Posted at 10.30.2018
The only kind of learning which significantly affects behaviour is self-discovered or self-appropriated learning truth that has been assimilated in experience Carl Rogers.
The goal of this article is to explore three of the primary principles of teaching adults and to apply those to a learning group, in this case, teaching general Art and Design to create compulsory education learners in a sixth form school.
The following concepts are talked about:
1. Learning should take profile of individual dissimilarities in learners capacities and styles and be self paced
2. Precise learning goals and goals should be specified in advance
3. The learner must practise what she/he has learned.
In general, adult learners are self directed, experienced and also have a desire to build up skills. All students will vary though, and the professor must take account of the by understanding their needs and dealing with them to achieve their own learning goals, rather than telling them what to learn as well as how to learn it.
Lumby claims that "the desire to meet up with the full range of university student needs means that the curriculum develops organically by responding to the city" (Lumby, 2001 p115). To be able to facilitate response, it is important that the instructor helps the students identify their own learning need. The tutor can start by outlining what's required to achieve the desired outcomes however the learners must be given the experience of making their own options.
A educator centred method could be used where there is a preference for rate of learning rather than depth of learning, whereby students are passively lectured to, however, "the learners may pay attention but in being attentive they might not exactly learn the particular teacher intends" (Rogers, 2002 p222). A more suitable approach, especially with regards to the subject of Fine art, is an interactive method where in fact the learner is mixed up in planning of his / her own learning. Whilst the educator should provide clear instructions and direction, the learner should also be encouraged to adopt ownership and be in control of the learning, participating, and rendering it an empowering experience.
Art should be about experimenting and checking out. To start with, the tutor should suggest fun, easy artwork projects where the learner will see results. This can help the adult to be less self conscious about their fine art and encourage them, in their own time, to try more complex techniques without concern with failure. Art work should be taught as a steady process, adapted to a student's capacities and self confidence.
The instructor should pull on the learner's preceding knowledge and experience and not just dictate the subject; Fairclough expresses that "the topic being taught shouldn't take priority within the learners" (Fairclough 2008 p4). Teaching parents in less formal, tranquil ways and motivating the class to discuss and make new friends by using group work and discussion helps students to relax and enjoy themselves. This will provide an innovative procedure, which will improve flexibility and make lessons more interesting and less rigid. Students can often learn as much from the other person as the educator. This can help foster a feeling of inclusiveness within the group whereby students who are less confident can seek support from others that are more complex.
It is valuable for the teacher to find out about the students on the first day so that there is an understanding with their skills and pursuits in art, and what experience they may have. These details will understand their learning advantages and weaknesses, permitting the educator to adjust to their needs. Each learner will have different methods to learning so it is important to comprehend the scholar and tailor ways of conducting individual opinions, which induces learning and also enables the pupil to feel positive about their improvement.
It is of the imperative that goals and aims are stated in advance as they ensure understanding of the training process, offer drive and offer a framework for evaluation by the tutor and learner; "If goals are still left vague, neither get together is sure if they are reaching anything or not" (Rogers, 2002 p146).
All lessons will need to have aims and goals and the professor must make clear them clearly in order to get a successful learning outcome. That is important in learning because it provides composition and enables both the teacher and scholar to plan and prepare in advance to ensure meaningful lessons.
Aims describe the overall intent of the lesson, and provide an idea to illustrate direction. The goals should be simple and should be stated simply and concisely to summarise the proposed outcome.
Objectives define the data and skills that students must have developed by the end of the lessons. Objectives should consider performance, conditions and requirements. Objectives describe the training that you wish to take place. They are more specific than goals and will discuss, in more detail what the pupil will learn through the lesson. They will tell you whether the work will be done individually, in pairs, or in groupings, over what time frame and what resources will be utilized. Aims and objectives help both learners and the professor measure the work that has occurred during the lessons and whether the learning final results have been achieved.
Art lessons should be fun. Most people think they may have accomplished something when they learn a new skill. It's important that the university student finishes the lesson knowing that they have got learned at least one thing. This could be anything such as sketching or basic coloring theory.
Aims and aims can help identify what areas may need more improvement. By evaluating the goals and targets adult learners can work on the areas that need development.
Art is a practical subject and some students will have greater features than others, however, most should practise hard to improve their skills. In 1984 David Kolb explored the theory of the significance of experience in learning. He stressed that 'Learning is the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience' (Light, G. , Cox, R. , & Calkins, S. 2009 p55).
The educating environment involves more than simply providing knowledge and skills. The scholar must want to learn, want to make use of their abilities and actually do so. They need to want to develop as a person. To do this the learner must practise what they have learned which need to apply applies to both the pupil and the educator.
At the beginning of each lesson it is valuable that the professor recaps the learning outcomes from the last lesson. The learner should be able to build on the prior week's techniques and skills learnt. Regarding a sophisticated or difficult task, the educator might at first want to give specific warm up exercises to practise using the skills. During the lessons, it might be well suited for the teacher to continue practising their own skills and focusing on his / her own piece of artwork at the same time as the students. A lot more the learner practises, the more developed the work can be.
The educator should give positive opinions and support during the lesson. Art must not be a competitive subject and there is absolutely no right or incorrect. Art is approximately the creative process rather than the final product. The students should recognise that a lot more they practise their skill, the more targeted they will become. In time, with practice, their skills will develop and their self-assurance will improve.
Art should be educated from different perspectives to help students relate to it better. The instructor should find out what learners are considering and use that in an effort to increase their curiosity about art. Some duties require repetition which is important that they method of practise remains flexible to improve the programme to keep students stimulated and enthusiastic.
Adults need to find out why they are simply learning, what the benefits of learning it are and what they risk by not learning it. People need to take control of their learning. Learning must draw after the learner's own experience. It requires to be timely and relevant and concentrate on what is useful in their situations.
Adult learning is life centred and focuses on tasks and problems rather than on content. They must have motivation to learn. This can be extrinsic but is much more likely to be intrinsic.
Adult learning is emphasised through life and experience. An event that results in adjusted behaviour. Ultimately, adults learn best by doing.
Teachers must concentrate on assessing individual learning styles, desire, past activities and the student's determination to apply the learning. A joint effort between professor and learner will achieve the most success and benefit everyone involved in the activity.