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The Shard Symbolised In Skyscrapers Cultural Studies Essay

In this essay I'm going to begin by presenting my topic appealing, then to build up some key facts about my market, to lead on to a question that I will solve through different concepts about a chosen case study, I am looking to concentrate mainly on the architectural principles; so this means, symbolism and size. I will also be taking a look at other theories and quotations to bring into my essay to speak about, and then to work with as a way to place myself within an existing discussion. Having this as a starting place I'll then make cable connections and possible surprising turns as I go further into my research, this will form an examination which I will then look back to see easily have answered my original question that I set out in the beginning and discuss what I have discovered from writing this essay, and finished off with a realization.

"Creating a fresh theory is not like destroying an old barn and erecting a skyscraper in its place. It is extremely like climbing a mountain, increasing new and wider views, discovering unexpected relationships between our starting factors and its wealthy environment. However the point from which we started out still exists and is seen, although it looks smaller and forms a little part of the wide view gained by the mastery of the road blocks on our ambitious way up. " (1) (Albert Einstein)

My topic of interest is the 'skyscraper' which you may have previously guessed from the offer that I included by Albert Einstein, I came across this quote to be always a good starting point to create an essay which is going to be of the philosophical and theoretical characteristics, and to bring in my theme. Skyscrapers of course are incredibly tall buildings which were emerging all around the globe, first appearing in the USA round the 1880's, and also have been known as skyscrapers for the better part of a hundred years. The urban scenery of American city will for most, including myself be of a forceful array of tall glass buildings shooting up-wards into a merging with the atmosphere, this was mainly found from seeing American movies and series like 'Friends' when i was growing up. At this time my interest was of an fascinated characteristics but my fascination soon converted into a want to wish to know whenever you can about skyscrapers after witnessing pictures of the unexpected growth of tall buildings in Dubai, some built plus some conceptual types of future designs.

Now with the building along the way of 'The London Bridge Tower' and the course London appears to be taking with a wave of new extra tall buildings set out to be built, Personally i think it's time to take a look deeper into my interest into skyscraper, by using 'The London Bridge Tower' also called 'The Shard' as a case study, to answer fully the question, Exactly what does a structure, such as 'The Shard' mean and symbolise in an era of huge skyscrapers?

The Shard is to be the tallest building in britain, towering above the previously tallest, one Canada Square in Canary Wharf, and within europe the Shard will be at a height not previously come to. The Shard was designed by Italian architect Renzo Piano, and his beliefs for the design of an pyramid glass structure, is that it imitates a flake of glass, showing London world class status, and from London's history of chapel spires and the sails of the boats that would have filled up the Thames, of Canaletto's 18th century London.

The Southwark Towers, a 1970's office stop is the website of the Shard, and was helped bring for 37 million, 1998, by Mr Sellar, the top of Sellar Property Group. Mr Sellar and architect Renzo Piano applied for planning permission, at a time when the world was to see a large change, you start with the fall of the Twin World Trade Towers, in New York, this in effect almost ended the Shard from being realised, Mr Sellar says, "Very practically scuppered it" (2) - the Shard will have "refuges" (2) built into its core. There was a open public inquiry following the plans for the Shard scraped past the council, and conservation categories were to words their concerns that the Shard, will shadow over St Pauls Cathedral, the Tower of London and change London's skyline. Planning agreement was later awarded in November 2003, for being "of the best architectural quality" (3) at that time Deputy Perfect Minster, John Leslie Prescott.

There are numerous views of this is of the Shard for London, and some of the critics for the Shard, like the British Heritage going to say, that the Shard is "a spike through the center of traditional London" (4) and Simon Jenkins, the National Trust chairman and publication columnist, calling it "a relic of Ken Livingstone's anxious bet to imitate Manhattan or Dubai, a thundering great icon to the debt hill plonked down in Southwark's still intimate streetscape like a phallus from capitalist space. " (5) There may be some negativity for the Shard as the meaning continues to be unclear, but if we look at set ups like the fantastic Pyramids or a Mayan Temple, their so this means and appearance is somewhat of a puzzle and enables you to really wonder as to what they truly signify and what the civilisation in it was like. A very important factor is for several like these historical set ups of pasted civilisations, the modern skyline of skyscrapers is designed for present day man, touching, breathe taking and leaves you surprised, it is clear that it's not the task of character but of man, yet it has a splendour and intense force.

