The theory of terms underlying audioligualism was based on the structural linguistics. This theory is dependant on the belief that learning a words entails mastering the elements or blocks of the vocabulary and learning the guidelines, where these elements are put together, from phoneme to morpheme, from morpheme to phrase, from word to term and from key phrase to phrase.
An important idea of structural linguistics is a language is mainly what it is spoken in support of secondarily what is written. Conversation is terminology. We figure out how to speak before we learn to read and write. So the structural linguistics pays emphasis on the spoken skills of any terminology (Brooks, 1964).
Theory of dialect learning
The theory of words learning root audioligualism is based on behaviorism. This theory has distributed by B. F Skinner. It assumes a individual can be trained utilizing a system of support. The humans are capable of showing conducts. These behaviors are based on the stimulus that is given to them. Correct habit receives positive opinions while errors receive negative feedback. Therefore the audiolingual method is like direct method in which the lesson occurs entirely in the mark words. In audiolingual method, learners receive stimulus in the target dialect; the learners show behavior in response of the stimulus in focus on language.
Objectives of Audiolingual method
The teaching of the oral skills with correct pronunciation, grammar and the capability to answer quickly and effectively is the key objective of audiolingual method. Reading and writing skills may be educated but they are dependent on the dental skills (Richard and Rodgers, 1986).
Techniques of Audiolingual method
The Audiolingual method uses the following techniques for instructing a spanish:
Repetition. The learner repeats an utterance aloud when he has read it. He does this without considering the printed wording. The utterance must be quick and small so that the ears of the learner must maintain them and could do it again it because audio is more important than form and order. For example:
This is the seventh month.
This is the seventh month.
After the university student repeats an utterance, the educator may add two words and after duplicating it teacher can truly add more two words and so forth.
Inflection. One word in an utterance looks in another form when repeated. For example:
I bought the solution. I bought the tickets.
I called the young man. I called the young men.
Replacement. One expression in an utterance is replaced by another. For example
He bought this house cheap.
He bought it cheap.
Restatement. The university student rephrases an utterance and addresses it to someone else, based on the instructions. For instance:
Tell him to hold back for you.
Wait for me personally.
Completion. The university student shear an utterance that is complete except on expression, then he repeats the utterance in complete from. For instance:
I will go my way and you simply go. .
I should go my way so you yours.
Contraction. An individual word means a word or a clause. For example:
Put the hands on the table.
Put your hands there.
Transformation. A phrase is transformed by being made negative or interrogative or through changes in tense, spirits, voice, aspect or modality. For instance:
He is aware of my address.
He does not know my address.
Does he know my address?
He used to know my address.
Integration. Two separate utterances are integrated into one. For instance:
They must be honest. This is important.
It is important that they need to be honest (Richards and Rodgers, 1986, p. 54-55).
Problems with Audiolingual method
The Audiolingual method has the key features of drilling, memorization, repetition and over learning. The challenge is with these top features of this method because these features can be included in its demerits. It was seen that the expected results of the Audiolingual method were not seen into the learners because these were not able to use the memorized structures out of the classroom and in the natural context. The experience of studying vocabulary through Audiolingual technique was uninteresting and unsatisfying (Tjtaylor, 2012)
Oral Strategy/ Situational Dialect Teaching
The oral approach is a method where children to utilize whatever hearing they get from their environment. In addition they take help from the framework to understand and use terms. The goal is to develop the skills in the average person so that he can converse and function individually. This approach helps in the development of reading and writing skills.
The oral procedure originated from 1930s to the 1960s by English applied linguistics such as Harold Palmer and A. S. Hornsby. The main difference between oral procedure and the immediate method was that the techniques that have been developed under this approach had theoretical ideas about the choice, grading and display of the content and material. This sequencing of this content would lead to raised learning with a good knowledge of vocabulary and grammatical patterns. In this process all the factors of language were to be shown in "situations" which resulted in the next name of the procedure i. e. situational terms coaching. Although, the professors are not aware of this approach today but it experienced long lasting impact on terms learning. However, its concentrate on oral practice, grammar and sentence patterns is still recognized by the educators.
Total Physical Response
In Total Physical Response (TPR), the tutor gives the students instructions and the students follow the instructions by using body responses. Wayne J. Asher, a teacher, of mindset at San Jose Talk about University developed the method Total Physical Response in late 1960s to help in learning second dialects.
According to Asher (1977), "TPR is based on the premise that the human brain has a natural program for acquiring any natural terminology on earth including the sign dialect of the deaf". We are able to see this process if we take notice of the language learning process of an infant. The communication between parents and the child includes both verbal and physical aspects. When the child is not able to speak, at the time he/she is internalizing the language. This is the time when code breaking occurs. Following this process the kid becomes in a position to speak and reproduce words. In TPR, the instructor repeats the procedure in the category. Students react to the directions of the professor which require physical movement. TPR is most readily useful for newcomers. TPR is also used for teaching students with dyslexia or related learning disabilities.
