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The Record Of The Bionic Eye

Here, we present a description of a block scheme, specific features of design and results of trials for a prototype of the bionic eyeball, types of these and its own applications. The bionic attention is supposed to provide vision, partly to the aesthetically impaired by use of the present day day gadgets devices like CCD video cameras. The comprises a pc chip that sits in the rear of the individual's eye, linked up to a tiny video camera built into glasses that they wear. Images captured by the camera are beamed to the chip, which translates them into impulses that the brain can interpret. Although the images made by the artificial eyeball were far from perfect, they could be clear enough to permit a person who is normally blind to recognize faces. The paper discusses the dissimilarities working methodologies used in each of them. During the checks and the specialized medical trails, this device made six blind visitors to regain their eyesight partially. The actual advantage of using bionic eye is to be able to take away the blindness completely by making the advances in today's research and enhancing manufacturing solutions. This break in the action through is likely to benefit about one crore world inhabitants who have problems with the most frequent causes of blindness, Retinitis Pigmentosa, Macular Degeneration. The implant bypasses the diseased skin cells in the retina and stimulates the remaining viable cells. This is a revolutionary piece of technology and really has the potential to improve people's lives. But we need to be aware it is still some way in the foreseeable future.

INTRODUCTION

A Bionic Eyes is a tool, which works as an artificial eye. It is a broad term for the complete electronics system consisting of the image detectors, processors, radio transmitters & receivers, and the retinal chip. Predicated on the institute developed the unit are

developed but with small to major variations, of the the devices with useful capability and the ones which are clinically analyzed and results proven are discussed here. Here the designer's aim is to get a system that is officially perfect without loop holes which is harmless to our body which receives the system and that is commercially practical both in terms of ease of production, cost and the procedure of implanting.

Blindness means lack of perspective. Rods and Cones, millions of them are in the back of every healthy eye. They are biological solar panels in the retina that convert light to electrical impulses -- impulses that travel across the optic nerve to the brain where images are developed. Without them, eye lose the capacity to see, and are declared blind. Degenerative retinal diseases cause fatality of photoreceptors--rod-shaped skin cells at the retina's periphery accountable for night perspective and cone-shaped cells at its center

responsible for color perspective. Worldwide, 1. 5 million people have problems with retinitis pigmentosa (RP), the main cause of inherited blindness. In the Western world, agerelated macular degeneration (AMD) is the major reason behind vision damage in people over era 65, and the issue is becoming more critical as the populace ages. Each year, 700, 000 people are diagnosed with AMD, with 10 % becoming lawfully blind, defined by 20/400 eyesight. Many AMD patients sustain some extent of peripheral perspective.

Currently, there is absolutely no effective treatment for most patients with AMD and RP, the researchers say. However, if you can bypass the photoreceptors and straight stimulate the interior retina with aesthetic signals, one might be able to restore some extent of sight.

Need for the BIONIC Eyesight:

It has been proven that electric activation of retinal neurons can produce belief of light in patients experiencing retinal degeneration. By using property the eye and make uses of the efficient cells to wthhold the vision with the aid of electronic

devices that assist this cells in performing the task of eye-sight, we can make these lakhs of people reunite their eyesight at least artially. A design of an optoelectronic retinal prosthesis system that can activate the retina with resolution corresponding to a visual

acuity of 20/80-razor-sharp enough to orient yourself toward things, recognize faces, read large fonts, watch TV and, perhaps most important, lead an independent life. The researchers pray their device may someday bring unnatural vision to the people blind anticipated to

retinal degeneration.

BIONIC Eyes DEFINED:

Bionic Eye, Bio Electronic eye, is a device that can offer vision - the diagnosis of light. It replaces the operation of a part or whole of attention. it can be used to replace efficiency as well as add features. It really is a complex combination of multiple devices which interact for repair of the vision of the topic.

The Diseases that cause blindness:

Retinitis Pigmentosa

Macular Degeneration

Of these, retinitis pigmentosa is an illness, which really is a hereditary hereditary disease where peripheral rods degenerate slowly but surely progresses towards middle of eyes and brings about tunnel perspective.

