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The structural frame


The structural shape of a building is the most crucial aspect a service provider must consider before engineering even begins. A few requirements should be examined for the selection of right structural structures and the material used.

  • Evaluation of the structural frame :

In Situ Reinforcement Concrete:

The In Situ encouragement concrete structural structure is common used as a framework for both one and multi-storey complexes such as home flats and commercial offices. The usage of reinforced in-situ ensemble concrete as a structural materials for building is a structure combo with columns, beams, strengthened concrete surfaces and roof structure.

Advantages :

  1. Inside a skeleton body of continues columns and flooring, repetitive floor programs can be created predicated on the executive design of calculation based on the design necessity.
  2. Shorten of erection period and build up economic structural structure are achievable because of the uniformity design of formwork and column section.
  3. By connecting directly to a solid concrete backing, columns, beams and floor slabs can offers a sturdy and level surface where the partitions and walls can be built.
  4. The design of structural and building shape is flexible to suit to the requirement of the occupants.
  5. Adjustment and alternations in conditions of design can be produced before or through the construction.
  6. The entire framework construction activity can be executed on site.
  7. As the framework is built, the design can be proceeded.
  8. With the enlargement factors of safety elements in structural design, the structural strategy for disaster resilient such as earthquakes, collision and explosion are attainable.

Disadvantages :

  1. It is very hard and expensive to make corrections when encounter errors or fault in setting up of formwork or falsework after the cement has been casted.
  2. Subsequent alteration on the structural is difficult to be made in change useful purpose of the composition.
  3. Formwork or falsework and encouragement are tend to be labour rigorous. Thus, lot of labour and plant are required on site.

Precast Concrete:

Precast concrete set ups are one of the common option used in the number from solitary storey factory buildings to multi-storey set ups for commercial and commercial use. Generally, there are 2 (two) types of precast concrete constructions getting used effectively:-

    1. Units associated with the website measurement

Joints information on the structural components are need to be recognized and analyzed during the pre-planning of development stage.

  1. Individual the different parts of structure installed in site

The fabrication of structural elements in a precast manufacturer is under controlled conditions in which the component elements will normally be columns, beams, surfaces, floor slabs and staircase items etc. Separate devices or components will be sent to site for erection and installation with other unit.


  1. A high quality control for the composition components through the fabrication process completed in the manufacturer.
  2. High quality of finishing elements regarding to factory production. Installation length of time on site can be shortening.
  3. Formwork and falsework forget about required on site through the installation. Labour and seed on site are reduced significantly.
  4. The use of scaffolding can be reduced to a higher level with good planning in the installation sequence.
  5. Site storage space can be minimized especially for the websites which are limited due to the restriction of space by deliver the off site prefabricated structure upon the time of installation.


  1. Impossible to do any amendment or adjustment to the structure during the installation stage.
  2. Design needs to be finalized and completed before casting commences by the product manufacturer.
  3. Not flexible and unsuitable if structural changes or modifications might be needed and considered in the foreseeable future.
  4. There is an expense involve in the handling, caring, protection either before transportation and storage area on site for the precast products.
  5. A likelihood that the precast framework might be distort through the curing period during the fabrication in the manufacturing plant.
  6. Installation plan for the structure elements on site will be disrupted if one of the component damage because of the sequence of set up affected.
  7. It could be occurred that sometime the use of Prestressed floor sections or beams can encounter the situation like uneven camber in various units.


Structural steel is often being used in industrial plants due to its ability to achieve large wide open spans in making areas. The creator has more options in their design criteria because the availability of steel sections in variety of dimensional runs. Among the additional option nowadays is hollow steel sections which widens the number of the opportunity of metal in designing lightweight roofs, space framework and the areas where the hollow section is a strong but light method of construction.


  1. A smaller physical look of the steel column than concrete columns can contribute more useable space and decrease the visible obstructions.
  2. By using steel, structural such as cantilevers, skewed wall surfaces, clear spans, curved framing, sloping surfaces, atria, floor opportunities, special visual features, and usual loadings are economically and easily accommodated.
  3. Steel can be easily reinforced if any additional loads are put into the structure to take care of the weight. Moreover, the alternation such as stairwells, new floor opportunities for elevators, and architectural or mechanised requirements can be easily accommodated due to its flexibility.
  4. A much larger clear areas is easily and economically achievable by using the kind of structural steel frame which can contribute more overall flexibility with building designs.
  5. When come to the fast track construction, material framing is an excellent option which it could be rapidly fabricated, rapidly purchased and erected due to its case of design and building is quickly to lends.
  6. Smaller base only required if using metal structural which is normally much lighter, thus there's a cost saving in the development. .
  7. Structural steel is often found in the zone of which there's a possibility of earthquake took place because of its ductility. It is considered a top structural materials for financially resisting earthquakes. It could reduced the recover cost and maximized the life span safety through the seismic event.
  8. Steel is a kind of material which can be recycled and almost all of the metal sold on the market today is produced and recycled from the source of demolition jobs.


