At present, that the planet is in the globalization time which causes more aggressive competition on businesses in a number of regions. This clarify more about concepts of various countries in the free world or capitalistic world where there is the centre in the american countries those concentrate on development. As countries use developmental ways of maintain economic, politics, and military power and influence of the capitalistic world (Hongthongkham, 1976).
Tourism today is becoming a business that is currently crucial to the earth economy, it is now a widely organised view that in nearly every country tourism is continuing to grow, and has turned into a central product in the international trade of those counties. Tourism now rates between 1-3 from the top 10 key business globally this industry is currently vital to financial prosperity.
Thailand has a substantial tourism industry which has the, with Government plans and assistance, to be developed much more this development for Thailand provides a fantastic source of foreign currencies. Since historical times mankind has explored and travelled and now with modern technologies especially in transport and communication, and an increasingly mobile world society there may be almost limitless growth. This expansion has changed just how business is being done, from clusters of ways to a more specialised planning company. With market integration now called "tourism industry" is currently a very important factor in the economies of several countries today (Nuntajak, 2010).
The tourism industry of Thailand has change drastically and is currently a significant industry in world tourism. Within the last decade, international traveler arrivals in Thailand have grown faster over the past 10 years, from 8. 58 million in 1999 to 14. 09 million arrivals in 2009 2009 by the Holiday Specialist of Thailand or TAT (2010). Thailand has been attaining a growing market show of international visitors. During that period, the travel and leisure industry has been one of the great significant industries for economic expansion and each year there were each tourists extra cash, at least 3, 000. 00 baht per person each day when vacationers come to Thailand (TAT 2009).
For Thailand, the amount of international visitors are increasing each year, a number of factors are in charge of tourism progress and development of the travel and leisure industry in Thailand over other places, Owing to the friendly, welcoming, and peace loving character of the Thai people. You will find many reasons why Thailand appeals to wealthy tourists of foreign and various cultural destinations who've travelled to Thailand, to enjoy a unique and fulfilling experience. An important area of the Thailand's tourism industry success is because of the physical geographic diversity of Thailand (TAT 2010).
Due to Phuket, a part of Thailand, is another world class vacation spot. This place is serenely beautiful and established fact for the beaches and the blue seas and also one of the top ten diving places on earth. There are plenty of activities available around Phuket such as, scuba, snorkeling, kayaking, parasailing, fishing, surfing beach, plane skis and the area for honeymooners. IN MOST CASES, international tourists are concentrating not only on the product, but also on the individuals who benefit the hospitality and the tourism industry can give the right information to visitors.
Therefore, there are numerous international visitors increasing arrivals to Phuket. According to the statistical reviews by Section of Travel and leisure (2006), the number of international holidaymakers arrivals in Phuket was 1. 2 million in 2008 and 1. 1 million in '09 2009 and is currently a significant show in the Thai market.
The statistics showed the number of international tourists that generate earnings, prosperity to the local and moreover to create a multi-professional occupations, such as interpreter, translator, waitresses, airline officers, including visitor tutorials who close with international travellers all through the time they are stay in Thailand (tourism. go. th, 2010).
Moreover, tourist tutorials are the employees group having jobs in encouraging and supporting tourism. They will be the ethnical diplomat because they tell travellers about various testimonies on society, custom, cultural arts, current economic climate, and politics (Ritthirak, 2002).
Therefore, tourist guides are a career which creates a great deal of advantages to the country. But in truth, 22, 732 traveler guides make an application for the traveler guide licenses from Visitor Guide and Travel and leisure Business Registration Office on Dec 31, 2001. A tourist guide may have potential to use more than 1 terms (Ritthirak, 2002).
Before applying for the visitor guide licenses, those tourist guides have to go away the product quality creating process to be able to have knowledge, capability, moral, and code of carry out. In practice, Travel and leisure Authority of Thailand coordinates and Visitor Guide Training Standard Curriculum for execution of educational institutes in the university or college level from coast to coast. The typical curriculum has basic knowledge things which are essential for working. After acquiring the training, holiday guides can bring the evidence to use for the vacationer guide licenses from Traveler Guides and Travel and leisure Business Subscription Office of Tourism Power of Thailand.
In the beginning the position of the "tourist guide" was not known. Supaporn Makjeang brought up in Holiday Guide Guidelines (1996) that anyone is actually a tourist guide if she or he could speak British and it was not essential for them to get high education. It had been not until the Tourism Expert of Thailand (TAT) was founded in 1977 and the professional holiday guide training course was made that professional holiday tutorials were developed. The training classes have been controlled as yet and expanded to other major provinces. In addition, the Professional Tourist Guide Relationship of Thailand was founded on July 29th 1975 as the guts of all visitor guides (Visitor Guide Connection Thailand, 1992).
