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The Root FACTORS BEHIND Incidents On Construction

The construction industry is one of the primary industries in the whole world. The contribution of the industry into the global GDP is extensive. The structure industry is also a potential work generator and uses large numbers of skilled and unskilled labors. In UK the development industry utilizes more than 2. 1 million people and accounts for around 9% of the full total career within UK (Howarth and Watson. , 2009). Since the industry employs large number, it also offers a significant effect on the health and security of the folks working in it. The procedure of construction entails various activities such as working at heights, working in restricted areas, manual handling, lifting operations, demolition works and floor works. These all activities involve dangers and are extremely hazardous in nature, so the likelihood of accidents taking place on construction sites are high. Now to be able to reduce the amount of risk it is vital to implement proper security management systems on building sites.

The UK structure industry is prosperous in many respects. The building industry in UK has shown a reliable improvement in the security performance after the Egan Statement (1998) but still faces numerous difficulties with regard to security on its voyage to improve its performance record whilst providing increased quantity and complex construction projects (Howarth and Watson. , 2009). According to HSE statistics, more than 200 people are wiped out at work in UK every year excluding work related highway accidents. In 2006, 30 million working days was lost in UK to occupational sick health and accident which imposed an annual cost of 30 billion i. e. more than 3% of GDP.

As per Lingard and Rowlinson (2005), the development industry involves several SMEs and little bit of large businesses. These small and medium size businesses lack knowledge and resources necessary to implement safety management activities so the issues related to health and safety tend to be more in small and medium size firms. Eakins (1992)stated that international research confirms that the problems related to health and safety tend to be more in SMEs when compared with larger firms and also smaller firms are poor in implementation of safety programs. Therefore smaller businesses have higher harm frequency rates when compared with larger organizations.

The Company- Millennium Contractors Ltd.

Millennium Companies Ltd. is a little and medium size company which includes been employed in the UK structure industry going back 25 years. The business has a much diversified employees, employees from different ethnic record and of different generation works in the business. Diversity in building organizations in terms of culture and ethnicity has many advantages but at the same time there a wide range of cons related to it. In the condition of uncertainty and complexity diversity will not fare well which might lead to distress and frustration. In a multicultural organization it is very hard to arrive at an arrangement on a specific plan of action, and can bring about negative dynamics and social clashes. The other main drawback of multicultural business is having less coordination and communication between your workers which can be a contributing reason behind an accident. Aside from this the company is committed to prevention of accidents and unwell health at work place but has failed to advertise an incident damage free culture. The recent record of the company related to health and safety is not very good. There have been many accidents including one fatal crash resulting from the fall season from level and other major/small accidental injuries and also some incidents of dangerous occurrences. The primary areas of matter for the business have been; manual handling; struck by falling things; strike by moving vehicles; collapse of temporary set ups and scaffoldings. The business was also dished up with a prohibition notice because of a fatal injury triggered by slipping from mobile increased working program.

The company's insurance plan towards health and safeness is also not up to make. The management has been irresponsible in applying the policies in an organized manner, which has contributed to the key cause of mishap. Matching to Baxendale and Jones as cited in (Kashyap et al. , 2005), a lot of the accidents aren't caused by the carelessness of the staff member but by the negligence or by the failure to regulate by the management. In addition the management should be able to judge the features of the employee before allocating the job and the employees in response should be capable of doing the allocated work. Hence with an engaged and committed staff a positive health and safety culture can be looked after. Regarding to Cooper (1998), the impact of organizational basic safety culture not only influences the automobile accident rates but has significant effect on work methods, absenteeism, quality, determination, commitment and satisfaction. Regarding to HSE the positive health and safety culture can only be achieved through 4Cs; competence- recruitment, training and advisory support; control- allocating responsibility, commitment, instruction and guidance; co-operation- between individual and group; communication- spoken, written and noticeable (Clarke, 1999).