  1. Erosion - Material are easily eroded when easily subjected to air and normal water, so that it must be coated thoroughly and regularly. For example, erosion-fatigue failures may appear where steel members are subject to corrosive surroundings and cyclic strains. The fatigue durability of steel people can be reduced when the associates are approached with the competitive chemical conditions like seaside area and subjected to cyclic loads.
  2. Fireproofing or tolerant costs - Even though steel structural customers are incapable in using, but their strength is enormously reduced at heat commonly reached in fires when the other materials in a building burn up.
  3. Furthermore, steel is an excellent heating conductor, so a non-fireproofed metal members may transfer enough heating from a burning up section or compartment of a building to ignite the encompassing materials with that they are connected in adjoining parts of the building.
  4. Fatigue - It is another undesirable characteristic of material which its durability may be reduced if it is subjected to a big variety of stress reversals or to a large amount of variants of tensile stress. Normally, tiredness problems will arise only when anxiety is engaged.
  5. Susceptibility in the buckling process - As the slenderness and length of a compression metallic structural member is increased, its threat of buckling increase also. For the majority of the steel constructions, the use of metallic columns is very economical for their high strength-to-weight ratio. Sometimes, however, some additional metallic is needed to stiffen them so they will not buckle. Therefore, this will reduce their economy aspect.
  6. Breakable Fracture - Steel may lose its ductility under certain conditions, and breakable fracture may occur at places of stress focus. It also can be triggered by fatigue-type loadings and incredibly low heat aggregate the situation. Trixial stress conditions can also lead to breakable facture.

Recommendation of body material

In situ reinforcement concrete is recommended since it is a most widely used construction materials on the market by its advantages that profit the proprietor, custom/engineer and programmer.

  • For the Proprietor, structural build by in situ encouragement concrete is visually and efficiency in cost. With its material feature in high strength, long term sturdiness, and its own original thermal mass which results in low maintenance of buildings required, offer high toughness and functioning energy efficiency.
  • For the Developer, in situ support concrete offers a very competitive building building solution predicated on its energy efficiency, cost, long-term monetary benefits, lower maintenance, as well as for future prepared to be reused upon the occupancy of the building evolved.
  • For the Designer/Engineer, in situ support concrete can offers infinite design prospects in a structural by giving an excellent environmental and energy performance. Designs could take advantages by its thermal mass and structural integrity of concrete.


Flexibility in design - In situ encouragement cement can be casted into almost any designed form by using ideal formwork. This efficiency can offer an customize made design solutions to specific the issues and also visually finishing which frequently discard the necessity for even more fixings.

Floor systems can be increased due to the use of skinny in situ support concrete floor structures. The concept of raised floors are perfect for the resources like wiring which is run in the area below. Concrete can meet the requirement because of its overall flexibility because the increasing wiring set up are considered an extremely common needs for a new construction.

In situ reinforcement concrete can also allows for longer floor spans with minimal columns to plan around because of its appreciated load-bearing properties. This offers the versatility in architectural setting layout by generate more useful space.

Concrete is easily available from many locations. A reinforcement concrete structure can be built before the last programs are 100% finalised. By start-up the construction stage previously, means it can add better cashflow for owners and developers. As demands for the changes which are generally encounter in virtually any construction stage, the look versatility of the in situ encouragement concrete can allows the service provider to conform the look changes after the construction process has started.

Specification Variety of concrete - concrete can be produced and combined to an immense selection of its mixture features to the structural design. This can be achieved by using different kind of blend designs or by the adding of different additive materials such as superplasticizer to increase the curing procedure for the concrete through the construction stage.

