these principles - stay away from them to deceive or mislead people, and make sure that you use them for people's good, rather than to disadvantage them.
Patrick Jackson was a pr practitioner employed in the united states - he yet others considered the steps communicators has to go though to be able to effect behaviour change
Build recognition - eg publicity, advertising, face to face communications
Develop a latent readiness an inclination to make change where opinions commence to form
Trigger a desire to improve - with a natural or prepared event
Utilise an intermediate behaviour during which someone begins to investigate new behaviours
Changing behaviours and implementing the new behaviour
Mendelsohn (1973) presumed campaigns often failed because marketing campaign designers overpromised, assumed the public would automatically acquire and enthusiastically allow their communications, and blanketed the public with communications not properly targeted and apt to be overlooked or misinterpreted. His Three Assumptions are still a touchstone for communications planning
1. Focus on your messages
2. Assume your target consumer is bored with your information.
3. Set sensible, midrange goals and goals.
This is a sequential representation of how advertising specifically influences a consumer's decision to buy - or not - a product or service. The hierarchy-of-effects theory can be used to create a structured series of message goals with the aim of building on each successive step before deal is achieved. Although this model is often used to plan marketing campaign this can be a useful one to look at in relation to PR campaigns as often these too need a stepped way. This thinking informs AMECs marketing communications aims funnel (see section on measurement and evaluation)
Step 1 Subjection. Some PR programs get no more than this - just placing the message away. But just putting a message in an environment cannot assure it is seen or recognized.
Step 2 Attention Even paid-for put advertising will are unsuccessful if the audience is not paying attention. A PR message must manage to bringing in attention and slicing through the sound of lifestyle. Complex messages have to capture even higher levels of attention, especially with attention spans diminishing as they are. Creativity, display and encoding are fundamental elements at this stage. Carefully chosen culturally specific and suitable multi-sensory PR and marketing communications techniques, using icons, shades and music, are used to seize people's attention and wake them up.
Some aspects of attention are managed by the actual receiver and some are involuntary reactions to sensory cues. A sudden noise, for example, can get someone's attention (essentially a individuals response device to ensure quick replies to risk. ) Conversely something amusing will get attention because the device enjoys seeing it. Advertising experts could use physiological causes - like fast cut video recording - to get and preserve attention. But this is exhausting process necessitating high degrees of mental processing. So sometimes even though attention is gained, the required subject matter is lost in term sof having the ability to remember wht that was about.
Step 3 Participation/Engagement Although research signifies people focus on abrupt changes in noises or visual results, it's true too that they stop attending to if a message seems unimportant, uninteresting, or distasteful. Information that are relevant keep people interested and make sure they are primed to absorb the information. This is essentially expressing that communications needs to answer the question 'What's in it for me personally?' Once that is demonstrated, techniques like storytelling, samples and case histories and the use of novel content maintains the receiver engaged and interested.
Step 4 Comprehension Keeping the receiver's attention does not ensure she or he will understand the subject matter.
Step 5 Skill acquisition (learning how). Well-intentioned people may struggle to follow through on an idea if indeed they lack the abilities to take action. Potential voters without travel to the polls won't vote; expected nonsmokers will not stop smoking without cultural support; interested restaurant patrons will not come if indeed they cannot afford it; parents thinking about a civic betterment program won't attend a meeting if they do not have child care. An effective campaign anticipates the mark public's must supply the help they might need. The National Flames Protection Association (NFPA), for example, found, via a Burke Marketing review, that lots of people acquired a passive frame of mind about flame, many believed that they had much more time to flee than they really do, in support of 16% possessed developed and used a home flame escape plan. As a result, NFPA's 1998 Flame Safety Week advertising focused on coaching students about flame break free planning and practice, with incentives to cause them to become participate in a recorded practice drill with their families. Although the Silver precious metal Anvil Award-winning plan generated an enormous amount of publicity, the most dramatic result was that at least 25 lives were saved as a direct result of the households' involvement in the advertising.
Step6 Persuasion (attitude change). Although McGuire stated this step following skills acquisition, attitude change often precedes skill development. Individuals who lack the abilities to follow through on an idea may tune out the facts, figuring it isn't relevant for them. Frame of mind change is another of the necessary but often inadequate steps in the persuasion process. Sometimes, however, frame of mind change is all that is necessary, particularly if the purpose of a campaign is to increase a public's satisfaction with a business in order to avoid negative effects such as lawsuits, strikes, or boycotts. Usually, however, a plan has an final result behavior at heart. In that case, remember that individuals often have behaviour inconsistent with their manners. Many smokers believe that smoking is an undesirable thing but still smoke cigarettes. Many nonvoters say voting is important and they plan to vote, but they still neglect to arrive on election day.
Step 7 Storing the new position in memory emory storage. This step is important because people get multiple emails from multiple options all day long, every day. To allow them to take action on your concept, they need to remember it when the appropriate time comes to buy a ticket, make a telephone call, fill out an application, or attend an event. They need to be able to store the important info about your subject matter in their memory, which might not exactly be easy if other announcements received simultaneously demand their attention. Important elements of messages, therefore, need to be communicated with techniques that make them stick out for easy memorization.
