This article shows the potency of Organizational Development models to be able with the example. In this article we've discuss the assessment of three OD models mentioning their effectiveness in order with example.
The world is transferring through the turbulent times. Companies are expanding their business, acquiring new companies, and going through significant changes, including outsourcing, downsizing, automation etc.
Tomorrow's world changes from todays, phoning for new organizational approaches. Organizations will need to be adapting to these changes market conditions and at exactly the same time coping with the necessity for a renewing alternatively than reactive workforce.
Organizations should never be completely stagnant. External causes i. e. Administration, Stockholders, Unions, Competition, Suppliers, and Customers etc consistently affect the activities of the business. Changing consumer lifestyles and technological breakthroughs all act on the business to lead it to change. Many of these changes are required upon the organization, whereas others are made internally. Because change is occurring so rapidly, there is a need for new ways to manage it.
Organizational Development is a relatively recent invention. It were only available in the past due 1950s when behavioral experts steeped in the lore and technology of group dynamics attemptedto apply that knowledge to improve team performing and intergroup relations in firm. (French and Bell, 1999).
Organizational development (OD) is an request of behavioral science to organizational change. It contains several theories, operations, and activities, all of which are focused toward the goal of improving specific organizations. OD focuses on carefully planned methods to changing or improving organizational buildings and processes, in an attempt maximize organizational performance.
In present time of cut neck competition, globalization, erasing trade obstacles, rapid innovation, growth in new technology, reduction in product life pattern and huge investment requirements to get access into industry increase the fact of formulating a highly effective strategy in an organization in order to get a competitive advantage in market place. It is maximum important for each and every and every company to be consistently competitive at the market place in order to save company from entropy and allow organization to constantly expand through request of Organizational Development concepts. Strategy is a comprehensive plan to achieve organizational goals or strategy is a comprehensive master plan saying how the organization/organization will achieve its mission and objectives. It is not only very important to any firm to develop an efficient organizational strategy but also proper implementation and control mechanism is very vital for success. Organization strategy is the main one of element among various elements that may require OD interventions if not effective. According to Burke-Litwin model, corporation may require first order or second order change or may require both(First order and Second order changes). If OD interventions aimed toward framework, systems, and management practice cause first order change, if interventions aimed toward objective, strategy, command, and organizational culture then cause second order change (French and Bell, Jr, 1999).
Companies today are exposed to much more fast changes than they were decades previously. This development provides the reason to analyze approaches that help to defeat inflexible, conservatively-managed companies and lead change initiatives efficiently. (Kotter, 1996).
Organizational Development is designed change in an organizational context. The introduction of models of organized change facilitated the introduction of OD. Models and theories depict, in words or pictures, the important top features of some phenomenon, illustrate those features as parameters, and designate the relationships among the variables. (France and Bell, 1999).
Corporate restructuring, strategies, and development models may be based on various factors viz. Individual Reference Management, Financial revamping, International competitive market, post merger and acquisition etc. The globalization, commercialization, privatization, and deregulation have transformed the whole scenario as a result change is becoming significant element in business survival. This has helped bring far-reaching changes in financial structures and patterns of organizations. The OD gets increasing attention as a result it plays an integral role in the explanation of recent developments. The corporations private or open public now realize the recent trends and prospects and also have started giving concern to OD. These organizations now modify and take action OD at their work place by redefining its role in promoting efficiency and monetary progress. The organizations, particularly those without strong change element are and only encouraging the vigorous progress of OD in corporate and business governance. The organizations they don't undertake measures to improve their features through prepared change by employing OD risk not merely being marginalized but also being completely bypassed in the new global order. The organizations those face severe competition today are completely reliant on behavioral interventions for organization improvement.
Organizational Development (OD) bridges an organization's dependence on continuity and its need for growth. It helps the business change to meet up with the changing demands of its interior and external surroundings (Culbert & Reisel, 1971).
Organizational development is a theory and practice of providing the designed change to group. These changes are usually made to address a business problem or to help an organization plan future. It is the one method of quickly taking change, which concentrate on human and public aspects of the corporation in an effort to improve organization's potential to change and solve problems.
Organizational development is both a specialist field of communal action and a location of methodical inquiry. The practice of OD includes a wide spectral range of activities, with apparently endless variations after them. Team building with top corporate and business management, structural change in a municipality, and job enrichment in a production firm are all examples of OD. (Cummings and Worley, 2005).
Different theorists have given their own definitions of organizational development. Some definitions are :
Porras and Robertson (1992)
Organizational development is a couple of behavioral science-based theories, principles, strategies, and techniques aimed at the prepared change of the organizational work setting up for the purpose of enhancing specific development and increasing organizational performance, through the alteration of organizational people' on-the-job behaviors.
