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The Role Of Gender In Management Management Essay

As women rise to the top of the organization or management, they face problems with almost half the employees irrespective of their nature, skills or authority qualities-they aren't men. It's touted that a big ratio of employees loathe working in an environment where the top commander is a female, however qualified, because of the poor management styles.

Though the attitudes to the role of women in culture may have improved dramatically, and thanks a lot too to the affirmative action as buttressed by the happenings of the World Conference on Women 1985 as well as the Beljing System to use it; women remain regarded as being less appropriate than men for managerial and control positions.

Many local Recruitment Agencies source employees for various organizations in the general public and private sector note that some companies like men for managerial and professional positions because men are perceived as well informed, dominating, competitive, ambitious and independent in comparison to women. There's a general perception that ladies even in authority are vunerable to being emotional, excessively hypersensitive, moody, easily threatened with a trend to play favorites and personalize matters no subject their rung or hierarchy within an organization. This characteristic gives their men counterparts an edge, as being well informed and emotionally healthy.

In Kenya nearly all key professionals in the private and open public sector are placed by men. There are a handful of women in key positions such as Supreme Judge judges, School Chancellor, the Case, Parastatals Minds and the private sector.

The widely accepted description for the tiny percentage of women retaining top exec positions globally is the negative stereotyping of women as less able leaders. There are numerous differing conclusions from sociologist, management and authority theories and gender studies upon this issue.

BACKGROUND

As women more and more take up authority positions, prevailing control styles of men and women continue to attract attention. Historically, gender, precluded most females from becoming market leaders and as a result, the assumption was that men were better appropriate than women for authority, because the existing models were mostly developed to accommodate men.

The Kenyan constitution (Section 27(8)) prominently recognizes that the State shall take proactive actions to use the theory that not more than two thirds of the customers of elective bodies or appointive bodies will be of the same gender. That is to improve women contribution in command and nation affairs that before the new constitution were hitherto dominated by their male counterparts. Emanating out of this constitutional endorsement, and recent affirmative action, women will actively take part in managerial and authority matters but maybe it's an upstream swim when confronted with the existing understanding that despite being certified women are perceived as less able market leaders.

2. 1 Explanations of Leadership

Leadership according to Roach and Behling (1984) is the procedure of influencing an sorted out group towards achieving a goal. Alternatively, C. A Gibb (2000) extends this is of management and says that management is a thought put on the framework of a group to describe the situation when some personalities are so positioned in the group that their will, feeling and information are recognized to lead and control others in the pursuit of common ends. Leaders are those individuals in groups who are recognized most frequently to execute roles that initiate or lead the behavior of other to the attainment of the goals.

It is the role of an leader to obtain the commitment of people to obtaining the place goals. However, control and management are usually perplexed and used interchangeably. Management can be involved with planning, organizing, directing, coordinating and controlling the work functions and routines including the actual individuals do within the organizational setup. On the other hand leadership is about how one person can affect others to do what's required for the achievements of goals. Nonetheless not absolutely all managers are market leaders.

Leadership itself may have nothing to do with management, it is available in groups rather organizational structures and for that reason will certainly also is present in the casual organization where in general management terms it may create problems in handling workers whose affect comes from somewhere else, consequently not all leaders are managers.

A supervisor from a leader, director, section head and supervisor has inherent power to lead the works and habit of others by virtue of get ranking, job description and power. Leadership thrives both in formal and informal settings. The source of electricity can be predicated on appointment or on personality. While vitality in formal control hails from the appointing expert and list, personal control is where vitality derives from personal attributes of the persona worried based on charisma, temperament. Personal authority is conspicuous among internet marketers and empire contractors such as Richard Branson of Virgin Atlantic, James Mwangi of Collateral Bank Small.

2. 2 The Interplay of Gender and Leadership

According to existing research on gender and management, authority styles can be categorized either as masculine and feminine, (Eagly et al. , and 2000). Although there is general agreement that ladies face more barriers to becoming market leaders than men do, especially for leader roles that are male-dominated ( Eagly & Karau, 2001), there is a lot less agreement about the action of women and men after they attain such roles.

According to Jennifer L. Bendahl (1996), masculinity and agenticism relates to features associated with male control such as being assertive, controlling, hostile, ambitious, prominent, forceful, unbiased, self confident, and competitive. Agentic characteristics are ascribed more strongly to men than women.

On the other side feminine or Communal characteristics are ascribed more strongly to women than men and express primarily a problem of the first choice with the welfare of other people-for example, affectionate, helpful, kind, sympathetic, interpersonally delicate, nurturing, and delicate.

Another theory that distinguishes leadership methods is the attributes theory, where command is centered on the personal attributes and characteristics regarded as essential to guide or effect people. The idea propounds that market leaders were born rather than made. Hence the behavior exhibited by leaders can be tracked to their personality and since women are considered to become more subtle and light against the extreme, dominant guy, there can be an assumption of female or male leadership approaches to control. This theory lends credence to the gender authority based on figure traits.