Step 8. Information retrieval. Simply storing information does not ensure that it will be retrieved at the correct time. People might remember your special event on the right day but your investment location. Reminders or memory space devices such as slogans, jingles, and refrigerator magnets can help.
Step 9. Desire (decision). That is an important step that lots of campaign designers neglect in their own excitement for their plan goals. Keep in mind Mendelsohn's (1973) admonition that people might not be enthusiastic about the campaign? They want reasons to check out through. The benefits need to outweigh the expenses. In addition, the benefits must seem realistic and really should be easily obtained. The more effort required on the part of the message recipients the not as likely it is that they can make that effort. If the concept recipients imagine a proposed action is simple, will have major personal benefits, or is critically important, they will act. The task for this program planner is to discover what will motivate the prospective audience successfully, an issue dealt with later in this section. Elgin DDB of Seattle, when asked to help reduce Puget Sound curbside disposal of lawn clippings by 5%, understood inspiration would be an important focus. Focus groups and phone studies indicated that the mark group, male homeowners aged 25 to 65, got an interest in grass-cycling but needed the proper tools to make it easy and useful. As a result, they set up to recycle consumers' old polluting gas mowers free of charge at a particular event and sell Torro and Ryobi mulch mowers at below the normal retail price, with yet another rebate. With an objective of reselling 3, 000 mowers, they sold 5, 000. They hoped to eliminate 1, 500 gas mowers from the market and finished up recycling approximately 2, 600. And, as for their original goal of lowering curbside removal of turf clippings by 5%? They more than tripled the prospective amount, reducing grass clippings by 17%, receiving a 1999 Silver Anvil Honor.
10. Habit. Success often is measured in terms of actions such as sales or attendance information. Marketing experts, however, know that getting someone's business once will not assure long-term success. One research ("Building Customer, " 1996) found that keeping customers loyal can boost revenue up to 80%. Because of this, this program planner must do everything possible to ensure that patterns attempts talk with success. Victoria's Key, for example, finished up with hundreds of thousands of frustrated browsers when it marketed a web fashion show following a 1999 Super Dish only to contain the technology crash. Anticipating demand and handling unsuccessful attempts in an optimistic way can help cement relationships for the future.
11. Support of behavior, frame of mind, or both. Most people are familiar with the expression buyer's remorse, which is what people feel if they have second thoughts about a decision they made. Sometimes buyer's remorse results from a negative experience with an organization, such as an unresponsive mobile phone operator, which is quite unrelated to the product or proven fact that was the concentrate of a advertising campaign. Program planners need to assume possible reasons for buyer's remorse in a marketing campaign and make follow-up communication area of the marketing campaign to ensure targeted publics continue steadily to feel good about the organization's products or ideas.
12. Postbehavior consolidation. This is actually the final part of a note receiver's decision-making process. At this time, the device considers the campaign messages, the behaviour and behaviors included, and the successes or failures encountered in utilizing the targeted behaviour or behaviors, to include this new information into a preexisting world view. By attending a special event promoting both a corporation and a reason, such as nourishing the homeless, a note recipient may develop a long-term connection with both the company and the reason. In this soul, medical centers including the University or college of Kansas Medical Center maintain memorial services to honor the groups of individuals who contribute their bodies to the university. Regarding to Jim Fredrickson, one of the participants, the function helped family members feel more comfortable about the choice their loved one acquired made (Nowalcyk, 2003). Impacting the targeted public's worldview is the most challenging final result for a communication marketing campaign, but also for programs focused on building long-term, mutually beneficial interactions, this result also is the most coveted.
McGuire, W. J. Type and Output Parameters Currently Guaranteeing for Constructing Persuasive
Communications. In Grain, R. & Atkin, C. (Ed. ). Open public Communication Promotions.
Theory Eight Neuro-Linguistic Programming
NLP is a behavioural model and set of skills and techniques founded by John Grinder and Richard Bandler in 1975. NLP studies the habits or "development" created by the connections among the brain, language and the body that produce both effective and ineffective says and behaviours. The abilities and techniques were produced by watching the habits of excellence in experts from diverse areas of communication, including psychotherapy, business, hypnotherapy, laws and education. NLP theory helps us understand how to encode marketing communications so our communications stand the best potential for which makes it through and being decoded as we intended.
Neuro identifies the brain/head and stressed system of the individual organism through which each experience is collected via the five senses or representational systems:- Visual (Pictures), Auditory (Seems), Kinesthetic (Feelings), Olfactory (Smells) and Gustatory (Likes). Experience is prepared, coded and retained as memory.
Linguistic identifies the content that steps across and through these pathways and so is about words, icons, words, metaphors and also the nonverbal communication systems through which our neural representations and experience are coded, bought and given interpretation.
Programming identifies our potential to organise these parts (sights, sounds, sensations, smells, tastes, and symbols or words) and the way such content is directed, sequenced and linked by each folks to produce our individual thinking patterns and behaviours (the programs we run within our brain) that are our experience of life.
NLP we can notice the process of our thinking as independent from this content of your thinking. NLP gives us choices about how precisely we think, which undoubtedly make it easier to change that which we think and the behaviours that follow.