Cummings and Worley (1993)
[OD is] a systematic program of behavioral science knowledge to the designed development and encouragement of organizational strategies, structures, and procedures for improving an organization's success.
Organizational development is prepared procedure for change in an organization's culture through the utilization of behavioral science technologies, research, and theory.
French and Bell (1999)
Organizational development is a long-term work, led and backed by top management, to boost an organization's visioning, empowerment, learning, and problem-solving techniques, through an ongoing, collaborative management of group culture-with special focus on the culture of intact work clubs and other team configurations-using the consultant-facilitator role and the idea and technology of applied behavioral knowledge, including action research.
The gist of above definitions is summarized below:
Culture and procedures will be the key regions of the OD
Specifically, OD stimulates collaboration between group top managers and workers in controlling culture and process.
Teams of all kinds are specifically important for achieving duties and are focuses on for OD activities.
OD targets the human and social part of the business and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides.
Participation and engagement in problem fixing and decision making by all levels of the organization are hallmarks of OD.
OD targets total system change and views organizations as complicated social system.
OD professionals are facilitators, collaborators, and co-learners with your client system.
OD makes the client system effective so that the client systems solves its problem at their own and provide necessary training / teaching in order to enhance the data and skill level.
OD relies on an action research model with extensive participation by consumer system participants.
OD takes a developmental view that seeks the betterment of both individuals and the business. Wanting to create "win-win" solutions is standard practice in OD programs.
In the 1970s, business development changed as separate field that applied the behavioral sciences in a process of organized organization-wide change, with the purpose of increasing organization performance. Today the concept has been enlarged to examine how people and groupings can transform to a learning firm culture in a complex and turbulent environment. Organization development is not a step-by-step procedure to resolve a specific problem but a process of important change in the individuals and sociable systems of the business, including company culture. It really is a process in a sense a process is an identifiable interrelated event moving toward some goal or end. Business development is a voyage, not a vacation spot. It is an unfolding and evolving group of events. Every corporation program is unique because every business has unique problems and opportunities. Yet all organization development programs are identifiable move of interrelated occasions moving over time toward the goals of the business improvement and specific development.
Organization development is an organizational improvement strategy, which is about how precisely people and group function and ways to get them to operate better. The field is based on the data from the behavioral knowledge disciplines such as psychology, social psychology, sociology, anthropology, systems theory, organizational habit, corporation theory and management to produce trust, open conformation of problems, employee empowerment and contribution, knowledge and information posting, the look of important work, co-operation and co-ordination between groups and full use of human potential.
Organizational Development can help categories and individuals improve various areas of organizational life essential for success, including culture, worth, and systems and tendencies. The goal of O. D. is to increase organizational success and organizational health, through prepared interventions in the organization's processes, operations, and patterns. Most often, O. D. services are requested when a business (or a product within an corporation) is undergoing a process of change.
Organizational Development services can assist in possessing a positive impact on most, if not absolutely all, factors that donate to high performance. These include:
Professional development strategies
Effective use of technology
A main aim of organization development is to enhance the machine by making certain system elements are harmonious and congruent. When organization framework, strategy, culture, and functions are not aligned, performance suffers. Different organizations interventions focus on align the organization with environment needs. Organizations are types of available systems, that is, system getting together with their surroundings. Many problems of organizations today emerge from immediate changes in environmental needs, hazards and opportunities.
Organizations must settle themselves in ever more complex and uncertain technical, economic, political, and social changes. The speedily changing conditions of previous couple of years shown that the organizations are facing the unprecedented uncertainty and nothing lacking a management revolution helps you to save them. Globalization, it, and managerial creativity are the major trends that are shaping change in organizations.
First: globalization is playing vital role is the organizational life routine. Organization keeps growing in the changing marketplaces and surroundings. New governments, new management, new markets, and new countries are rising and creating a new global current economic climate. Companies in Russia, China, Hong Kong etc. will be the examples of globalization.
Second: it has greatly changing the old business model and determining the new guidelines of how knowledge is used, how work is performed and how to calculate the cost of doing business. Now the organizations are going for ERP, e-commerce, SAP etc. Amazon. com, E-Trade, are among many recent entrants to the information economy, and the amount of business being conducted on the Internet is projected to grow at double-digit rates for more than a decade.
Due to trend in it, electric data interchange, a state of the art work information technology request, few years earlier, is now regarded as routine business practice. For this reason revolution, organizations shifted towards downsizing and restructuring of the companies.
