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The Rationale For Content Structured Education Essay


Recently a growing interest has been allotted to Content-Based Education (Grabe and Stoller 1997; Fried-Booth 1986; Haines 1989) as being a fundamental tenet within CLT (Communicative Terminology Teaching). The task work way (Fried-Booth 1986; Haines1989; Bereiter and Scardamalia 1993) can be an example of a CBI program within the vocabulary classroom. This process is specially of great efficiency in ESP (British for Specific Purposes), on the whole and Business English, in particular as it lends itself to: a) words authenticity, b) learner authenticity, c) process authenticity and d) learner involvement and self-reliance (Robinson 1991).

This newspaper tackles the idea of task work in a Tunisian ESP context with reference to Stoller's style of job work (1997) and Hutchinson and Waters' method of materials design (1987). The paper reviews some research literature on the functional guidelines for sequencing and designing a sample job work and reviews an actually practical application of job in an enterprise English framework.

The rationale for content-based instruction

Unlike traditional methods to FL teaching which focus on accuracy through coaching discrete grammatical points and vocabulary items, CLT emphasizes a CBI strategy which tends to focus on the communicative use of terms and content rather than form. CBI will probably create a context for understanding how to learners. This approach lends itself to the integration of the four skills, the use of traditional materials and students' determination and involvement (Brinton, Snow and Wesche 1989).

It has been empirically turned out that CBI permits the natural integration of reasonable language teaching routines such as choice means of evaluation, apprenticeship learning, cooperative learning, integrated-skills instructions, job work, scaffolding, strategy training and the use of visual organizers (See Grabe and Stoller 1997 for a detailed debate on CBI). Although each one of these teaching routines is worth discussion, this newspaper will content itself solely with approaching task work and its role in CBI format.

Project work as a natural expansion of CBI

It is assumed by many terms professionals that people can equate task work with in-class group work, cooperative learning, or even more intricate task-based activities (Stoller 1997). Hutchinson and Waters' model (1987) of ESP materials design is a great proof of that. It's the purpose of the present paper, however, to demonstrate how project work represents a lot more than group work itself. It really is worth reminding in this context that project work is considered "not as an upgraded for other coaching materials" but rather as an "method of learning which matches mainstream methods and that can be used with virtually all levels, age groups and talents of students" (Haines 1989, 1).

In the school room context, after committing oneself to content learning as well as dialect learning (i. e. , content-based classrooms), project work proves successful as it signifies a natural expansion of what is already taking place in class (See Appendices 1 and 2). For instance, in an enterprise British course, where students are exposed to themes pertaining to the business world, the introduction of a brochure introducing different departments of any company or explaining its products will be a natural outgrowth of the curriculum (the look of a demonstration confirming an evaluative analysis on the company present performance manifested through the SWOT Analysis would be a natural by-product of the lesson) (See Appendix 2).

Project work as a way to obtain authenticity

Defining authenticity

The notion of authenticity in the vocabulary classroom is a lot debated and their many strategies that attempted to define in a specific way. Since it is beyond the scope of this paper to review as much approaches as is possible to authenticity, Hutchinson and Waters' procedure will be utilized as it ties in with the sequencing of an task-based task work. (See Appendix 1)

Authenticity is not really a characteristic of any text in itself: it is a feature of a words in a specific context. Therefore, a text can only just be truly genuine, quite simply, in the framework that it was at first writtenwe should not be looking for some abstract idea of authenticity, but instead the practical concept of fitness to the training goal. " (Hutchinson and Waters 1987, 159)

For other definitions of authenticity see Harmer 1983; Nunan 1989; Breen 1985; Wilkins 1976; Robinson 1980; Widdowson 1979/1978; Clarke 1989)

Text authenticity

Lee (1995) argues a textually authentic report is one which is not written for educating purposes, but also for real-life communicative purposes. She adds by expressing that "because of their intrinsically communicative quality, textually real materials tend to have greater potential for being made learner authentic" (1995, 324). That is to say, text authenticity is established only if the learner identifies with the materials to which he is exposed to and involves himself in giving an answer to them appropriately or rather favourably.