Communicative Dialect Teaching
Communicative Language Coaching (CLT) is a widely used approach in the field of English language teaching. It emphasizes conversation as both means and the purpose of language learning. CLT is an expansion of the countrywide functional syllabus. Because the introduction of communicative terminology coaching in the past due 1970s, there were different meanings and interpretations of the communicative procedure which are the following:
1. Communicative Language Teaching is a teaching method for instructing a second terms emphasizes on the importance of students' interactive potential to express their own ideas in the mark dialect (Hattum, 2006).
2. Communication ability is the fundamental goal in dialect learning. The communicative way boasts that learning a spanish shouldn't be focused on dialect set ups (grammar and vocabulary), but also on the communicative functions that the words performs. Terminology learners should also learn the relationships between the buildings and the communicative functions in real situations and real-time (Littlewood, 1981).
3. Communicative words teaching began in Britain in the 1960s. It had been used to displace the earlier structural method, called Situational Dialect Coaching (Orwig, 1999). The goal of communicative language coaching is to instruct real-life communication skills. Students learn with a predicament that they could encounter in their real life. CLT is not like the audiolingual method, which is dependant on repetition and drills. On the contrary, it uses the best way to leave students in suspense as to the outcome of a class exercise, that will change based on the students' reactions and replies. The real-life situation change every day; therefore, the students' learning desire comes from their aspire to speak in the ways and subject areas which they are thinking about (Galloway, 2010). Therefore, many analysts have indicated that it is easier to use CLT in ESL classrooms, rather than EFL classrooms in Asia (Liao, 2006).
Aims of communicative dialect teaching
The aim of this approach is to allow the students to speak in the prospective language just like a native speaker of this language. CLT does not focus on precision but strains on the semantic use of language. A student should know the different varieties in meaning that can be used to execute a function and also a single form is capable of doing many functions. The aim of CLT is to enable the students to work with the target dialect as a mean of appearance that can meet their communicative needs. Communicative terms coaching includes activities predicated on social relationship, such as dialogue, discussion trainings, dialogues and role plays etc. CLT targets the proficiency of the terminology alternatively than on the mastery of buildings. It could be said that CLT will permits learners to socialize but it is very problematic for a professor to present such activities which allows genuine discussion.
Teaching techniques of communicative terminology teaching
The basic purpose of the communicative language teaching is the communication into the target language in authentic situation. To do this, the students need to know the linguistic varieties, meanings and functions of vocabulary. The learning and teaching activities that are being used in the communicative language teaching require the use of communication operations like:
Asking for information
Negotiation of meaning
The school room activities are often designed to concentrate on the conclusion of tasks. Within the completion of the jobs, the teacher's role is really as a facilitator who motivates and helps the students to speak through the completion of the tasks. Teacher can be an advisor who answers the questions of the students and monitors their performance. Instructors is the co-communicator who take part in the actions of the students however the learners are liable and director of their own learning (Richards and Rodgers, 2001).
The pursuing techniques can be utilized in language coaching through communicative language teaching method:
Authentic material. Traditional material such as a recent paper article can get to the learners. The learners can be assigned to hear a live or tv set broadcast.
Scrambled sentences. Students are asked to unscramble the sentences so the phrases are restored to their original order which really is a good activity for understanding how to become a member of the ideas. The learners can be asked to unscramble the type of a combined dialogue.
Completion of an image account. The learners can be asked to place the pictures of an image strip story to be able by using their co-learners and write lines about the storyplot of pictures.
Language game titles. Language games are frequently used in instructing vocabulary through communicative terminology teaching where the learners can learn dialect through:
Comparing and contrasting
Simple fact and opinions
Role play. Role play gives the students an possibility to practice communication in various social context and in different social jobs (lubna85, 2010).
Communicative language coaching in Pakistan
Azim (2007) has referred to that people have to handle a lot of problems in the use of communicative language coaching in Pakistan. A few of these problems are as follow:
Grammar. Grammar is one of the main factors of dialect learning and teaching which is totally banished in the practice of communicative words teaching. It really is one of the major downside or hurdle in the form of application of communicative language teaching by Pakistani instructors. A lot of the Pakistani teachers think that fluency of the language is important but precision is more important. They believe fluency can be developed in terms after getting accuracy so accuracy and reliability must be developed in the first phases of life which can be difficult to achieve in the later periods of life. So these assumptions about sentence structure make them motivated to teach sentence structure with their students.
Spoken language. There is over focus on the spoken vocabulary in communicative terminology teaching. It is predicated on the assumption that a lot more you speak the terms in the true life situation, the more you learn. But in the Pakistani context, students gets maximum 40 to 45 mints to get vulnerability of the second words which is in the classrooms and the life of classrooms cannot be said as true to life situation. So a Pakistani student seems difficulty to learn language out of this method.
Cultural difference. The Pakistani people are surviving in the country having different languages and different cultures. The Pakistani students are not bilingual but trilingual. They have got their mom tongue, first tongue and the next tongue. To comprehend a language, they need to convert the second words in their mother tongue and then in the first tongue. So the application of communicative language coaching seems difficult here where in fact the students cannot speak in the next terms fluently.