Keeping with the idea that skyscrapers are inhale taking to those who view them, the Shard, can not only be inhale and exhale taking to see a glistening goblet pyramid tower, but will be substantiation to the scientific achievement of present day man, and will be looked again on by future generations to come. There are so many factors which have all business lead up to the construction of such a tower, technical, social, financial and historical, which designers have little or no control over, but a very important factor the designers do have control over is to affect the look in a lasting manner to help create workable environments, and then for the Shard to become vertical City alone, talks about a so this means of a huge change for mankind, and in history of just how city's sprawl outwards rather than up-wards. And leaves you with a surprise of what impact this composition will have on the very factors which lead to its creation.

The meaning behind the Shard being so extra tall, at just over 1000ft, which is a lot lower than first supposed, is much less most would come to trust, that it's architects and technical engineers being completely enthusiastic about building up to they can, since the surge of the first skyscraper, in Chicago, within their culture and ambition. It's more of a development over an extended time frame and has been inherent within us since our advancement; it is area of the drive leading us to do nearly impossible feats of trip or even to travel the world into space. Without days gone by there wouldn't normally be today's, as with everything. So rather than an obsession, this is is more the product of the architects and technicians thoughts, and the same goes for another conceived structure, such as railways, dwelling, town halls, etc.

We are always aiming to push the capabilities of materials, pressing them further and further, even from a simple material like fine sand, as when on the beach there will always be many fine sand castles and other buildings scattered around. We've migrated through many age ranges pushing material further with the use of technology and understanding, from the creating of the pyramids, to the great medieval cathedrals, to sixteen storey brick building and structure's like the Eiffel tower.

However this natural desire to understand materials, technology, build taller is becoming necessarily for reasons relating to social, demographic, environmental and cost-effective, with the key factors of the ever growing global population expansion and the increasing rate of urbanisation. With the necessity to house more and more people in the town, at higher densities than recently design to, the Shard will be a way to help accommodate theses rising factors.

The level of skyscrapers was first achieved with the invention of the flat iron structure and the Otis mechanised lift, the wide spread use of rolled material and strengthened concrete and the window curtain wall, without each one of these technologies there would not be the skyscraper. When building so high, there is certainly the result of symbolism, first of all to the growing current economic climate and industrial power, showing the country's capacity to the entire world.

The top of Ludgate Hill and the highest point in London, St Pauls Cathedral, which for a huge selection of calendar year was the tallest framework, and even today is protected by lawful restrictions which protect the look lines to the cathedral. St Pauls is a long-term monument to the glory of god and a symbol of the hope, resilience and durability of the city of London. Even as can see size and height have been used to create a symbol and also to get a note across to the people, much like a skyscraper like the Shard, this will also leave behind an remarkable impression on the civilisation of today.

When Mr Sellar discusses the Shard he continues on to say this "will be for London the actual Empire Condition building is made for New York" (6) and this it'll be a "symbol for London that will last for centuries, at least two. " (6) Others continue to say that they view it "as symbolic of the capitals recovery-concrete and a glass proof of the city's world-class status" (7) which "it'll regenerate the run-down heart and soul of old London, which building the town up-wards means it need not disperse outwards. " (7)

London has always experienced an extended resistant to the vertical progress of buildings, but if we go through the new commissions and planning permissions that have been awarded, we can see that there's been a radical change in this protected to tall structures. This could be anticipated to London witnessing the huge benefits and the course that the future is proceeding with the factors associated with economic, politics, populace growth, and so forth. If we take a look at London's recently tallest building 1 Canada Square, which placed the top location for 18 years, and exactly how this building was seen as a symbol. Within the business community one Canada Square was regarded as a beacon of electric power and strength, so that the symbolism of centre for the business enterprise society. And when we also check out the way the symbolism of the skyscraper is utilized in London, by firmly taking for example, how the Re Swiss building was used in an effort to promote London's bet for the 2012 Olympics, with athletics preforming moves with the Re Swiss building as a backdrop.