For the case of the job work, it lends itself to the utilization of genuine data especially in ESP. With reference to the present project model, students used genuine data from many resources such as a company archives, the internet, an interview, etc. . . . These help as an suggestions for the students to process the SWOT Examination applied on confirmed company. By such a job, students start understanding in-house materials of companies that they may utilization in their future job.

Learner authenticity

As a different type of authenticity, learner authenticity may be clarified by Lee's (1995) assumption that there four factors involved in establishing it. Pedagogically speaking, these factors can be explained as (a) words factor (materials selection), (b) learner factor (specific distinctions), (c) job factor (process design) and (d) learner setting factor (learning environment). To these on more fifth factor could be added, teacher factor (teacher's attitude and teaching procedure). All these are interrelated.

With regard to the present task work, it requires an proposal from the part of students in working with a particular theme, it can testify their willingness and dedication to suppose their responsibility to carry on with some tasks leading these to the creation of a project. This is actually the case of the sample project in which students prove positive and ready to take on it especially that they contemplate it useful and complementary with their studies, interests and future potential clients, hence the authenticity of the documents is thus ensured.

Task authenticity (With reference to Hutchinson and Waters' Materials

Design Model 1987, see Appendix 1)

Having ensured content material and learner authenticity, task work has another third merit which is the achievement of activity authenticity. This results from the attempt to employ the learners' interest by relating the task with their own life and by giving an objective for undertaking the experience. This is manifested implicitly in the information distance or problem dealing with, role play and simulation. Accordingly, learners may be asked to play themselves in familiar or somewhat unfamiliar situations or to adopt roles not used to them (Breen 1985).

According to Lee (1995) if we prefer to make tasks be accessible to learners, like materials, then they should be learner real, that is, we ought to make sure that they are both learner and textually genuine. Practicaly speaking the crucial task design stage may involve the next consideration to be able to ensure authenticity:

The integration of the four skills.

The four skills are used in context and for an objective.

Task validity must be made certain, that is, both content and the nature of the duty should develop the expected language ability in learners (Bachman 1990).

The relevance of the task to the traditional materials.

It is the course aims, the practised skills and learners' choices which determine whether the task is employed as a pre-, practice or post-activity (Lee 1995).

In fact, the job work reported in this newspaper requires the sequencing of some jobs that students have to go through in order to satisfy the requirements of the job. For instance, students have to interview top professionals in a corporation with regard to its present performance, to gather data from its press, navigate in its website to get additional information, compile and analyse the gathered data as well as synthesise the complete work in planning for the presentation level. These different duties put together students for future career needs and requirements regarding to which they may be likely to replicate them the truth is.

Learner participation and independence

Robinson (1991) argues that project work is a highly effective approach especially in an ESP setting since it increases learner centeredness, that is, it requires personal involvement for the students as they need to determine " what they will do and exactly how they will do it " (Fried-Booth 1986, 5). This is the case specifically for unstructured projects which can be student-based (See Henry's model 1994), but also for the situation of the present project, it is rather a joint executing between the teacher and the students, i. e. , a semi-structured task.

Referring to the project work at hand, it is the students who find the theme, the data collection instruments, favoured the application on a particular company and adopted the steps of producing the project but always under the supervision of the instructor who provided his responses especially in terms of language and not content (this is to remind that the students have been already theoretically tutored on the developing, sequencing and presenting of job work).

The characteristics of job works:

Many language educators proposed different models of project works and each of them approached the idea of project from a new point of view (Fried-Booth 1986; Haines 1989; Legutke 1985; Sheppard and Stoller 1995), but most of their models show the following features:

- PW targets content learning.

- PW is learner-centered.

- PW is cooperative somewhat than competitive.

- PW leads to an real integration of skills and processing

information from several sources reflecting real-life duties.

- PW process is crowned by an end-product (mouth presentation,

poster session, article. . . ). Its value is based on the handling of

accomplishing it rather than its final product. It boosts students'

fluency and correctness.

- PW boosts students' motivation, stimulation, empowerment

and challenge. It brings about students' self confidence, self-esteem and

autonomy. It enhances students' skills and cognitive abilities

(Stoller 1997).