Nowadays, the basic understanding of the vacationer guide is talked about as the essential need except from the fluency of international languages. This policy makes the university graduates get more jobs. Travel organizations always make use of the tourist tutorials who finish working out training from the institute guaranteed by the Tourism Specialist of Thailand (TAT). This stimulates people who are thinking about the vacationer guide occupation to finish the training before the job application. Furthermore, some federal government places, especially the Grand Palace and the royal temples, allow only the tourist guides who already approved working out course and have vacationer guide licenses to operate the tour (Khummanon, 1996).
The expansion of tourism industry and the increasing of the amount of tourist guides in Thailand, brought on some immoral tournaments among tourist courses. They try to do everything to get their own benefits whatever the rules and their major obligation. For example, do not do their job as best as they can, do not pay attention to their clients or take their clients to the shopping area where they received the commission rate, looking to persuade the travellers to think that the goods and services are of high characteristics with fair prices. Regarding jewelry, some visitor guides said the color mirror will be the precious rock, some said silver but it's only the steel guilt with silver or said the dog bones as tiger bone fragments (Lookdamnoen, 1989).
Lookdamnoen also advises that the first place where in fact the travelers arrive in Bangkok, Bangkok Airport terminal, there are a lot of people trying to post tendered place where in fact the tourists can meet after arrival and claim that they will be the officers of the airport terminal and prefer some services, such as accommodation, sightseeing, excursion and copy services. They advise some information with documents for trips and excursions with unfair price. In additional, the bad manners of holiday courses such as shouting, crapping to call vacationer groups, demonstrating boredom when some holidaymakers came later part of the for the visit due to misunderstanding of vocabulary or any blunder, demonstrating anger when travelers ask for some explained information, etc (Charoenmuan, 1992).
The Tourism Specialist of Thailand in the meeting of 1/1995 stated the tourist courses' behaviors that mess up the reputation of their occupation as follows:
Forcing tourists to get some optional tour by deceiving or intimidating the tourists
to allow that tour beside the original deal with the travel company.
Taking traveler to the cheating or unfair price shops in order that they receive hint or
commission from the shop.
Requesting some tips or special payments by convincing the holidaymakers to be sympathetic
with the management that does not have any benefit.
4. Taking the tourists' passports or air tickets until the visitors pay some additional costs.
At the seminar of 1/1996 there are a few other manners that brought on the bad reputation and the increased loss of the honor of the code of ethics as stated in the second Ministerial Polices (1996) of the Take action of the Holiday Business and Guide 2008.
1 Describing or informing some unreal or incorrect information that triggers injury to the
nation, religion, and the monarchy.
2 Not performing his own obligations as a visitor guide who should be concerned with the benefit
of visitors as the first top priority.
3 Being dishonest, seeking some poor benefit or forcing holidaymakers to take action they
are unwilling to do.
4 Disobeying the moral standard.
5 Not thinking in the local tradition and legislation of each exploring place.
Therefore, the above issues that can say the causes of Thai tourist courses unsuitable behaviors are based on the increased loss of their moral of the rules and they forgot the importance of their own duties, though they may be educated from satisfactory institutes as professional tourist manuals. Therefore, the assumption of the is having less the code of ethics this is the basis of all behaviors and induced people to do the right or ideal things, concerning the collective benefits, and feel in charge of society. Each one of these can be studied as the basic principle or guidelines of the suitable performance that the researcher is enthusiastic about the ethics of Thai traveler guides and the ways to resolve them that can be applied to be the basic idea and promote the professional holiday tutorials effectively.
Tour guiding is a highly regarded profession today and being a tourist guide includes great duties as lives of individuals while on holiday are entrusted in vacationers caution. Therefore, it is of vital importance that traveler guides totally follow and abide by the vacationer guide criteria and professional tourist manuals code of ethics to be able to promote ethics and high moral habit in the perspectives of international holidaymakers who are travelling in Phuket.
