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The Rivalry Between India And Pakistan Background Essay

If there were only two men on earth, how would they get on. They might help one another, harm each other, flatter each other, slander each other, fight each other, make it up; they could neither live collectively nor do without one another'.

- Voltaire, Philosophical Dictionary, 1764.


1. The South Asian region, which include expresses of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka is definitely significant in world affairs. It really is a region of great racial variety with innumerable ethnicities, languages, and religions. No other region on the planet possesses such unique distinctions and characteristics. India has common boundary with all the six states of the region, but no other country has a common boundary with one another. So India is assumed as the primary of the South Asian system. This geo-strategic reason has made India a local power.

2. Throughout background, South Asia has faced many wars. Inside the 8th and 12th century, Arab and Turkish Muslims took over the control of the region from Hindus preventing many wars. Faith and enlargement of place were the primary causes of those wars. Then emerged the Mugals in the 15th century and fought many wars for establishing control and broadening their territory. In the 17th century the English came and slowly but surely overran the region through numerous wars in creating their colonies. Though Nepal was the only the nation that the British Empire failed to colonise. Then your people of this sub-continent started their motions for freedom against English Imperialism inspired by nationalism. In the end the British had to leave the region in 1947.

4. After India becoming 3rd party, this region also confronted different regular and unconventional wars. There were four classic wars fought in this area: between India and Pakistan in 1948, 1965 and in 1971 and between India and China in 1962. There have been many unconventional wars in this region: Sikh, Naga, and Mizo problems in India, Baluch and Sindh problems in Pakistan, Chakma insurgency in Bangladesh, Tamil insurgency in Sri Lanka, and Maoist insurgency in Nepal; etc. Oddly enough, India is assumed as one party of this conflict through this region directly or indirectly.

5. South Asia, the most poorest region of the old utilising their budget generally in other sector like defense and solving issues instead of in the development sector. Regarding Nepal, she actually is also utilizing a good amount of budget in the serenity process and conflict management.


6. Analysis of the issues in South Asia shows that the numbers of classic wars are less in amount and in severity than the unconventional wars. There have been multifarious causes of wars in South Asia. No single cause was directly responsible for any conflict or conflict in this area. The sources of wars in South Asia generally speaking are discussed in the following paragraphs.

Consequence of the Cool War

7. Since self-reliance of the countries of this region, it has been an area of clashing interests and economic, politics and diplomatic competitions of the major forces. But those forces did not engage themselves in direct large-scale military services confrontation. For all the countries of South Asia, large and small, relationships with the United States, the previous Soviet Union, and China are extensive and of great relevance.

8. In 1947 India founded good relationship with USSR. In 1949 Pakistan also set up good relationship with Soviet Union because of this of India's connection with USA. A Frosty war was launched in this region when Pakistan signed up with South East Asian Treaty Company (SEATO) in Sept 1954 and the Baghdad Pact in September 1955. India and Pakistan both had taken the opportunity of strained relationships between the two super power due to the cold war. Within this context the USA backed Pakistan and the USSR reinforced India. India and Pakistan both received Armed forces aid price of vast amounts of dollars from both of these super power. Pakistan also founded good relationship with China to counter India and was reinforced substantially.

9. It can certainly be deduced that in addition to heavy financial assistance, vast quantities of military supplies flowed into the sub-continent, which resulted in the endless hands competition between India and Pakistan since self-reliance. Nuclear studies by both countries in 1998 were a example of the severity of the hands race between both of these countries. Also both of these were competing as a nuclear country that they made nuclear tests one after another. The hands competition between India and Pakistan and the role enjoyed by the major powers due to the cold conflict situation were sensible in leading to the Indo-Pakistani wars (in 1965 and 1971). We were holding also accountable for the border battle between India and China in 1962.

India Factor

10. Geo-strategically India has a greater benefits than other states of the region. This region is Indo centric, which is exclusive on the globe system. Geographically, economically and population smart India is greatest country in this area. India occupies 72% of the region of this region and bears 77% of its society. She also creates 78% of the gross national product of this region. So India is known as the regional excellent power for South Asia. It's assumed that India was the main one of the individuals of all regular and unconventional wars fought in this area immediately or indirectly.