The task work steps

Although there will not exist only 1 way of planning the project work steps, the assumption is that (Fried-Booth 1986; Haines 1989; Katz and Chand 1993) most experts in this field agree on the eight important step model as recommended by Sheppard and Stoller (1995) who proposed it for an ESP classroom. Their model has been refined consequently of being analyzed in a variety of terminology classrooms and tutor classes (Stoller 1997). The modification of the past model mainly introduces some language involvement steps from the part of the educator. These additional steps provide to help students complete their projects efficiently. (See Appendix 3)

A test project


Having situated the task work approach to teaching in ELT on the whole and ESP in particular in its wider books, now it is worth mentioning the background of the use of a sample job undertaken by business English students in a Tunisian framework. Actually, the students involved in the job reported in this newspaper are learning Accounting Sciences at the intermediate level at the Graduate Business School of Sfax, University of Sfax, Tunisia. They have been exposed to Basic English for 4 years at the supplementary institution level and two years at the tertiary one. Now, in their third 12 months of university experience they are usually taught 3 time of English a week, with the contact with British during two classes, each lasting one hour. 5 during two semesters. The British course is taught by means of TD ("Travaux Diriges") this means practice work, that is, some sort of lecture-integrated-into-practice work time.

The idea to undertake such a project work in British is influenced by the fact that students are involved in some "exposs" which can be presentations of an prepared work beyond your class allocated by the professors of other themes. This may be accomplished by individuals, pairs and organizations. Yet, since most of the other specialist subject matter are trained in People from france, which is L2 for Tunisians, students present all their exposes in French. They have no experience to take action in British. So, as a fresh starting, it is interesting that discovering it is in itself an achievement as it might yield new home elevators students' amount of proficiency and could serve as an instrument of evaluation with their mastery of linguistic set ups and pronunciation in British. What motivates as well such executing is these third season business British students will have to use English at the job after graduation.

In fact, we are based in a very hectic and energetic economical pole of the Tunisian country, it is Sfax. It really is a very commercial and industrial city in the southern part of the country and regarded as the second big city following the capital city of Tunis. The majority of its businesses and business transactions are made in English especially that they require foreigners, hence the necessity of Business and especially Accounting Sciences students to obtain at least the "abcs" or the fundamentals of the English language.

On the light of this, students of Accounting Sciences revealed much more interest and dedication than other students within the same level of education as they are generally orally evaluated at the end of the entire year. They have to be seated for an oral test at the end of the next semester. So, that particular factor motivates most of them to participate to jobs. They feel that the project will prepare them for the test as it lends itself to their fluency especially the dental one.

To introduce the present task work, students were exposed in theory to the theme of Top Management. Actually, it's the second theme after the Manager's Role. In this context, we study SWOT Evaluation which is one of the tasks of top professionals undertaken to be able to evaluate today's performance of their company. Being a post task to the lessons, students were split into organizations and given the decision to apply SWOT Research to any business they could think of (whether locally or universally). After hearing some examples of students' duties, it was clear that they grasped what SWOT Analysis supposed. Students were even allocated to do a similar thing individually as homework to ensure their mastery than it.

In anticipated course, the target was to make sure they are alert to the differences between the the different parts of that analysis and to sort out the maximum of items helping it stressing at the same time correctness in terms of buildings (materials, singular/plural, present tense, prepositions, and earlier participles) and fluency while reporting the complete product to the class (See Appendix 2). That is, they need to use cohesive devices (conjunctions/ discourse markers) while list the four elements of the SWOT Research with the emphasis led on the right pronunciation of syllables and words to make oneself known by one's audience.


After being created to the theme product of Top Management and its own most fundamental vocabulary and principles, the teacher suggested the idea of undertaking a job work. He unveiled it to students in regards to what it meant and the steps it required. Meanwhile, he recommended potential topics which may be made into assignments such as SWOT Research, Top Professionals' Roles, The Company Hierarchy, THE BUSINESS Departments, Business Organizations, on so on. These were dealt with intensively during the course classes. Students were subjected to these through worksheets including reading comprehension, terminology and writing responsibilities. So, students became familiar with this issue of Top Management.

