Posted at 10.26.2018
The Sumerian civilization was one of the initial in Mesopotamia. The Sumerians existed around 3500-1750 B. C. The Sumerian civilization had not been discovered before 19th century. The following manuscript will cover three key issues the Sumerian Creation Report, the compared interpersonal category system to the modern day USA, and the way the hierarchical structure established by the Sumerian Empire compares with this current criminal justice system. Lastly, the educational materials will show the similarities and dissimilarities between the old Sumerian Empire and today's modern day United States. This research can help individuals understand early on civilizations and exactly how they compare to today's population. The information discovered will also show how early civilizations built their societies.
The Social Course Structures and Criminal Justice Systems of Sumerian and the United States
Sumer was a collection of city states around the low Tigris and Euphrates waterways in what's now southern Iraq. It had been a assortment of farming villages. Each one of these cities had individual rulers; although the leader of the dominating city might have been considered the king of the region. The Sumerians produced the initial written vocabulary. Their religious beliefs also are found to have some similarities with the Bible, especially the book of Genesis.
This article will compare and contrast the Sumerian Empire and america. To compare and contrast the two the Sumerian Creation, interpersonal classes, and unlawful justice system will be assessed. First, I will evaluate the storyline of the Sumerian Creation. Next, I am going to compare the various social classes between the Sumerian civilization and the United States. Lastly, I'll discuss the hierarchical structure set forth by the Sumerian Empire in comparison to our current legal justice system.
This books review targets literature regarding Sumer and the Sumerian
Creation Story, specifically concentrating on the Sumerian cultural class hierarchy.
Additionally, this books review examines the contemporary social composition in the
United Says and the current unlawful justice system.
The Sumerians Creation History begins with the planet earth and the heavens being created in the sea. The Sumerian misconceptions have been pieced mutually due to the get older of the remains found. After the earth and the heavens were created the gods created cities and each city possessed its god. The male god, "An", and the feminine god, "Ki", provided beginning to Enlil, the principle god of the pantheon. Enlil impregnated Ninlil, the goddess of blowing wind, which created the moon. Once the moon was made then it was time and energy to create humans. The Sumerian gods created some humans out of silt or clay.
From the analysis of the Sumerians Creation Account similarities to the Bible can be found. Such as Genesis, the Sumerians' world is formed the heavens and globe are separated from one another by a good dome. The next section of Genesis introduces the heaven Eden, a location which is similar to the Sumerian Dilmun. (Gen. 2:9-10) In the second version of the creation of man "GOD, THE FATHER God formed man out of the clay of the bottom and blew into his nostrils the breath of life, therefore man became a full time income being. " The Sumerian gods used a similar method in creating man (Kramer & Maier p. 33).
The Sumerian cultural class is split into three social organizations. These social communities consist of higher class, in-between class or middle income, and lowest course. At the top of the Sumerian top category is the ruler and priests. The top school also included landowners, authorities officials, and sellers. Something that stood out in the Sumerian interpersonal course was that women experienced more privileges in early Sumer than in later Mesopotamia. Upper school women were priestesses. The Sumerian women were landowners, merchants, artisans, and most elevated children. Slaves made-up the lowest category along with prisoners, orphans, poor children, and debtors. The Sumerians used slaves as cheap labor. Sumerians allowed slaves the to do business, borrow funds, and buy independence.
In the United States the economists and sociologists never have devised exact recommendations for the communal classes. Instead there are two set in place classes including the three-class model that contain the rich, middle income, and the indegent. Inside the three-class model the rich of course contain the wealth, middle class contain those who work white collar jobs, and the poor will be the blue collar staff or those who find themselves unemployed. The other model that is mostly used is the five-class model including higher class, upper-middle, middle-middle, lower-middle, and lower class. Within the five-class model it is broke down a little more. The upper course term is applied to the "blue bloods" who will be the family members who are multi-generational wealth. These families also have leadership in high modern culture. The rest of the upper school is followed by those people who have made significant investment from capital and stock options as well as the corporate elite who have high salary careers such as being a Chief Executive Officers (CEO). Top of the middle class contains highly-educated salaried professional: physicians, lawyers, researchers, and professors. The upper middle class tends to have a great influence over society. The center class and the low middle class appear to overlap. The middle class contains semi-professionals, craftsmen, office personnel, and sales employees. These people often have university degrees. The low middle income often includes the same professions except for those in the low middle class do not have a college level. Those without the college degree are often on the entry level in those jobs. The low school is the blue collar staff. These blue collar employees are the working poor. Most of the population in america is considered the working category or the working poor.