11. India is in effective position to intervene in the internal affairs of other countries of the region. Study of insurgencies and communal violence in this area also proves that it is India, who straight or indirectly helped the militants. Participation of India can be clearly recognized in the Tamil problems in Sri Lanka, the Chakma turmoil in Bangladesh, the Nepalese exiles; etc.

12. India as a local power always wished to dominate the region. She also wants to limit the effect of outside vitality, upon her neighbours, as she takes into account her neighbours as an integral part of her security. India was always sensitive about the occurrence of extra-regional power in Southern Asian politics.

Rise of Sub-State Nationalism

13. The South Asian region is one of the most populous areas on the globe. You'll find so many communities in this area who are from different religions, tribes, and speak in various languages. Because the primitive days there were conflicts between the communities. In a multi-racial and multi-cultural modern culture whenever a particular group of people establishes domination over electricity and hampers equivalent syndication of resources and other amenities, trouble starts in just a country. Indians fought their United kingdom rulers as one entity, but once near the freedom these were split and become two countries as Pakistan (Muslim bulk) and India (Hindu bulk). Lately in 1971 Western Pakistan also separated as Bangladesh (Bengali majority). Most countries in this region were/are facing inside turmoil; e. g. Maoist issue of India in some states, Tamil problem of Sri Lanka, Maoist and Terai problem in Nepal.

14. In present context the Janajati market leaders of Nepal are uniting for a caste system condition. Madhesi people are uniting for Terai requiring one Madhesi express. Far american people say that they need a undividable asian state plus some demand Tharuhat, Limbuwan, Tansaling, Tamuwan, Newa State; etc. This shows the surge of sub-state nationalism. Not only Nepal, but the majority of the South Parts of asia are facing this sort of problem; e. g. Gorkhaland point out fighters at Paschim Bengal India.


15. Nowadays the idea of domination by capturing the land physically is nearly over. Today powerful says try to exert their impact on less powerful states by neo-colonizing them; i. e. by handling them financially as well as politically. Market domination is one of the major options for neo-colonizing other expresses in this era. India always sought South Asia as her secured market for professional as well major products. She actually is almost successful in reaching her goal, only Pakistan is within a challenging position.

Rivalry between India and Pakistan

15. South Asian conflicts revolved essentially around the traditional and endless issues and rivalry between India and Pakistan and their individual relationship with other says of the region. The root base of the turmoil are complicated and can be tracked back to the demand for another homeland for the Indian Muslims. The organizing principles of both states are different; one predicated on faith and the other on secularism. It has affected their inside politics. They also have disputes over territories, have mutual suspicions and distrust. At the moment a situation of low level issue is prevailing between India and Pakistan on the Kashmir concern. But it is not likely to achieve anything bilaterally due to the nature and point out of relations between the two; also the stalemate over Kashmir will probably continue for an indefinite period.

16. The nuclear studies by both countries in 1998 have further complicated the situation. The discord between India and Pakistan is too psychological. They are also lacking sophisticated command and control system for nuclear weapons. All these might spark an unintentional nuclear conflict between both of these countries, which might have spill over influence on all other countries of the region.

Poverty of South Asia

17. This region is the most poorest in the world. Every Region bearing this problem because of bad governance, internal conflicts, corruption; etc. Per capita income of all countries is low and GDP is also low. Due to poverty, living criteria of a lot of the people through this region is unpleasant. A number of the internal issues of the region are because of poverty; e. g. insurgency in Nepal, Maoist problem in a few areas of India; etc.


18. Causes of wars varied with the changes of world systems in several ages. Inside the primitive days and nights people used to fight wars for very simple causes. But with the scientific and social advancement these causes have grown to be intricate and multi-dimensional. Today the modern-day schools of warfare divide the causes into two groupings. Sometimes their state itself becomes the cause of war. Nationalism also regarded as a major reason behind war. Role of special interest groups in a state cannot be eliminated both in developed and under-developed countries.

19. The South Asia region has long been significant on earth affairs. Throughout the background this region was the center point of the western interest, which brought on many wars. These ranged from trivial irritants and non-violent disputes to full-scale wars because the World Warfare II. So far four regular wars were fought in this region of which three were between India and Pakistan.

20. Poverty within South Asia is one of the most challenging problems in the region. Boarder disputes, rivalry between India and Pakistan, sub-state nationalism are also the problems because of this region which might cause wars. Fixing this problem requires good management in each region, local cohesiveness and significantly sight vision of regional market leaders is necessary.

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