Finally, information technology is changing how knowledge can be used. Organization customers now share the same key information that mature professionals once used to control decision making.
Ultimately, IT will generate home based business models where communication and information sharing is practically free and easy to get at.
Third: managerial technology has responded to the globalization and information technology tendencies and has increase their impact on organizations. New organizational forms, i. e. networks, virtual companies etc, provide organizations with different ways of thinking about how precisely the produced goods and deliver services. The strategic alliance, for example, has surfaced among the indispensable tools in strategy execution. No single organization, not IBM, Mitsubishi, or Standard Electric, can control environmentally friendly and market uncertainty it encounters.
New methods of change, such as downsizing and reengineering, have drastically reduced the size of organizations and increased their capacity, and new large group interventions have increased the speed with which organizational change may take place. OD practitioners, managers, and researchers argue that these causes not only are powerful in their own right but are interrelated.
Organization development is the continuous process of improvement. As change is the continuous process so also to cope with such changes is essential of organizations make it through. As the time goes by the new changes happen in the market issue. The organizations on their maximum position need to keep their peak position and consistently improve to provide better benefits to their customers. Well-timed they need to change new technology, enter in to new marketplaces, beat your competition etc.
The business development is not only for the failure organization however the successful business also adapt new technology and improvements to maintain their success. Firm may face different problems in their different departments like funding, management, marketing, creation, sales and so forth. So the OD specialist diagnoses these problems to provide solutions to that organization.
Human resources -- our people -- may be a sizable fraction in our costs to do business. They certainly can make the difference between organizational success and inability. We better learn how to take care of them.
Changing aspect of the work environment. Our personnel today want responses on the performance, a sense of accomplishment, feelings of value and worthy of, and dedication to cultural responsibility. They need to be more effective, to boost their time management. And, of course, if we are to keep doing more use less people, we need to make our functions more efficient.
Global markets. Our surroundings are changing, and our organizations must also change to endure and prosper. We have to be more liable to and develop better partnerships with this customers. We should change to make it through, and we argue that we should attack the issues, not the symptoms, in a systematic, designed, humane manner.
Technological improvement: Organizations every once in awhile innovate and create new technology for better product development and management of organization. Because in period of competition the manager's overall attention is toward the proper management and allocation of resources.
Organizations are facing constant pressures due to improve in global rate, economic and scientific development and company is making the same a feature of its life pattern. Every organization is certainly going for development and directed at bringing about prepared change to increase organization's effectiveness and efficiency. Managers, generally, initiate and put into practice the same by using an OD specialist either from inside or beyond the business.
Organizations may use planned change to resolve problems, to learn from experience, to adapt to external environmental changes, to boost performance, also to influence future changes.
Organization Development (OD) protects all areas of a business; its functional scope is very vast as such it:
Focuses on culture and processes
Encourages cooperation between organization leadership and members in handling culture and process and helps it be more efficient.
Teams of varied kinds are the focus on of OD.
It focuses on the man and social part of the business and in doing also intervenes in the scientific and structural edges.
Ensures involvement and participation in problem handling and decision making by all degrees of the business, which is hall tag of complete process.
Also focuses on total systems change and views organizations as sophisticated social systems.
It brings about a development that seeks the betterment of both individuals and the business all together.
The OD consultants/ professionals therefore performs an important and essential role so they are facilitates, collaborates, and co-learners with your client system. At the outset OD consultants looks for top management's determination and consent to start the process.
The major occurrences in the process then include:
OD can be an iterative process, it a journey not a vacation spot. The goal of OD consultants is overcharging to make client's systems able to solve their problems through learning and instructing self-analytical methods. OD in simple truth is not one time process; alternatively it depends on action research model with extreme involvement by customer system customers to bring ecological growth. The data base of OD is comprehensive, dynamic, and consonantly growing. Today the organizations favor for all natural action plan as compare to linear or cyclic kind of interventions. The alternative approach presents a theory that the world and especially characteristics should be viewed as interacting wholes alternatively than as distinct parts. This approach definitely caters to dynamic and most contemporary techniques for the planned change.
There are numerous models and several recent theories those promises organized change.
Few are highlighted below:
Three level theory of change was proposed by Kurt Lewin (creator of social mindset). Initially the idea was shown in 1947 and since then a lot of changes has been taken place in the initial work. Actually there are numerous types of change which derive from the Kurt Lewin model. Corresponding to Kurt Lewin, change in group is commonly known as Unfreeze, Change, and Freeze. Change includes moving in one equilibrium indicate another.