As for macular degeneration, it is also genetically related, it degenerates cones in macula region, triggering damage to central perspective but spares peripheral retina.

MIT- HARVARD DEVICE:

This device employs an Epi-Retinal Methodology. With this Microelectrode array replaces harmed photoreceptors, which react instead of rods and cones to send the signs to optic nerve. The power source - Laser(820nm wavelength). For image acquisition it runs on the CCD Camera. Patient spectacle holds the camera and electricity source.

It involves two systems, system-1 which senses and transmits image and electric power and other system which stimulates the cells, there by making brain imagine the image.

System 1:

CCD camera suggestions - External light intensity

CCD productivity amplitude-modulates laser beam source

This strikes photodiode array of implant

Therefore power stimulator chip (SC)

System 2:

SC drives current to electrodes facing retina

This excites the ganglionic cells > axons > optic nerve > aesthetic cortex in occipital lobe of brain

Brain helps in perceiving an image

Advantages:

Very Early on in the aesthetic pathway

No Batteries implanted within body

No complicated medical procedure

Power Requirement - ˜ of milliwatt

Disadvantages

Axons b/w electrodes and ganglionic cells

Other axons get excited - unwanted belief of large blur

Extra circuitry necessary for downstream electrical input

Artificial Retina Prosthesis using ASR (Artificial Silicon Retina)

ASR is a solid express biocompatible chip which has an array of photo receptors, and is also implanted to displace the operation of the faulty photoreceptors. Current made by the device in response to light

stimulation will change the membrane potential of the overlying neurons and thereby activate Visible ensationsthoerv "iPsuhaolsspyhsetenmes. " can be evoked by electrical stimulation of the several levels of the visual pathway. Phosphenes are evoked by the excitement of the eyeball or the visual cortex. Artificial vision created by the controlled electric stimulation of the retina has color.

Epiretinal Way includes a semiconductor structured device added to the surface of the retina to try to simulate the rest of the overlying cells

Sfutbhreerteintianla A pproach entails implanting the ASR chip behind the retina to simulate the remaining viable skin cells.

IMPLANT DESIGN:

Primitive devices

Single photosensitive pixel(3mm in diameter)

Neo devices

The current micro photodiode array (MPA) is made up of a regular array of specific hotodiode subunits, each about 20-20-˜m square and segregated by 10-˜m route puts a stop to (37). The causing micro photodiode density is approximately 1, 100/m2.

IMPLANT features

The size of implant is 50um. And it requires no external power. The response 500nm to 1100nm wavelength response.

Working:

For the technique to work, the individual must still have some functioning ganglion skin cells - nerve cells that transmit visible information from the retinal cells to the optic nerve - and a fully-functioning optic nerve. A little electronic digital pad is located onto the retina of one eye, so the electrodes are in immediate contact with the ganglion skin cells. Each of the devices' 100 electrodes can promote 20 to 30 skin cells.

Real-time eyesight:

The end user wears a pair of glasses which contain a small camera and that wirelessly transmits video recording to a cellphone-sized computer in the wearer's pocket. This computer functions the image information and wirelessly transmits it to a little electronic receiver implanted in the wearer's brain.

When received in the implanted chip, the digital information is altered into electro-mechanical impulses sent into the ganglion cells. Following that, the brain takes over as the information vacations down the optic nerve to the visible cortex at the back of the brain. The whole process occurs extremely speedily, so that patients see in real-time. That is important any visible lag could stimulate the "vestibular-ocular reflex", making people feel dizzy and tired.

Currently recipients of the device experience a relatively thin view, but more electrodes should give a higher field of eyesight. By revitalizing more ganglion skin cells, he desires that visible acuity increase significantly. His team's next goal is to design a device with 1000 electrodes.

MANUFACTURING PROCESS:

Implants are comprised of a doped and ion-implanted silicon substrate disk to produce a PiN (positive-intrinsic-negative) junction. Fabrication starts with a 7. 6-cm diameter semiconductor level N-type silicon wafer.