Material's property of density and mass are one of a major advantage of in situ reinforcement concrete construction for engineered composition. Reinforcement cement is the good choice by its lateral stiffness, or amount of resistance to horizontal motion when creating in areas where seismic conditions and high winds are considered. The lateral tightness can reduced the motion of the building means that occupants of reinforcement concrete towers (high climb building) are less able to experience it.

Energy Efficiency - Having say that almost all of reinforcement cement is produced locally or from the nearby batching seed which can reducing the cost for handling and vehicles. In the life span cycle cost evaluation, the energy efficiency of the structures is a significant consideration. Furthermore, In situ reinforcement concrete able to decrease the overall building level in construction. This will likely shortens the vertical amount of the mechanical and electronic systems.

Durability - reinforcement cement is one of the enduring materials in the number of construction materials option. Bywell designed and well casted, in situ reinforcement cement is long life in any framework due to its durability. Such extended life span continue to be the resources by reducing the maintenance and also if there is a dependence on reconstruction.

The mass associated with an in situ reinforcement concrete composition makes it become a thermal reservoir by keeping the huge amounts of energy. During the hot or warm period (summer), concrete surfaces and floors absorb the internal heat throughout the day, then released back into the space during nighttime. It is the same principle through the cooling period (winter). This thermal energy allows concrete to keep up and steady the inside temperature. Concrete can delivers energy conserving buildings reducing peak energy demands by liberating and storing the power required for warming or cooling.

Fire Amount of resistance / Proofing - in situ reinforcement concrete is unique in being an inexpensive and common building materials which is actually fire repellent, not only with no additional software or treatment for coverage from fireplace, but also having structural and artistic qualities at the same time.

Sound Insulation - sound transmitting within the surfaces of a framework and the exterior surrounding environment of the building are considered in today's structural design criteria. As per tenant requirements to include the isolation of audio transmitting, the natural mass of reinforcement wall systems and concrete floors can provides both in vibration control and acoustical level of resistance.

Shorten Building duration - in situ reinforcement cement provides faster structure this means reduced in conditions of costs and faster revenue generation. This convenience more opportune pay back time of financing charges and faster revenue will be made for the designer/owner.

Cost effectiveness - in situ reinforcement concrete is actually the most cost-effective choice for made structures because of its endurance and facilitate in construction. The approach used of load-bearing concrete outside surfaces is to enclose the structures and carry roof structure self weight and lateral wind flow loads by get rid of the need to erect split structural systems and cladding systems.

One of the top structural good thing about cement is a shallow type of the ground systems, In average, the development of concrete complexes normally allows one additional floor to be built for every single 10 (ten) experiences of the original building's level, which contributes in more useful space for properties of its similar size. When come across with a level limitation, concrete construction is one of the main element of thought by represent the initial construction cost benefits and extra income generation.

Re-use or recycle - reinforcement concrete is type of materials that is easily recyclable. Old reinforcement cement which is come to to the finish of its structure life can be re-use as aggregate for new concrete mixtures.

  • The structural agreement for the in-situ reinforcement cement frame referred to the A3 layout as per fastened.
  • Aspect and alternate frame solutions need to be considered for the increase of building height to 30 testimonies. The choice of structural system and structural materials has a major influence on structure time and cost.

Stability design

In high-rise complexes, lateral tons become an extremely prominent parameter which it is known as a significant effect for the look and design of the complete building. Lateral stableness systems are generally installed within the central central and services need to be carefully be integrated into the framework. Dominant lateral load are normally come from seismic loading or wind flow.

Two principal conditions are being used in building steadiness diagnosis: drift and acceleration. Drift is the percentage of the building deflection over its level, a different one is the critical parameter is usually intermediate storey (floor to floor) drift rather than total building drift. Building acceleration is a way of measuring the speed with which drift occurs, and popularity criteria derive from individual tolerance of motion.

Options for balance

The three most popular systems for providing steadiness are shear wall surfaces, braced tube buildings and tube-in-tube structures.

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Shear wall surfaces

A shear wall membrane system is the normal solution for low- to medium-rise complexes. These can be designed by either solid concrete wall surfaces or braced metallic bays, which generally located about the features that stay preset in plan over many flooring. These system rely upon linking strong elements at either ends of the wall structure into a dumb-bell to make a push-pull system, resisting the overturning brought on by lateral loads. Depending on the building budget and the aspect proportion of the building, these systems may also be the most cost-effective option for structures up to 40 or 50 tales. (according to diagram below)

Braced tubes structures

This type of approach was created by mix bracing the structural structure with X-bracing over many testimonies, as shown in the diagram below. To exclude the effects of shear lag in both the flange and web casings, the diagonals of any braced tube are connected to the building columns at each intersection. When come across with the lateral tons, the buildings will behaves similar to a braced frame by minimizing the twisting in the composition users of the structures. Hence, it comes to the advantage that the spacing of the columns can be increased and the depth of the beams will be reduced. Therefore, a huge size house windows can be allowed than in the conventional frame tube constructions.