Curriculum. There is not any syllabus designed for the real program of the communicative terminology coaching in Pakistan. It is impossible to instruct language through this technique when they don't have relevant curriculum and activities. The curriculum that we have to follow is totally predicated on the grammar translation method and all our exams derive from this method. Therefore the teachers hesitate in making use of CLT in their classrooms because they feel that they will squander enough time and energies of the students and the students will never be able to get good grades in the exams.
Economic problems. Pakistan is a poor country and we can not spend the money for luxury of communicative words teaching because it is very costly. The private sector colleges can afford them because they are serving only a little fraction of culture. The general public sector cannot think this technique to be utilized.
Advantages of communicative dialect teaching
The goal of Communicative Language Teaching is the development and improvement of knowledge and skills that will help a loudspeaker to make his/her communication successful. The primary emphasis of CLT is performance. When we consider how native speakers of English think about the use of terminology, then it becomes apparent to us our main goal works well communication and the transfer of the ides not merely formal grammatical correctness and precision.
In CLT, dialect is the trained in the manner as it can be used in everyday activities. Students are not supposed to memorize vocabulary. Grammatical accuracy is important but our main concentrate should succeed communication. CLT aims at the introduction of the other three competencies as well: socio-linguistic, discourse and strategic competence (Canale and Swain, 2003). The attitude of students towards learning a second language can be made positive by using CLT. If we focus very much on accuracy and reliability, the students would not dare to use the vocabulary in the class because they charge hesitant and afraid that they could make grammatical problems. In this way CLT induces the students to utilize the both of their linguistic and communicative competences. The idea of appropriateness means that the scholar will not only learn the dialect, nonetheless they also learn about the culture and its use in communal context.
CLT is known as to be a powerful way of teaching a second terminology since it reduces concern with making grammatical problems. It also provides students with an image of the culture associated recover English language. In this manner the students learn the words and the culture as well as they come to learn of what is considered to be in confirmed culture.
According to Melrose (1995) the legacy of CLT is the realization that educating a language involves far more than dealing using its syntactic, lexical and phonological components because dialect used results from the ways people choose to control these components in discourse. CLT brings the measurements of different dialect functions such as requesting, apologizing, persuading, thanking and conveying information that are essential for communication with others. CLT makes students aware of the correct use of terminology in line with the levels of formality, tone, context, topic and non verbal patterns.
Limitations of communicative dialect teaching
Despite all the great things about this approach it can enable a learner to talk in the target language in everyday routine, its implementation using conditions is not without problems. Aside from other factors, such as politics reasons, language insurance plan, administrative, economic factors, probably a fundamental problem in the execution of CLT is its discord with local culture of learning (Tudor 1996). Culture of learning can be explained as a "framework of expectations, attitudes, values, and values about what constitute good learning, about how exactly to instruct or learn, whether as well as how to ask questions, what books are for, and exactly how language teaching pertains to broader issues of the nature and purpose of education" (Cortazzi and Jin, 1996).
It is quite difficult to use CLT in large classes where it may be simpler to guide the students through the sentence structure translation method. CLT cannot be found in EFL classrooms because the mark terminology i. e. English is almost never used beyond your classroom. Some people believe that CLT focuses too much on oral skills and ignores the skills of reading and writing. It could also be possible that lots of students would not feel comfortable to take part in communicative activities.
This study will provide thorough information about the far better method of British language coaching in the view of potential teachers. This research will make clear the prospective of prospective teachers of English terms about the teaching of language. This study can make clear the constraints and hurdles that lie on the way of learning and educating language effectively in the context of Pakistan. The study will tell us today's condition of British language coaching in Pakistan in the point of view of instructors, students as well as curriculum designers. It will tell the sources of present condition of terms coaching in Pakistan and the possible solutions that you can do in this field.
It is seen that as time approved different ways of teaching British were developed. Every method has its advantages and disadvantages. It cannot be said that there is any method which is flawless. GTM focuses on precision and grammatical buildings whereas CLT targets fluency and communication skills. Generally, in Pakistan GTM is utilized in public sector institutions. GTM was criticized but it is still popular in our country because it can be utilized effectively in large classes. CLT is also used however in handful of our famous private classes.
One of the reason why of using GTM is the fact that it can require much work for the professor as there is no focus on creativity. The teacher doesn't need to bring in various activities in support of concentrates on the text book. In this way students' behavior towards learning British changes as they are not determined to learn the terminology. But the concentration of this research is now moving to communication skills as it is the major goal of learning a second dialect. CLT, as its name claims, strains on communication. But it is also feared that the complete use of aim for language may also not prove to be very useful because there will vary types of learners in a school. It could be said that we should have British mostly classes so the communication skills are also concentrated and there also needs to be a little use of Urdu where necessary. In this manner the students will not feel hesitant and can participate actively in the course.