The Sumerian legal system, one of the initial known unlawful justice systems,
focused on the citizen's conformity with the social norms and spiritual beliefs of your day.
Regardless of social class, strict compliance with requests and instructions was rewarded,
while failure to comply was punished (Sterba, 1976, p. 25). Such punishment was
commensurate with the harm (Sterba, 1976). The Sumerians founded a system of
laws to deal with personal injuries, slave issues, sexual offenses, marital problems, and
agricultural disputes (Milosavljevic, 2007, p. 7). Regulating the action of its citizens
helped keep the sociable order.
From its first days, the unlawful justice system in the us has offered to protect
the hobbies of the wealthy, property-owning classes. Crime is often associated with the
working poor and the underclass (Jargowsky & Park, 2009). As a result of this, crime is
often problems in urban areas with low income levels. Increased offense levels have been
attributed to neighborhood sociable disorganization stemming from urban structural
changes, personal instability, and racial/ethnic transitions (Jargowsky & Recreation area, 2009,
p. 30). The contemporary criminal justice system has been viewed as a means of
regulating class passions by insuring that enforcement initiatives are aimed toward the
regulation of the poor. (Weiner, 1975, p. 436).
There are several distinctions between Sumer and modern-day American society.
For instance, the position of women is markedly different in both social constructions.
Additionally, slavery no longer exists in the United States, eliminating this least expensive of
social classes. The communal lifestyle of Sumer stands in pointed comparison to the capitalist
society of america. Finally, the legal justice systems of the two societies
have different goals and targets.
Among the dissimilarities between Sumer and the United States is the position of
women in contemporary society. In Sumer, it was the male residents who comprised the assemblage of
elders and who handled the energy and riches of the city. Unlike in Sumer, the
United Says is no longer controlled specifically by men. In the United States, the
proclamation that all men are created equal has been interpreted to add women as
well as people from all interpersonal classes. The Fourteenth Amendments Equal Protection
clause promises that "no talk about shall. . . deny to anybody within its jurisdiction the identical cover of the laws and regulations" (U. S. Const. Amend. XIV). Thus, people of all classes, as well as women, are shielded similarly by the laws of the United States. Another difference between Sumer and america is slavery. Until 1863, slavery was legal in america (Harr & Hess, 2002). The Emancipation Proclamation officially freed the slaves and outlawed slavery (Harr & Hess, 2002). Those in the slave areas didn't immediately adhere to the Emancipation
Proclamation (Harr & Hess, 2002). The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States
Constitution abolished slavery in America (U. S. Const. Amend. XIII). On the other hand, slaves
made up the cheapest social school in Sumer. Unlike in the United States, the folks of Sumer possessed a communal lifestyle. People did not work for money, nor have they contend to get wealthy at the trouble of other individuals. Almost all securely depended on the top of their house to fill their needs, and he, in turn, depended on them to increase and protect his riches and position (Ellison, 1964, p. 22). Further, each city was conceived to be the special matter of one
of the gods in Mesopotamia, and in a sense the equalitarianism of federal placed
each man in the position to be a guardian of this god's passions (Ellison, 1964, p. 24).
In contrast, america has both metropolitan and rural neighborhoods where people work
for money and try to better their sociable situation. Also, under capitalism
people work for their own self-interests and also have an opportunity to change their social
class by getting an education and accumulating increased wealth.
The goal of the unlawful justice system in these two societies differed as well.
In Sumer, consequence for crime attempted to make the sufferer whole entire again or was
retribution commensurate with the sort of harm inflicted. The Sumerian code of Ur-Nammu centered on restitution as the primary approach to unlawful justice (Truck Ness, 1991). In the United States, crime is defined as an offense contrary to the State rather than against a specific individual (Van Ness, 1991). As a result of this, the offender is not performed personally accountable for restoring the victim. However, restitution may also be made part of sentencing and victim's privileges are becoming more important within the unlawful justice system.
The cultures, communal class hierarchies, and legal systems of Sumer and the United
States are significantly different; yet, the class structure and legal justice system of
Sumer offers unique insights into our very own society. The similarities and differences
highlight the value of understanding where civilization began and where we intend
to go from here. Due to the complexity of the relationship between social school and
crime, it is vital to remain alert to the goals of the unlawful justice system.