Kurt Lewin model pays to to frame an activity of change for people which can simply understand. Although this theory received so much recognition but it's been criticized to be too simplistic. The comprehensive explanation of every level of the model is given below:
Unfreezing is the first stage of Lewin's Change Model. This stage focuses on the need for change which is the starting place of change process. This level emphasizes the value of change and helps in moving move from our current safe place. Change will not occur unless and until we understand the urgency of change. The greater we believe that change is necessary, the more immediate it is and vise versa. When it becomes noticeable that the organization takes a change then the next step is to identify the professionals and cons associated with the execution of change. For example it might be wise to continue with the change if the 'pro's' outnumber the 'con's' before you take any action. This is the basis of what Kurt Lewin called the Power Field Analysis. In field power analysis there are several factors related to the change. A number of the factors are and only change while others are opposing factors. A big change cannot occurs unless the factors for change outweigh the factors against change. Inside the 'Unfreezing' level a section or a whole business techniques towards motivation for change. The Kurt Lewin Make Field Analysis is a helpful way to learn this process and there are enough of thoughts of how this is done.
The second level of Lewin's Change Model is an activity of move which is the interior movement or journey we make in a reaction to a change. In changeover process the existing areas is unfrozen and activity is started into the new condition. Lewin argued that the next stage is usually the hardest as people are unsure or even fearful. Fundamentally in this stage people aren't much aware of the great things about change so they may be in the process of studying the changes and require time to comprehend. In this level people scan the environment for new relevant information and make an effort to identify new role model or mentor. People will need to have clear picture of the desired change so they don't lose eyesight of where these are heading. Using role models and allowing visitors to develop their own alternatives also help to make the changes.
The last stage of Lewin's Change Model is freezing or refreezing. After the change has been made, the next thing is to freeze the change in order to establish stability. In this stage everything is going to settle down because people are in the process of recognizing the new changes. Thus all the changes become new norms of the business and folks form new interactions. People can be more comfortable with their exercises but it will require time. Many people argue that there is no freezing because of strong environment in which things are changing very rapidly. Therefore there's always a continuous change and freezing has become a chaotic process in which great flexibility is demanded. In this way 'unfreezing' for another change might be easier. Lewin's tried to bolster the change and ensure that the required change is accepted and retained into the future. Reinforcement is very important because people tend to go back to doing what they are being used to doing.
There is lot of true to life types of Kurt Lewin's Change model.
Example # 1# 1 Continental Airline
By making use of the Kurt Lewin's Change Model, Continental Airlines became "Airline of the Year".
The awards received by Continental so far include "No. 1 Most Admired Global Airline" from Lot of money mag (2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009), "Airline of the Year" by OAG (2004, 2005), "Best Trans-Atlantic and Trans-Pacific Business Category among U. S. airlines" by Cond Nast Tourist (1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006), and many others.
[Video available at http://www. youtube. com/watch?v=7wxKv6K1-V0]
Following is the another exemplory case of Kurt Lewin's Change model:
By doing attitude and satisfaction review in the organization of all staff, management will come to learn that the moral of the workers is quite low and due to this risk of safeness is quite high. This may impede the change process.
Similarly when information has been delivered to the field, but negative occasions are continuing that occurs, this may reflect to the management that the subject matter is not being read plus some required changes are in order.
During the unfreezing step generally most of the workers and management are willing to change.
Kurt Lewin's model suggests that among the finest ways to stimulate people to change is to first get people see the dependence on change. Even though a change if for the individuals long term health benefits such a ceasing a bad destructive behavior, few people ever change because someone else tells them to. People generally need to see for themselves the need for change, for the catalyst that occurs, to provoke those to "unfreeze. "
Educating employees in regards the pressures for change is a first step.
Organization leaders will get started to highlight spaces between current and desired states and put forward a vision as it requires to be. They further express the change in conditions of particular results that the organization desired from its procedure and employees and their belief and confidence these changes are possible.
Before installing a new way of functions, the existing system must be broken down.
At this level, the purpose of change agent is to create a strong reaction. To get the relevant personnel & management participated and evaluating the status quo. Create an environment which people are pressured to search out a fresh and better way to do things. To re-set the standard order of things to new levels and expectations.
Change is necessary because the firms, market or product are changing. Analysis should be completed that what's required. Build an understanding.
Existing status quo will be required to break down before growing new way to do things.
Guide the people to know and understand that the old ways cannot continue and prior poor results will be used. Communication should be passed on. What, who, when, where, why and how changes and improvements are necessary.