This study can look at related domains of business ethics, some moral ideas, moral, and traveler guides ethics in Thailand. Therefore literature review includes the following
The importance of tourist guide
Tourist guide situation in Thailand
Classification of traveler guide in Thailand
Qualifications of vacationer guide
Manners of visitor guide
Role and duties of visitor guide
The Characteristics of vacationer guide
Code of ethics of vacationer guide
1. 2. 10 Related research
A traveler guide is a significant element of the travel industry as he has the single responsibility of caring for the visitor including all travel preparations of providing information and explanations (Pongsabuth, 1997). Furthermore, Supaporn Makjeang in the Theory of Vacationer Guide (1996) pointed out that visitors are strangers to their destinations because they're not familiar with the neighborhood people, ethnic and custom. When venturing alone without a holiday guide, they face problems and obstacles and generally land up losing their money and time. Therefore, with time, tourists have come to favor possessing a tourist guide because of their trips.
The term 'holiday guide' is utilized in the travel business with on ease of the understand. However, academics have described the idea of tourist guides more in conditions of guidelines and duties. A numeral of terms are use to make clear those whose responsibility it is to look after and to inform of vacationers. 'Courier' was the word most generally applied to describe traveler guide, today a courier can be called 'head to captain', 'travel escort', 'head to manager', and 'traveler guide' (Jafari, 2000).
During the 19th century Thomas Make meals became the first travel company that run group travels by coach to Loughborough and other areas in Europe (Kruttawacho, 2008). This required visitor guides who could clarify and guide holiday on these outings.
The Tourism Authority of Thailand in assistance with Chulalongkorn College or university in 1961 (Mr. Sumonchart Sawaddikul, a teacher at the Faculty of Arts), designed a training course training on professional traveler guides. The first tourist guides student for this course were the third year and higher Faculty of Arts students at Chulalongkorn University. Thereafter the course gained attractiveness and interested college student started to in role. After Chulalongkorn School offered the course for 13 years, Silapakorn College or university integrated the same course for the first time in 1973 (Khummanon, 1996). Furthermore, the Humanities Faculty of Kasetsart University or college started the same course because of its own students and exposed a new tourism course for the graduated who had been still unemployed.
Nowadays the course has become widely realize and other University or college as the Rajaphat and the Rangsit, ect. have capitalized on its importance and also have began offering it to everyone.
Due to tourism growth the government realized the need to pass a invoice on criteria and techniques for tourist courses. The monthly bill stipulated that the Tourism Power of Thailand be the support and handling body for the vacationer business and holiday guides, by making sure that they meet up with the standards required for legal reasons (that every holiday guide have a tourist guide permit) as set out in the Vacationer Business and Visitor Guide Action 2008 of Thailand (Tourism Power of Thailand, 2010). The vacationer guide licenses are released after a person completes the training course arrange by the federal government service. Each course requires different degrees of education. The certification stipulation is the fact one needs to be a Thai citizen, aged 20 years or older, with good written and spoken Thai.
Increasing volume of registered tutorials in Thailand demons that working as a vacationer guide has turned into a popular job in the travel and leisure industry. The dialect requirement in the amount of tourist manuals in Thailand, (see Amount 2. 1). One reason of traveler courses increasing because students who researched in tourism industry course when their graduated TAT approves the holiday guide license. Therefore, the number of registered guides is quite high.
Figure 2. 1 Range of tourist guide permit requirement and endorsement during January 2010 to November 2010
Source: Tourist Business and Guide Registration Office, Centre (2010)
From the implementation time of the Vacationer Business and Tourist Guide Function of 2008 until November 2010, there have been 42, 075 registration tourist guides in Thailand and 35, 010 for General guide and 7, 065 for Specific guide. Most holiday guide (30, 781) was in English terms (see Desk 2. 2)
Figure 2. 2 Tourist guide classification by languagesJ:\Toonio\Work_T\Witoon\20 02 54\physique 2. 2. jpg
Source: Tourist Business and Guide Registration Office, Centre (2010)
There are two main types of vacationer guides: the general guide and the precise guide, as
General guide: a tour guide who has knowledge about general trips to places around
the kingdom, able to speak Thai and also present information in other languages to tourists.
General guide (Foreign): gold bronze cards color, a tour guide who can
conduct trips for Thai and international tourists all over the Kingdom in Thailand.
General guide (Thai): fantastic bronze card color, a travel guide who are able to conduct
tours specifically limited to Thai tourists all over the kingdom in Thailand.
Specific guide: a tour guide who has specialized knowledge; e. g. record, archeology,
trekking, etc. to provide the info to visitors with specific hobbies.
Specific guide (Foreign-specific area): green cards color, a travel guide who can
conduct trips for Thai and foreign tourists only for provinces listed on the credit card and those in the adjacent areas.
Specific guide (Thai-specific area): light blue credit card color, a tourist guide who
can conduct trips specifically for Thai tourists only using the provinces detailed on the cards and the provinces of adjacent areas.