Students received the choice of what to choose as a subject for the project and were urged to form groupings in order to share responsibility. Because it was a new experience to them and to the teacher, the thought of fulfilling a task was optional as it was thought of as an exploratory experience or a study to be recognized or abandoned corresponding to its results and opinions. There was several four students who portrayed their willingness to attempt a project on SWOT Examination. With regard to encouragement and empowerment the instructor promised the students to help them and decided to have a semi-structured project to be able to promote their interest and desire along the way. The educator thought that that type would be a suitable style of project whereby to start with. Appropriately, a ten-step job was adopted (Stoller's Model 1997 was implemented).

Step 1: Students and trainer agree on a theme for the project

Through dialogue and negotiation in category, the students indicated their agreement to tackle SWOT Examination empirically speaking. They received the support of the tutor who exhibited his determination to monitor the process also to cooperate with them. This is done on purpose in order to reassure them and build their assurance. Both parties finally decided to choose a real company located in the region and also to apply SWOT onto it. The teacher reminded the students of its basic components.

Step 2: Students and teacher determine the final outcome

Both the teacher and students considered the nature of the task, its objectives and the most appropriate means to culminate the job. Like a convenient and feasible end-product in terms of requirements of their time, work and materials, it was generally arranged that an dental presentation followed by a written record summarized via an OHP would be gratifying. The designed students would separate functions in collecting, compiling, analysing and confirming information about SWOT of the chosen company.

Step 3: Students and teacher structure the project

After deciding the starting and the finish items of SWOT Examination project, came the level of structuring its body. Consequently, students were faced with the following factors: What's the information needed to complete the task? Under the guidance of the instructor, much debate centered round the quality of the info to be accumulated. Referring back again to the lesson on Top Management, students were asked to straighten out the utmost of items on the internal as well as the external factors of confirmed company. Another preoccupation was how to get the information required.

The aim of the job, as the professor affirmed on many events, was to advocate an activity of using dialect in framework for a purpose and not necessarily be primarily concerned with collecting a particular kind of data. To put it simply, students were asked to only use English through the investigation. In the end no one cares about the problem of this company or whether it offers strengths or weaknesses, but what is relevant here is how to familiarize students with this operation that they may be asked to replicate or something similar in their future job.

Fortunately, it was possible to get access to an English speaking company, particularly, The English Gas Company in Sfax. It is within the students' reach and has a long experience in its field. Accordingly, students, with the consent of the educator, agreed that they would collect data through interviews, internet search, and document review. The third thought concerned how to analyse the gathered and put together data. Both the teacher and the students found it suitable to classify the info according to the components required. Then, students were worried about how to talk about responsibilities, that is, these were to be supposed to divide activities. Given that they were four they made a decision to do the next:

The first pupil would survey the press documents of the business and provide a short summary with regards to SWOT. The second university student would be charged with the design and execution of the interview to be resolved to 1 or two top professionals. The third college student would find their way on the WWW to be able to look for specific data on SWOT Analysis and consult the web site as it may include relevant information on the same subject matter. The fourth pupil would put together the three summaries handed directly into him by his three co-workers and lay down them out in one single report paper that could be ready to be offered at the end of the process.

Seen from this point of view, the students provided a perfect example of a Jigsaw fashion, that is, they were complementary in satisfying the project. Each of the four students indicated his commitment to the duty with which he was entrusted. The past consideration was fixing enough time course allotted to the task. Because it was a new connection with an exploratory character, the tutor reassured the students that they would take their amount of time in doing the project. The task was done outside the class room because the British course was tangled up to a program and certain timing requirements. The task work was included into the theme unit as a post activity. It was introduced in the final area of the unit, that was regarded as a starter to the job, but its achievement was resumed beyond the course under the supervision of the professor who performed regular meetings with the students with regard to feedback and discussion.

Step 4: Instructor prepares students for the vocabulary requires of information gathering.

In assessment with the group, the teacher determined the terminology demands of the info gathering level (5). For every activity that the job consists of, the students were likely to need language teaching (terminology skills and communication strategies), which necessitated the existence of the educator. For the university student accountable for the interview, the educator provided him with some tips on questions formation (W/H + Yes/No questions), launched conversational gambits, pressured the pronunciation and proved him how to take down notes (shorthand, abbreviations, symbols, figures, etc).