Issues related to Health insurance and basic safety in Millennium Contractors Limited

As mentioned above, the company has didn't implement structured insurance policy towards health and safety, therefore of which there has been regular occurrences of dangerous occurrences. The normal issues that the business is facing regularly and the legal action that could be taken against the company are the following.

Manual handling

The manual handling polices (1992) defines manual handling as "any transporting or helping of lots (including the lifting, putting down, pushing, tugging, taking or moving thereof) by hand or by physical force". In place, any activity that will require a person to lift, move or support lots is labeled as manual handling functions (Stranks, 2006). Manual materials handling is one of many risk factors for rear problems, body vibration, bent and twisted positions (Roy et al. , 1999). If proper safety measures are not included while manual handling of materials, it may lead to accidental injuries and occupational diseases. Corresponding to HSE, manual handling injury are the most common kind of occupational sick health in UK. As per Helander (1991), 15% of the trunk injuries scheduled to manual materials handling occur in the construction industry.

The main causes of incidents anticipated to manual handling were;

The use of poor ways to move materials.

Lack of proper training and suggestions provided to the employees by the management.

Lack of communication and co-operation one of the workers.

The above shape shows the correct method of moving and raising materials which is often very effective in minimizing the injuries caused by manual handling of materials.

Legal aspects related to manual handling;

"Section 2 of medical and Safety at Work Action 1974 and laws 10 and 13 of the Management of Health insurance and Safety at the job Regulations 1999 claims that it's the duty of employers to provide their employees with health and safeness information and training. This will be supplemented as necessary with more specific information and training on manual managing injury hazards and prevention, as part of the steps to lessen risk required by legislation 4(1)(b)(ii) of the Restrictions (HSE).

Hit by Falling Object

The other main issue faced by the company is "hit by dropping objects". The small items like bricks, hammers, fingernails and tiles when fell from the height can cause fatal head injuries and other serious incidents to the worker working below it or any other person passing by it as shown in the shape.

The main causes of this kind of damage were;

Poor expectations of housekeeping.

Failure of management in providing safeness nets at levels.

Inadequate job planning which brings about inadequate storage of materials.

Lack of proper recommendations provided to the personnel working at height.

Absence of cautionary indication boards.

Legal aspects related going to from the dropping object;

Regulation 8(b) part 1 of agenda 3, of the task at Height Legislation, 2005, states that it is the work of the workplace to avoid, where necessary, injury to any person so far as reasonably practicable as well as the workplace shall provide enough space for storage so as to prevent risk of movement of such materials.

Fall from height

The company has an archive of one fatal accident resulting from the land from height. According to the data of HSE in 2005/06 falls from elevation accounted for 46 fatal accidents at the job and around 3350 major injury. This is the solo biggest cause of workplace deaths and one of the main factors behind major damage. The workers working at heights are prone to have fatal traumas such as skull fractures. Therefore it is essential to provide proper training and assistance to the workers working at elevation.

The main causes of this kind of occurrence were;

Lack of proper training and guidelines provided to worker by the management.

Negligence and unsafe action of the employee.

Inadequate use of personal defensive equipments.

Lack of planning and supervision.

No barrication provided.

Legal aspects related to fall from level;

The Just work at Height Regulation 2005 applies to all just work at height where there is a risk of semester liable to cause accidental injury. It place responsibilities on workers, employers, the self-employed, and any person who controls the work of others (eg facilities professionals or building owners who may contract others to just work at level) to the amount they control the task.

Hit by moving vehicle

The other problem of the company is workers being strike by moving vehicles. This sort of issues is very dangerous in event and can cause fatal personal injury. The accident involved vehicle like vehicles.

The main factors behind this kind of incident were;

Inadequate site planning

Improper signals and absence of cautionary (swiftness limit) boards

Unsafe conditions of working

Legal aspect related going to by the moving vehicle;

Section 2(2)(a) of HSWA 1974 state governments that it's responsibility of the workplace to maintain plant and system at work environment, so far as is fairly practicable. Regarding to Place of work (Health, Basic safety and Welfare) Legislation (17), there should efficient segregation of pedestrian from vehicular traffic of inbound and outgoing.