For the MPA device, a photomask is utilized to ion-implant shallow P+ doped wells in to the front surface of the wafer, separated by channel puts a stop to in a design of specific micro photodiodes. An intrinsic level automatically forms at the boundary between your P+-doped wells and the N-type substrate of the wafer. The trunk of the wafer is then ion-implanted to make a N+ surface. Thereafter, an insulating layer of silicon nitrate is transferred on leading of the wafer, covering the whole surface except for the well opportunities. A slender adhesion covering, of chromium or titanium, is then deposited over the P+ and N+ layers. A clear electrode coating of platinum, iridium/iridium oxide, or platinum, is deposited on leading well side, and on the background area. In its simplest form, the photodiode and electrode levels are the same size. However, increasing the photodiode collector to electrode area proportion can increase the current density offered by every individual micro photodiode subunit. Post Implant function and Inference.

Dimension procedure

IR excitement at 940nm on the ASR chip

Recorded at the corneal surface using lens electrode

Assessment of reactions of yellow metal, platinum and iridium electrodes

Iridium centered device has an extended persistence

Stability of the electrodes

BIO-COMPATIBILTY RESULTS:

There is not a intensifying change in retinal appearance that may be associated with retinal toxicity. But you can find lack of photoreceptive part over the spot of implant, which is expected due to deprival of air and nutrients to prospects cells root the chip.

Multiple Device Artificial Retina Chipset (MARC):

The other ground-breaking bio electronic eyeball is the MARC, this runs on the ccd camera insight and a laser beam or rf to transfer the image in to the chip within the retina applying this a resolution of 100 pixels is achieved by utilizing a 10x10 array. It contains a platinum or plastic silicon electrode array placed inside the eye to encourage the cells.

THE MARC SYSTEM BLOCK:

Outside Eyes:

The video source to the marc system stop is given via a CCD camera. This image is further prepared using a PDA measured image processor chip & to transmit it, we do pulse width modulation in first level and then ASK modulation is performed.

This sign is further amplified using a class E ability amplifier and transmitted using RF telemetry coils.

Inside Vision:

The indication received from the RF telemetry coils is power retrieved and then these transmission is ASK demodulated and the info and clock is recovered from this signals and these sign are delivered to the construction and control block of the chip which from its insight decode what information should be sent to each one of the electrodes and transmits them this data. And the electrodes in turn stimulate the cells in the attention so as to send this arousal to the brain through optic nerve and help brain in visualizing the image even though this process is going on the position of each electrode is sent to the marc diagnostics chip beyond your eye

Block Diagram Of Image Acquisition System:

The image acquisition system involves a CMOS digital camera which acquires images and transmits it to the Analog to Digital Converter. It changes this analog type to digital data. This data is first sent into a video tutorial buffer where it is processed, the images are color mapped and this processed images are dispatched through RS232 interface. this serial data is then sent to the electrodes or evaluation monitor by way of a RF circuit or laser beam.

Marc Hermetic Closing And Setting:

The RF coils either intra ocular or extra ocular coil layout as shown in number. This rf probes obtains the transmitted RF energy and give it to the MARC chip. The AC wires out of this coil is sent to the MARC chip. This chip is hermetically covered in silicon gel and the other factors of the potato chips possess the electrodes, which activate the cells in eyes.

Advantage of the Marc system:

Small Size - 6x6 mm

Diagnostic Capability

Reduction of stress upon retina

Conclusion:

Researchers across the world have seemed for ways to boost people's lives with manufactured, bionic devices. Its been 40 years since Arne Larsson received the first fully implanted cardiac pacemaker. Analysts throughout the world have searched for ways to boost people's lives with artificial, bionic devices. Bionic devices are being developed to do more than replace faulty parts. Research workers are also with them to fight illnesses.

Providing power to run bionic implants and making connections to the brain's control system cause both great difficulties for biomedical executive. But what ever be the expert and cons of this system. If this system is fully developed it will change the lives of millions of folks round the world. We might not restore the eye-sight completely, but we can help them to least have the ability to find their way, acknowledge faces, read catalogs, above all business lead an unbiased life.

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