Basically, Pipe in tube set ups design consists of an outside framed tube together with an interior elevator and service core. In this type of framed structure, braced structure may sorts the inner tube which action jointly with the external frames in resisting both gravity and lateral loading. (commonly found in steel-framed buildings). To play a dominant role for your structure, Outer pipe usually will be made with much greater structural depth. Sometimes, this kind of buildings also call as Hull (External pipe) and Key (Inner pipe) structures. An average Tube in pipe structure is shown as below:-

Double-skin facades are assuming importance in modern building practice. There is an increasing demand for top quality office or commercial properties. Rousing and comfortable working environment in workplace are concerned by the occupants and designers nowadays.

Double-skin facades work when complexes are at the mercy of surrounding environment factors such as a great external noise (reasonable pollution) and breeze loads (natural makes). Double-skin facades can be followed architecturally for a great benefits because it have a particular aesthetic of its own. Further area of application is within refurbishment work, when existing facades are unable be restored, or where this is not desirable.

  • The benefits by implementing Double Epidermis Facades

Acoustic Insulation:

For example, if the building is found in a greatly polluted area with high exterior noises levels (sound pollution) for example beside the expressway, then a multi storey dual skin area faade type is often suggested. In this process, the outer covering doesn't have any openings, to be able to reveal the noises by avoid any transmission. (from outdoor to indoors).

Thermal Insulation :

During the cooling period (winter), the exterior additional skin area provides improved upon insulation. The increased heat range of air inside the cavity and the reduced air speed will lower down the heat transfer rate on the surface of the glass which contributes to reduction of warmth losses. The container home window type can be advised when the energy demand for warming is high since the preheated air inside the cavity can be channel into the office buildings by maintain the thermal comfort and low energy use.

During hot period (summer months), the warm air inside the cavity will be extracted by mechanised, fan recognized or natural ventilation. This concept highly is determined by the positioning of the building, on climatic parameters and on daylight availability.

Natural Ventilation:

This is the main one of the primary features of the double pores and skin facade system is they can allow natural (or admirer recognized) ventilation when possible. The selection of double skin area faade type is is determined by the aspects of temperatures, air speed, and the grade of the introduced air inside the building.

By well design and planning, the natural ventilation can decrease the energy consumption during the occupation stage and increase the comfort of the occupants. For example, the interior spaces can easily be overheated through the hot summer months day. In this example, it may be energy saving in pre-cool the offices during the night by using natural ventilation. The interior temperatures will then be lower down during the early morning hours providing thermal comfort and improved upon quality of air for the occupants.

Reducing environmental impacts and energy conservation:

In principle, double pores and skin facades can save energy when properly designed and adopted, usually when the traditional insulation of the exterior wall is insufficient, the savings that may be obtained with the additional skin can make a difference.

Better protection for the lamps or shading devices:

Since the lighting or shading devices are located inside the intermediate cavity of the dual skin faade, they can be well protected both from wind and rain.

Wind pressure reduction effects:

The double skin area facades around high rise properties can be designed to reduce the effects of wind pressure through the extreme weather.

Emergency evade during open fire:

The glazed space of any double skin facade may be used as the flame escape during the emergency.

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  • Technical obstacles and the planning for proposing a double skin facades

When implementing a double pores and skin facade, there are several common technical issues have to be highlighted and the alternatives are as below:-

    • Constraints - The basic constraints concerning the feasibility of windows ventilation should be evaluated. This way, the options and restrictions of different system alternatives are identified, as well as the necessary requirements on the two times skin faade. This could also give a concept regarding the costs of the proposed system and building, compared with an alternative with an individual skin faade.
    • Type of construction - At this stage it should be known whether windowpane ventilation or any other adoption will be utilized or not, as well as the amount of sound insulation requirements on the facade. Therefore, a performance specification evaluation article should be proven in which to assist in determining the kind of double skin area facade construction. Since the starting place for the following dimensioning is determined at this stage, this step is vital.
    • Good fresh air supply - For instance, if your choice has been designed to apply window ventilation of the building, then your measurements of the opportunities and air flow routes into the rooms can be prepared to ensure a good oxygen source in the building.
    • Avoiding overheating of the cavity of the dual pores and skin facade - The dimensions of the openings should be examined to limit warmth gains in summer months in the cavity, to be able to ensure thermal comfort in the rooms also to avoid increased the chilling loads.