Specific guide (Forest trekking): renewable cards color, a holiday guide who can
conduct trips for Thai and overseas tourists specifically in the forest trekking areas.
Specific guide (Art & ethnic): red cards color, a vacationer guide who conduct
tours for Thai and overseas tourists specifically on areas pertaining to history, archeology, skill, cultural, or Thai literature all around the kingdom in Thailand.
Specific guide (Marine): orange card color, a traveler guide who can conduct
tours for Thai and international travellers specifically about background, archeology, art, ethnic, or Thai books to tours all around the kingdom of Thailand.
Specific guide (Seashore): yellow credit card color, a traveler guide who are able to conduct
tours for Thai and foreign travelers in the areas by the sea or on islands, with the length from the coast to the tourist attractions of only 40 nautical a long way.
Specific guide (Natural areas): purple cards color, a visitor guide who
can conduct tours for Thai and overseas vacationers only on the natural sights branded on the cards.
2. 8 Specific guide (Local cultural): brown cards color, a holiday guide who are able to conduct trips for Thai and international visitors on the culture, record, geography, and archeology especially within the local cultural attractions named on the card only.
Moreover, there are three types of tourist guides; an on-site guide, a city guide and a
specialized guide (Mancini, 1996).
Wannathanom (2003) mentions that being truly a tourist guide, you need to have some specific certification since this is a career for individuals who have to connect to many folks from different cultures and various behaviors. Eighteen qualities which are worth focusing on to the vacationer guides were identified, that happen to be Klamsaengsai (2006) described that:
Good personality: before caring for others, the tourist guide has to initially
concentrate on his or herself, especially with regards to cleanliness and overall neatness.
Human relationships: this is approximately the capability to impress tourists and create friendships
with their automatically.
Be an educated person: the holiday guide should be erudite about the destination
and related matters, and possess a wide and profound knowledge for the benefits of the travelers.
Eloquence: in the career of a holiday guide can't be avoided because verbal
communication is one tool for achieving success.
Perceptiveness: good tourist guides should be able to notice and memorize
surroundings quicker than tourists, since some notices can be useful for the traveler guide in responding to popular questions from holidaymakers.
Service mentality: this qualifying is most significant for holiday guide who works in the
service industry. Visitor guides need to have the spirit to be a company to make others happy rather than doing the work simply for money or short-term experiences.
Travel Experience: a lot more travel experience they have the well informed the tourist
guide will be.
Punctuality & High responsibility: one big responsibility of the traveler guide is to take
care of all tourists, all throughout their driving, therefore tourist guides cannot reject their responsibilities of caring for the visitor. 'Punctuality' is one significant thing that the vacationer guide who acts as a travel leader must respect.
Patience: the tourism industry can be called a people centered industry where both
demand and offer are mainly related to people with different characteristics. When there is pressure from holidaymakers or other problems, holiday tutorials have to refrain themselves.
Intelligence: this will not mean being a genius but vacationer guides have to be conscious
of every situation and so that everything will go smoothly.
Sense of laughter: not exactly such as a comedian, but traveler guides must have some
talent in showing jokes and basic information.
Good mentality and a sound body: in holiday courses, it is a hard based type of work
taking good care of a group of tourists. Tourist guides always have limited a chance to relax, therefore they should manage themselves as well.
Good memory: besides recognizing tourist information, vacationer courses must try to
remember. Then, they can call tourists by their right name and making a visitor impression
Leadership: in doing tours, visitors always assume that the vacationer guide is the
head or the first choice of the tour who is able to help them in every difficulty. Tourist tutorials can control the group.
Honesty: this is actually the quality needed for every career including that of the traveler guide
who have to manage tourists, follow the itinerary, or recommend good shops to vacationers without cheating.
Foreign Terminology: in case of inbound or outbound tours, skills in foreign
languages, especially British is one important feature for tourist tutorials to achieve in communicating with foreign travelers and also to make the head to go smoothly.
Be enthusiastic: to be a leader of the group, tourist guides have to be active and
reactive anytime to make travelers feel self-assured.
Problem - solving capacity: for both predicable and unpredictable problems, tourist
guides are the heroes in the eyes of vacationers, so they need to use their experience and their skill to solve the condition.