Another control theory distinguishes between democratic versus autocratic command (or the similar sizing of participative versus directive management), (Lewin & Lippitt, 1938 and, Vroom & Yetton, 1973). Although democratic versus autocratic style is a narrower facet of leader habit than task-oriented and interpersonally focused styles (see Bass, 1990), the democratic-autocratic sizing also pertains to gender functions because one element of the agentic norms associated with these roles is that men are relatively more dominant and controlling quite simply, more autocratic and directive than women are.

In the 1980s and 1990s, many analysts turned their focus on other types of authority styles by distinguishing between leaders who are transformational and those who are transactional (Bass, 1998). Such leaders established especially high specifications for patterns and set up themselves as role models by attaining the trust and confidence of their fans. They state future goals and develop plans to attain them.

The existing principles and ideas of control styles to wit: democratic vs. autocratic; participative vs. directive, transformational vs. transactional and laissez faire can be explained along styles that conforms to the gender construct of being male or female oriented. Female market leaders show more democratic and participative command styles, while men are acknowledged with autocratic action regarded as negative when applied by females.

That transformational management in contrast to transactional management is placed as an excellent form of command. Unlike task and relationship oriented command, transformational and transactional authority are view along a continuum allowing individuals to hire both transformational and transactional attributes at one and once.

A transformational leader is one who provides visions and a sense of quest, instills delight and inspires and excites subordinates and highly motivates them to became better and do better. Alternatively transactional leadership is dependant on rewards for reaching specified goals and is largely predicated on directing desired performance and deviations and the necessity for corrective action. Organizational experience vary with encounters and it is the ability to be flexible specifically settings that makes one leader much better than other not the gender separate.

Against this background of different management styles, it is observed that women and men exhibit different varieties of leading. Nonetheless it is been mentioned that cultural conditioning and religion plays a role in elaborating different perceptions of women and men in command.

RESEARCH PROBLEM

Women face a problem with almost half the employees no matter their character, skills or authority characteristics, when they make it to the most notable or take up management. They aren't a man. Corresponding to a survey conducted by the American Management Connection, three quarters of men say they would rather work for a man when compared to a woman, while 25 % of women also opt to work for a man than a woman given an option. German researchers have also reported a down side from women bosses with employees reporting higher conditions of heartburn, depression, head pain and insomnia.

Women have been criticized as being easily threatened or intimidated, psychologically unstable, indecisive, irritable, moody sharpened tongued vain and playing favoritism within cliques. An test was conducted at the university or college of Pennsylvania and analyzed 50 women in delivering a unfortunate statement and discovered that all of them experienced pain, however when men were given the same affirmation they exposed less emotion with 12 not displaying any emotion at all. On the other hand it is reported that girls make better leaders based on their attention to detail, they are really considerate and make good mentors for his or her employees.

OBJECTIVES IN THE STUDY

The main goal is to determine whether women make poor bosses and consequently whether employees loathe having women as bosses. The analysis will also have these other aims;

To find out the characteristics that are associated with a good leader

To set up what portions to poor or bad leadership

To set up whether employees would rather work and are accountable to a female or male boss

To determine what troubles women face as leaders

To find out whether women make poor leaders

To determine the most well-liked gender to brain general population and private organizations

To determine the perception of Kenyans regarding voting for a female presidential candidate

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

What are the qualities of any good leader?

What will be the attributes of a poor leader?

Between male and feminine bosses, who is the employee's inclination as a supervisor?

What features of command do women lack?

Which gender is better at running community and private organizations

Would you vote for a female presidential candidate in any presidential elections

SIGNIFICANCE IN THE STUDY

With more and more women now taking elective and appointive posts its paramount to ascertain whether there are any valid stereotyping that will prohibit their ascension of the organization ladder as able market leaders by merit. More and more local and foreign universities are beginning their entrance doors to admit an increased number of feminine students taking on management oriented courses fondly known as masters running a business administration (MBA). It's important to understand the prevailing understanding and stereotypes leveled against women as commanders of their organization so that it can advise the relevant stakeholders like recruiting real estate agents and human source departments, the federal government as well institutions of learning. Furthermore this can be an area that would require comprehensive research to demystify and develop enduring mitigating methods.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

The review shall entail descriptive research design. Descriptive research will help the collection of data associated with the issues under study and the type of the relations and perceptions of employees regarding their bosses.

The target inhabitants in this analysis shall be standard bank employees. For purposes of the analysis, most banking companies have a hierarchical structure with described reporting lines as below. The unit of analysis will be junior employees (such as tellers, clerks and official) and their immediate supervisors that report to the branch administrator as their manager.

Chief Executive Officer /Managing Director

Directors and General Managers (oversee & brain Human Resource, Finance, Credit, IT depts. )

Branch Administrator ( over see branch activities, insurance policy, performance and employees)

Supervisors ( over see and supervise junior staff and are accountable to branch managers)

Junior employees-(Clerks, Tellers, Officials that report to and are responsible to both supervisor and branch managers)

c. The study will test junior employees and their immediate supervisors that report to branch professionals through stratified probability sampling

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