Posted at 10.30.2018
2. 0 Reason for Phenomenology
The reason for a phenomenological strategy in research is to clarify and enlighten how people understand and comprehend certain phenomena. (Lester, 1999) Humans have different personal perspectives. Since this type of research count on human encounters and often have different interpretations, phenomenological research really helps to gathers complete information through qualitative methods. Qualitative methods used can be interviews and conversations, and data can be presented from the individuals point of view. Through inductive methods in phenomenological methods, data can be accumulated without being regarded as unproductive assumptions and can contribute to research that related to activities.
Phenomenological method used in epistemology, where data and information can be acquired only by emphasizing personal encounters and comprehensions. This method is effective in finding out a person's experiences, and perceptions of their perspectives- can the info obtained are being used in making normative assumptions. Nowadays, phenomenology methodology in research methods are being used widely in the research study of any field, such as mindset and medical.
3. 0 Types of Phenomenological Research
The main concentration in phenomenology is experiences. To be able to understand members in a specific study, analysts 'brackets' or collections aside his or her encounters so that biases handled in the research. There are a amounts of different stand in phenomenology, which divided into two main group, descriptive, and interpretive phenomenology, but nonetheless fall season in qualitative method field. Types of phenomenology's descendants from these two main group are interpretative phenomenological research, also called IPA, and template analysis.
Both forks of research methods are manufactured by German school of thought and had influenced one another through their work, although Heidegger's hermeneutic phenomenology emerged after Husserl's descriptive phenomenology. Husserl and Heidegger believe that the world is merely one collection among many worlds, and as conscious beings, we start to see the world as truths (Sloan & Bowe, 2013). Among these two main categories, interpretative phenomenology is the most applied method in qualitative research compared to descriptive phenomenology.
3. 1 Descriptive Phenomenology
Descriptive phenomenology was developed by Husserl in 1970. Husserl's phenomenology way was the data of humans' experience, perceived while in the state of mindful will probably be worth of contribution in research and studies. Another important part in Husserlian phenomenology is it is important to place aside their (research workers) own knowledge during studies in order to grasp the substance of the participant's activities without being bias.
So that the transcendental subjectivity achieved, phenomenologist recommended a technique of "bracketing off" the influences around the happening to prevent bias (Smith. J. A et. al, 2009). Researcher 'brackets' almost all their earlier knowledge that falls in the same category about a particular phenomenon research in order that they stayed preconception neutralized. The information about the trend is distributed by the participants and researcher reveals the trend as a happening itself by using the info given as a support. The phenomenon as experienced by the members (in their conscious state) would be the focus of the study rather than concentrating on the sensation as a topic itself.
In other aspect, Husserl assumed that humans that contain lived the same encounters have the same features in human awareness. Natanson, (1973) known them to as widespread essences (as cited in Lopez & Willis, 2004). Essences are essential because to the phenomenologist; it presents the true character of the trend, and they abstracted from lived activities.
Descriptive phenomenology supports the theory that the belief can combine with ideas and judgments to a certain extent. This means descriptive phenomenologist agrees that they can focus on phenomenological purity by minimizing interpretation (Lester, 1999) although their research based on people's perceptions and experience of certain phenomena. In other words, descriptive phenomenology is a link between the noema of the knowledge (the 'what') and the noesis (the how it is experienced) (Sloan & Bowe, 2013).
3. 2 Interpretive (Hermeneutic) Phenomenology
Heidegger, whom Husserl's pupil has preceded descriptive method with interpretive phenomenology. Heidegger challenged to make phenomenological research to have significantly more meanings and also to be interpretive, or hermeneutic in research customs. Hermeneutic phenomenology is more elaborate than descriptive phenomenology due to its impermanence. In interpretative (hermeneutic) phenomenology, time is a factor, but it isn't a factor in descriptive phenomenology.
Thompson (1990) state that his word hermeneutic means Hermes, which is the name of your Greek God that liable in interpreting text messages between God (as cited in Lopez & Willis, 2004). Hermeneutics is an activity and solution to bring out and make appear of what covered in human encounters and will go beyond their experience in search of the meaning in their life techniques. If descriptive phenomenological is targeted in the essences in human being experiences, while they are simply conscious, hermeneutic phenomenological is targeted on what humans experience somewhat what they consciously know. In hermeneutic phenomenology, analysts are required to interpret the meanings found in the regards to the phenomena (hence the name interpretive phenomenology). This technique concentrates more on the comprehension of the encounters by adding elements in their research such as themes and finding meanings interpretively in data obtained alternatively than focusing on essences this is the emphasis of descriptive phenomenology.
Heidegger demand that humans attached in their world, and their experiences are subjectively connected, cultural and political context. In his publication Being and Time (1992), for Heidegger, humans and their activities are always "in the world", and their being is proven when you are on the globe, so rather than 'bracketing off' the planet humans live in, Heidegger look to humans contextual relationships to the items on earth. Humans have freedoms of earning their own options, but constrained by certain conditions in life. The independence in making choices is the existential proof of human beings that all meaning arises. Hermeneutic phenomenologist will focus on bringing out the meanings of individuals existence, and the meaning of the options they made.
Unlike descriptive phenomenology, interpretive phenomenology uses their personal knowledge in their research as it is impossible to get rid of your brain of the background that has taken those to do the study to begin with. The strategy of bracketing as employed by the descriptive phenomenologist to them are incongruous and are doubtful (Lopez & Willis, 2004). Heidegger articulated an important notion that there are no one true so this means interpretation produced by an interpretive study, because they are open and may become more than one, but the research studies must be rational and arguable.
4. 0 Techniques of Phenomenological Inquiry
Creswell (1998) suggested the next process:
4. 1 Steps in Descriptive Phenomenology
In his publication, Giorgi provided detailed guidelines for descriptive phenomenological research (as cited in (as cited in Lester, 1999). Methods of descriptive phenomenology are as follows;
1. Obtain a concrete explanation of the occurrence of interest.
2. Adopt the phenomenological frame of mind towards the sensation.
3. Read the entire description to gain the feeling of the complete.
4. Reread the description and identify so this means products' that record different facets or
measurements of the complete.
5. Identify and make explicit the psychological significance of each meaning unit.
6. Articulate the general structure of the knowledge of the happening.
4. 1 Techniques in Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis
Interpretative phenomenological analysis is one of the phenomenological methods that is convinced it is impossible to acquire immediate access to the research participant's life (Willig, 2013). Although IPA phenomenologist aim for the participant's experience, realistically, everything depend on the nature of the conversation between your researcher and the participant. Because of the boundaries also to that limitation, researcher's consequence of the research always predicated on his or her interpretation of the participant's experience.
Interpretive phenomenologist usually works with transcripts of semi-structured interview. Since phenomenological research predicated on experience, the interview questions must be open-ended and non-directive so that the data obtained is not limited. Experts should use specific and centered questions in their interviews, and it is also possible to ask the members to produce alternate means such as journal and video to get more data. Data gained will be analyzed using idiographic approach where participants' opinion will incorporate in the later stage of the study.