For multi-story facades, there is a risk that the temps deposition in the cavity which can burden the cooling tons in the rooms at the top floor. Measures have to be taken to minimize the exhaust air heat range from the cavity and the heated air buffer of the cavity, for days and nights with the sunshine.

    • Optimizing the environment flow - The following parameters are essential for the natural ventilation and conditions of a double skin facade:

The size and position of the openings

Appropriate aerodynamic design of the narrowest combination sections by which the air flow has to complete.

Fan assistance

In most cases natural ventilation should be sufficient if the ventilation level of resistance of the cavity is placed low. Wind causes can help, but often in central and northern Europe the wind flow rates of speed are low on hot days. For fan assist with matter, the supporters have to be powerful.

Operation conditions - In winter the dual skin area facade should provide thermal insulation and also for all your year round audio insulation. This means that the openings in the faade should be small, whereas they must be forms the contrary during periods with the sunshine.

Therefore, how big is the openings should be adjustable, adjustable and closable. For this, the control system of the openings should be clever. Means the settings have to be optimized for the different occurring conditions throughout a year. To incorporate the system, it needs to be a link to the other functions of the building, which should be regarded in good time. It is usually very costly to install receptors and a control system later on.

    • Exploiting the engineering to the full aspects - It is important that the facade planner or expert should be involved at an early on stage to participate in discussions of air moves and where appropriate the marketing of the aerodynamic design. Only with a coordination of concepts from the beginning stage can complete solutions, that are practical to create and economically appropriate, be developed. This coordination is to means that the conclusions made about the aero physics will cause a construction, that may work used. Another advantage can be that standardized details can be designed allowing prefabrication, which can result in a more affordable construction.
    • Maintenance and durability - It really is obviously that a double skin area faade has two more floors need to be cleaned in comparison to a traditional drape wall structure. The cavity surfaces, air in and shops may be difficult to reach, increasing the maintenance time.

The period or consistency of the cleaning of the glazing and the shading device will influence the costs of the two times skin faade looking at with a traditional curtain wall structure. The consistency of maintenance depends on the ventilation type of the double skin area either it is ventilation with air via inside or outside OR the environment polluted or not in case of ventilation with external air.

Some ideas of double pores and skin faade are ventilated with indoors air. This air is coming via the room from the ventilation system of the building. This type ventilator system filtering mid-air for dust particles, by which less particles enter into the cavity. Because of this the cavity gets less filthy and needs less maintenance. The filter systems of the ventilation system however need to be cleaned routinely.

  • Recommendation for the sort of double skin area facade

A full sized double skin area faade including a sunlight shading blind was advised, as shown in Fig. 1 (make reference to connection), is set of two aluminium casings. The double skin area faade also includes four openings for ventilation (height of 0. 04 m).

The opportunities cover the whole width of the faade, one at the top and a different one is for the bottom of each of both panels. Thus, various configurations of the ventilation of the double pores and skin can be analyzed by simple blockage of these openings.

The sun shading devices are using "Venetian" type blinds placed in the middle of the double pores and skin faade cavity. The double pores and skin faade is mechanically ventilated.

The connection details are shown in Fig. 2 (refer to attachment)

"Source : Streicher W. , 2005. Bestfacade - Best Practice for two times skinfacades EIE/04/135/S07. 38652. WP1 Article State of Fine art"

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Unit 7 - Level Roof Construction

  • Evaluation of 4 different roofing strategies

Flat roofing is considered one of the inexpensive choice in the form of a building perspective. Basically, to be able to maintain a flat roofs, it must be protected with a good waterproof material and also be equipped with a good drainage system. Here are some of the most popular flat roofer systems being found in commercial software.

1. TPO Roofing Systems

Thermoplastic (TPO) roofer is a reliable and ideal commercial roofer system in terms of affordable, environmentally friendly use, easy to keep up and easily comply the various roofer situations.