Regular and recurrent communication lines will most probably with all employees. To be able to eliminate the barriers of change, open up door insurance plan will be introduced with the aim to allow the employees to feel safe in posting their concerns with the command.
Remain available and honest with opinions to personnel and continue steadily to build solid connections with the damaged groups.
Build a guiding relationship and support from management and understand and consider the needs of stakeholders.
During the changeover phase we aim to shift or modify the tendencies of the
There are in least three prepared change models which have been discovered by Cummings and Worley (1997): Lewin's change model, the action research model, and modern day adaptations of action research.
Organizational change can occur at three levels- and, since the patterns of amount of resistance to change will vary for every, the habits in each level require different change strategies and techniques. These levels involve:
Changing the people who work in the organization-that is, their skills, beliefs, attitudes, and finally behavior-but making sure that such individual-behavior change is usually thought to be instrumental to organizational change.
Changing various organizational constructions and systems-reward systems, reporting connections, work design, and so on.
Directly changing the organizational weather or social style-how wide open people are with one another, how issue is supervised, how decisions are created, and so forth.
Whatever the level involved, each one of the three interventions is needed to make organizational members addresses the level's need for change, heighten their awareness of their own behavioral habits, and make them more available to the change process.
Three means of unfreezing a business are:
ii. Induction of guilt or anxiety
iii. Creation of mental health safety
Disconfirmation or insufficient confirmation. Organizational participants are not more likely to accept change unless they experience some need for it. Embracing change typically means that folks are dissatisfied with the way things are - quality is below standard, costs are too much, morale is too low, or route is unclear, for example.
Unfreezing involves minimizing those forces maintaining the organization's behavior at its present level. Unfreezing is sometimes accomplished through an activity of "psychological disconfirmation. " By producing information that shows discrepancies between behaviours desired by organization members and the ones behaviors currently exhibited, associates can be encouraged to engage in change activities.
Induction of guilt or panic. This is a subject of creating a distance between what's current but not working well plus some future goal that would make things are better. When people identify a space between what's and what would be better plus more desirable, they will be motivated via guilt or nervousness to lessen the difference. But disconfirmation and induction are not enough to accomplish the unfreezing stage. Yet another process is essential.
Creation of mental health safety. To face disconfirmation, experience guilt or nervousness, and be able to act or move, people must think that moving won't bring them humiliation or lack of self-esteem. People must still feel suitable, psychologically safe. The specialist must get worried with people not burning off face and must take car that whenever people say that that something is incorrect they will not be punished or humiliated.
The second step, activity, consists of making the real changes that will move the organization to another degree of response. On the average person level, we'd be prepared to see people behaving in a different way, perhaps demonstrating new skills or new supervisory routines. Over the structural level, we'd be prepared to see changes in genuine organizational structures, reporting relationships, and praise systems that impact just how people do their work. For the climate or social level, we'd be prepared to see behavior patterns that indicate greater social trust and openness and fewer dysfunctional connections.
There are two main processes for completing this level:
Identification with a new role model
Scanning the surroundings for new information
Identification with a new role model, mentor, boss, or expert to "start to see things from that other person's perspective. If we see another viewpoint operating in a person to whom we pay attention and respect, we can start to imagine that time of view as something to consider for ourselves".
Scanning the surroundings for new, relevant information. In dealing with the chairman of any company and the president or CEO, the specialist explored multiple reasons for their turmoil with one another. To greatly help with reducing a few of this issue, the consultant worked on clarifying roles and responsibilities. He estimates other chairman-president/CEO models from other consumer organizations, some that worked very well and some that didn't.
This process was a task of getting to each of them new, relevant information that might help them to move frontward with the changes needed in the relationship.
This final stage is one of aiding the client assimilate the changes. This stage involves stabilizing or
institutionalizing these changes by establishing systems (such as norms, guidelines, and buildings) that make
these behavioral patterns "relatively secure against change".
The refreezing level may involve
Redesigning the organization's recruitment process to boost the likelihood of hiring applicants
who talk about the organization's new management style and value system.
During the refreezing stage, the organization may also ensure that the new manners have become
the functioning norms at the job, that the praise system actually reinforces those habits, or that a
new, more participative management style predominates.
i. Personal refreezing
ii. Relational refreezing
i. Personal refreezing is the process of taking the new, modified way to do things and so that it is fit
comfortably into one's total self-concept. This process involves a great deal of practice - checking out new functions and
behaviors, getting feedback, and making modifications until the new way of doing things seems reasonably
ii. Relational refreezing is the process of ensuring that the client's new tendencies will match significant
others. In a system, when one begins to do things in another way, will this difference quickly impact others with