Referring to H. Q. Zhang, I. Chow (2004) conducted to determine traveler guide performance that service quality of tourist guide should/should be or has as followings:
Ability to resolve problems
Knowledge of the destination
Honesty and trustworthiness
Knowledge of information about basic safety regulations
Ability to deliver the service promised in itinerary
Being good at presentation skills
Well - trained
Ability to briefing visitors on daily itinerary
Ability to respect for customer
Ability in conversing in overseas languages
Ability to being friendliness
Ability to basic friendly atmosphere
Ability to neat and tidy appearance
Ability to always being designed for help
Ability to watching detail
Ability to informing tourists about destination's customs
Ability to introducing reliable shops
Ability to sense of humor
According to Hall mentions that in Handbook of Professional Travel Management (1993)
the tourist courses must have some qualifications that make an advantage trip as follows:
The potential to attract potential customers: the traveler guide should be considered a positive sales factors, some travelers want a status icon, and security. Traveler guide should be able to order and control the group by the follow factors.
Knowledge of the area: holiday guide should knowledge of historical place and also have been there before when the traveler guide consult with more empower to advice facilities and destinations, to assess the time of travel days, and to remember and take care of the possible problems.
First help skills: traveler guide must be advisable about any medical burdens. And another skills as man-made respiration, CPR, normal water safe practices, and first echelon medical are important. Having someone available in these areas to supply the convenient thing to visitor.
Forcefulness and decisiveness: tourist guide must have able to control people and decision making. This is no job for an unsteady, timid personality.
A positive prospect: visitor guide should be an optimist and optimism must be produced communicate, particular maturity is essential, enabling them to keep a point of view to speak this confidently.
Honesty and commitment: tourist guide must have moral must be practiced on behalf of the vacationer guide, no cheating the visitor. That is both unfair and unwise, and in the end reflects on the escort.
Assertiveness: visitor guide acquired better own self-assurance, self-pride, and a certain amount of ego. Whenever a receptionist insists there are completely one rooms as guaranteed by the vouchers, vacationer guide must be stable. "Get me a supervisor" this does not mean being loud and abusive, or operating tough; it mean exhibiting interior strength and image resolution. It means insisting on the rights of the holidaymakers.
A say demeanor: the best traveler guide do not panic, even internally. They are able to think obviously when riot threatens.
A warm personality: tourist guide must be a lttle bit of the commanding officer in the travel, while establishing management qualifications, must still converse a sunny disposition, flash that ready amile, and show you an enthusiastic. Tourists expect their escort be lively, gifted with attractive voices, and having that essential sense of humor.
A clean and neat appearance: visitors can afford to look casual or untidy, but holiday guide present a perpetually appearance. Travellers wonder how they might keep looking fresh.
Good health: vacationer guide should be sensible a a healthy body, clear of weaken problems, and blesses with a reserve of electric power. Tourist guide should always be "up" and stay before their passengers who awaken first and sometimes the previous to bed. Even though the escort is not feeling in top form. Holiday guide should have ability to jump back from the head cold or upset stomach, combined with the capacity to persevere.
Flexibility: holiday guide must have ability to change directions when they could face with equipment breakdowns, failing in communication, disagreeable and difficult passengers, disease, natural disasters, transport delays, and so on.
Anticipation: traveler guide understands beforehand everything that may fail and will try to insure against this occur. That means frequent conversations with the bus drivers or cruise employees, advance calls, a study of facilities before leading in the group
Negative characteristics: the matter that the vacationer guide should acknowledge tourist do not want the holiday guide who are dishonest, who are congenitally lazy, whose manner is abrasive, who are frightened and unstable, and who have no ability for handling others.
Therefore, there is not yet concluded alternatively than well-designed to give all conclusions of the
tourist guide's qualifications. In what it usually depends upon government's travel and leisure policy's development and version of each country
Manners and ethics of holiday manuals is their verbal behavior, connection and the best practices of tourist guides in order to keep prestige of the professional position, and professional traveler guides who make an occupation of honor which includes been respected as associates of the country and the Thai people (Makchang, 1996).
Tourist manuals are responsible the full time and not leave tourists on their own.
Integrity to vacationers do never to lose the integrity vacationers benefits such as, taking the
tourists to buy only at retailers where tourist guides get more commission with no respect for the grade of the merchandise.
Tourist guides should comprehend that they are in the position of service providers to
tourists rather than show inappropriate reactions to travellers when travelers do not perform according to schedule.
Tourist guides must have an understanding of the wishes and needs of their tourist.
They also needs to give equal focus on everyone, and maintain harmony.
Tourist guides must have compassion, A desire to have others to be happy the reason of
tourism is to help as vacationers want to be happy and enjoy travel that vacationer manuals can willingly provide to travellers.