2. PVC Roof covering Systems

PVC roofing is also one of the choice in selection a roof system due to its reliable, green, easy to install and easy to maintain characteristic.

The layer of PVC roof covering is contain :-

  • PVC Polymer base
  • Strong, polyester-reinforced textile center
  • Durable thermoplastic PVC compounded top ply

PVC roofer systems are usually more tolerant to tears, puntures that other sole ply membranes and also impacts. Below are most of the advantages by adopt PVC roof systems:-

  • Reliable, economical and durable
  • Permanently heat welded seams
  • Easy to maintain
  • Chemical and wind flow resistant
  • Lightweight and flexible
  • Class A, UL approved fireplace rating
  • Energy Efficient

3. EDPM Roof covering Systems

EDPM roofer systems is suited to large scale request because it is considered one the most inexpensive roof system. EDPM normally is produced in large sheet widths which can lower the set up costs if weighed against PVC and TPO roof.

EDPM is constructed of :-

  • Ethylene
  • Propylene
  • Diene Monomer (bit)

EPDM roof systems is reinforced for increasing its puncture repellent, means it is highly repellent in punctures, tears, breeze, wear and fatigue. By adopt EPDM roofer systems, it will benefits :-

  • Highly reliable and economical
  • Long life expectancies
  • Resistant to Ozone, weathering, and abrasion
  • Flexible in low temperature
  • Highly wind resistant
  • Superior tolerant to extreme temperature and fire

4. BUR & altered Bitumen Roofer system

Built Up Roof (BUR) roof system is formed by multiple tiers or plies of roof felts laminated as well as bitumen which also commonly referenced as "tar and gravel' roofs.

Modified Bitumen roofer is a type of School A, UL fireplace resilient membrane that can supplies the maximum puncture, split and rip resistant. Furthermore, it is a tough, resilient membrane with strong polyester mat primary which is covered by either a flexible APP or SBS polymer revised asphalt. Modified Bitumen Roofer can be managed well by apply with hot asphalt, adhesive or high temperature welding methods.

Surfacing options for BUR and Modified Bitumen roof systems can be determined from the below:-

    • Aggregate such as gravel, slag, glass-fiber, vitamins, hot asphalt, aluminium coatings and elastomeric coatings.

This kind of roofing system aren't only highly durable and puncture resistant, but it is also available in an assortment of surface coatings colours.

Some of the huge benefits by take up BUR & Bitumen Roofer systems are:-

  • Multiple surfacing option
  • Easy to maintain
  • Economical an reliable
  • Highly durable and puncture resistant
  • Recommendation of 1 roof strategy

After considered all the 4 types of flat roofing system as above, Built Up Roof (BUR) or Altered Bitumen Roof covering System (MBS) is recommended with the development of 'Green Roof" as worried by developer to be environmentally aware. With this recommendation, it provides the features of a built-up roof top with added tensile durability and elongation of any modified bitumen cover sheet, as well as the product quality confidence of in-plant membrane fabrication uniformity and control and decrease the labour requirements for installation.

The suggestion of BUR/MBS is based on the following aspects and benefits:

  • Energy costs could be low in hot urban conditions or hot season.
  • Able to lessen the overflow of surprise water, by minimizing capacity on metropolitan sewer systems and decreasing the overflow related to pollution of natural waterways
  • Dust or suspended particles control (decrease)
  • To capture rain-dissolved contaminants from air in the vegetated roof's earth and neutralized it.
  • Sound control (pollution reduction)
  • soil, plant life and the stuck part of air can be become a insulator to insulate for sound. Sensible waves that are made by machinery, airplanes or traffic can be ingested, reflected or deflected. The sub bottom could help to stop lower sound frequencies whereas the plants can block the higher frequencies.
  • Improve air quality
  • by lowering the streaming of thermal air movement and filter the environment moving across it.
  • Flat roof design can maintain more flexible and creativity forms such as recreational or attractive designed spaces, solar power easier assembly, etc.
  • it can also help to addresses having less inexperienced space in urban areas.
  • Difficulties during the assembly can be reduced due to its flat composition design.
  • Low maintenance required for flat roof because of its original structure with no any slopes or valleys thus it could be easily washed.
  • 'Heat Island effect' can be avoided and reduced by adopt the concept of 'Green Even Roofs' which absorbing the heat and at the same time evaporating water as a way to avoid it from the roof top.
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