Collapse of non permanent structures and scaffolding

The other main issue of the business related to health and basic safety was collapse of momentary structures and scaffoldings. The occurrence took place credited to insufficient inspection. Incompetence of the inspectors to identify risk and risk involved. Furthermore the employer didn't provide the employees with appropriate equipment and provide collective actions along with personal protective measures.

Legal Aspect:

The Work at Height Rules 2005, Regulation6(4)(b), 6(5)(a, b), 7, 8, 12 and 13, states that it is essential for the employer to provide ideal equipment, take account of working condition and strenuous inspection by a competent person. Further regarding to section 2(2)(a) of HSWA 1974, there should be provision and maintenance of flower and machinery at the job.

Apart from these issues the company was dished up with three enforcement notices and one prohibition notice by HSE because of dangerous occurrences at the job place. The company failed to use proper composition of health insurance and safety policy due to inadequate management system. Hence for successful execution of the plan the company must have proper basic safety management system.

Safety Management is aimed at minimizing the probability of risks, injury and crashes by putting into action risk management techniques and safeness management operations, increasing the typical of health of the employees, monitoring the operating systems and bolstering the safety precautions of a business.

Management methods and documentation

In order to reduce the risks of damages in the company the company must have proper management techniques and associated paperwork relating to safety induction techniques, tool-box discussions, training requirement, car accident record e book and method statements. The correct safe management practices involve;

Risk analysis:

During risk evaluation, the hazards or hazardous work is first identified before commencement of any work activity. The ranking information is then offered for planning of method declaration, which must be read and grasped by every staff member undertaking the experience prior to the commencement of work.

Method affirmation:

It is the report that shows or declares how a task needs to be carried out in a safe manner. The assertion is usually made by a reliable person and passed to the principle contractor and the protection coordinator because of its addition in sites health and safe practices plan.

Site induction and training:

The site induction and training is usually provided to the worker prior to the start of any work by the workplace. The staff are enlightened about the many precautions that should be taken while working on sites. The website induction includes brief on welfare facilities, simple on site hazards, brief about how to survey onsite personal injury or injuries and the utilization of PPEs.

Accident record e book:

The damages that take place on sites are to be moved into in this reserve. Any reportable accident should be reported under RIDDOR, to the site supervisor immediately.

Tool box talks:

Toolbox talks are safety lectures targeted at the building trade. The lectures are designed to educate employees about creating and keeping safer work conditions, and attendance is obligatory numerous companies. Many companies provide toolbox talks in modular form, so that a basic safety educator has a curriculum readily available.

The Millennium Companies Ltd don't have organized structure of management and also have failed in putting into action medical and protection polices scheduled to that your company is unable to follow safe management procedures.

Overcoming the Barriers

The potential obstacles that the business needs to defeat to aim for zero accident insurance policy on sites are as follows;

Cultural and terms barrier:

The company has merged workforce, workers from different social track record works in the business now because of ethnic variety the management might find it difficult to mention all the messages efficiently, leading to difference in knowledge of instructions which might cause problems regarding safeness on sites.

Fear of change:

New ways and methods of working may create confusion and sense of uncomforting amidst workers, leading those to traditional ways of working which can cause some problems related to safeness. Therefore to be able to defeat this barrier the business should motivate the workers and should teach them properly.

Difference in education level: Different staff might have examined till different levels in education. It may affect their capability to understand instructions evidently.


Although the business has great experience it had failed in implementing the safety procedures which are extremely essential for reducing the risks of accidents. The company has inadequate safety management system which has led to several major and minor incidents. An effective safeness management system will be most effective if a basic safety culture permeates the organization and this can only be performed through communicating command, personalizing safety benefits, engaging individuals safely responsibilities, improving knowledge of safeness system and increasing threat/risk awareness and preventive behaviors. To be able to improve the safety management system the Millennium Companies Ltd must follow these steps which would indirectly help them in minimizing the damages.

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