The Shard will be a symbol of London's power, style, success and power, the Shard will also symbolise the start of a new age in the manner our towns and cities are formed. The Shard will consist of offices, retail outlets, restaurants, residential apartments and a 5 star hotel, multiply over its 72 flooring. The tower will be the housing of a little town, with places to work, eat, relax, shop and sleeping. Below the Shard will be the London Bridge bus, tube and train channels, one of the busiest existing travel hubs in London, this allows residents and users of the Shard to be well connected to travel anywhere they wish, without the need for their vehicles. This for London will prevent extra air pollution and congestion on the already overcrowded London highways.

For the architect, the Shard has a relatively different meaning compared to that of Mr Sellar, Renzo Piano says "I don't believe that it is possible to create a tall building in London by extruding the same shape from bottom level to top. It would be too small in the bottom and too big at the very top. Likewise, icons are dangerous. Often extra tall buildings are hostile and arrogant symbols of vitality and ego, selfish and hermetic. The tower was created to be a distinct and light existence in the London skyline. Architecture is about revealing to testimonies and expressing visions, and recollection is part of computer. Our memory space is permeated by history. "(8) He handles to carefully turn the tallest building in European countries into a declaration, which is not completely fitted for that of an skyscraper which capitalism has given surge to, but there exists that point until this would be the first to obtain so much combined use spaces, set alongside the traditional office skyscrapers.

The creation of the Shard will have architectural iconicity, which has a connection and romance with modern capitalist globalisation, and the symbolic and cosmetic features of the Shard are part of the demonstration of how times, places and audiences are described by realtors and institutions of the transnational capitalist course.

The skyscraper's true symbolic gesture is captured best by philosopher Leonard Peikoff, when he said of his associate Ayn Rand, author of The Fountainhead: "the skyscrapers, exactly what man acquired traversed from the time of the cave to enough time of the glorious and professional civilisation, that was to (her the pinnacle of human achievement in physical terms. ) It wasn't just acquiring viewpoint. It had been acquiring ideas, acquiring science and then remaking the earth accordingly. And she couldn't think of a far more splendid and interesting and beautiful place than that view that you will get of the skyscrapers when you don't see the information on each one, however the mass of ingenuity and ability soaring for the sky. " (9) (Capitalism magazine)

The Shard is fairly sustainable in the fact that it will house the same as a tiny town, the alternative to a tower like the Shard, would be to house individuals and businesses in standard developments, with the city centre already full. These improvements would probably be built outside the location in the suburbs or on the green belt land; this might take up probably about twenty times all the land that what the Shard happens to be using. However trying to make a higher quality of urban life, while still accommodating for increasing people, the Shard may not necessary be the only solution, with the actual fact that there surely is finite resources, but as you can find less and less land to generate on, this type of building will play a essential role in the future of metropolitan areas to come.

The meaning of the Shard for some Londoners is eventually heading to be home, and the Shard will be seen as others as a location or building they can own, unlike traditional skyscraper, Ken Livingstone says "The Shard, " (11) "will be held by Londoners" (11). This makes you ponder of what results the Shard will have on its residents, and effects on population, with having everything they ever before need in the one place. Will the Shard become their coffin, or will having it put above one of London's greatly connected transport hyperlink, prevent these folks from becoming too comfortable in their cosy, safe and totally manipulated environment.

"I cannot feel that the world is the result of chance; yet I cannot take a look at each independent thing consequently of design. I am, and shall ever before continue to be, in a hopeless muddle. " (10) (Charles Darwin) If we are to review and think of the Shard within a greater development of architecture, where many factors have played out key to its development, as Charles Darwin would have studied the creature in his garden. Then it might be seen to be predictable that if any of the factors that I have fore mentioned in this article plus much more, had not been developed or played out their part in the progression of the history of architecture, i quickly believe we'd be moving into a very different world to which it is today. So is this is of the Shard not that it's an ensign of style, element and success or of electric power and strength, but rather a template inside our development of where we live with time as a civilisation, and if the idea behind the Shard is the design of Renzo Piano, or in simple fact the creation of every human being past and presents creativeness, based on an extended history of occurrences. So it is somehow part chance and part design, with a great magnitude of different factors and events over-all of time, participating in their part, but neither one minus the other.

But a very important factor is for sure that the Shard will be a physical manifestation of mankind's imagination and knowledge, art and anatomist, form and function all merging mutually to attain the sky and in the end says we live here.

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