As for the scholar concerned with the search on the internet, the teacher gave him his consent concerning how to use this technology, for example, demonstrating him the various search engines and exactly how they work beginning with entering particular words or phrases search. The college student was advised to own his search more and more concentrated and narrowed down. The professor handled the most readily useful buttons and icons that the university student may use. Concerning the third college student entrusted with surveying the business press, he was consented how to skim and scan documents. He might use the business enterprise English dictionary as an help tool to help him tackling new conditions. He was to contact the instructor when necessary. Finally, the fourth learner who was expected to compile and classify the info collected was recommended to use graphs, grids and tables. For the summary, he previously to require only the most relevant information to SWOT and to exclude generalities. He was to list the things using some grammatical/ structural tools such as ingredients/past participles.

Step 5: Students accumulate information

After showing in the discussion on both how to acquire data about SWOT Research and what terminology skills and strategies and buildings needed to fulfill the mission, students are actually ready to administer their methodological tools, particularly, the interview, internet search and survey and set up it for others in the team can make sense of it. Within the project highlighted in today's framework, students read course reading and worksheets searching for relevant data, used the dictionary to handle up new terminology; navigated on the net of the business under evaluation, surveyed the business press in search for the mandatory information and consulted the instructor every time they are stuck within an obstacle. In this data-gathering level, the teacher, knowing the issues and propositions being come to, also enquired about the steps of the process and observed the extent of their advancement.

Step 6: Instructor prepares students for the vocabulary needs of compiling and inspecting data

Having successfully collected information now comes the challenge of arranging and synthesizing information accumulated by the team members from different sources. At this stage, the instructor can intervene in the process by getting ready students for the demands of the compilation and research stage by empowering them with ways to deal with data and select only relevant materials and care about quality rather than volume (this is to remind that it's an evaluative and qualitative prognosis of SWOT).

To apply this step on the present job, the students researching on SWOT Evaluation now face the task to filtering the SWOT elements from the documents uncovered. They have to skim and check out through the info and to make a four-column stand to be able to classify the info as they face some difficulty of new terminology; they have to use a dictionary. Group discourse helped them mix check each other's data and their relevance to the topic. They need to proofread every once in awhile. All of these procedures take place under the supervision and the eye of the educator.

Step 7: Students compile and analyze information

Taking the prior factors of step 6, students compile and review information to recognize the relevant data to the task. Each student weighs the value of the collected data, discards some for their inappropriacy and stored the rest. With regards to the SWOT job work reported in this study, the students have to infer from the documents available to them the SWOT elements, that is, students have to interpret from the data what can be grouped as talents, weaknesses, opportunities and hazards. They needed the consent of the educator sometimes when faced with new terms.

Step 8: Instructor prepares students for the dialect needs of the culminating activity

At this aspect in the development of the task, the instructor can provide students with the words improvement activities to help them deliver the project work presentation efficiently. This may relate with the practice of oral presentation skills, pronunciation, group of ideas and eyes contact. This phase concerns revising and proofreading the data collected and categorized for the project work. There may be some incorrect or exaggerated expressions or phrases. Each scholar has to remember what he satisfied and be ready to report to the class how that was done. For the truth of the present project, the tutor held your final ending up in the students concerned and put the ultimate touches bearing in mind each member task in order to talk about in presenting the whole product. What was described was that the subject matter should be conveyed clearly to the course and show to their peers the way the whole thing happened, i. e. , feasible. The objective is to get this to new experience continue to exist. It is extremely an exercise in improving learners' motivation, self-confidence, co-operation and complementarity.

Step 9: Students present the ultimate product

Having prepared a timetable for all the assignments presentations, the students were required to stick to certain dates corresponding to which each group was asked to provide the work. Students only had 15/20 mns to provide their jobs allowing 15/20mns for conversation. They got used to feel less pressed and adapted themselves to the new situation.

Step 10: Students and tutor evaluate the project

(See the analysis part below)

Evaluation of the project work and its own implications:


In order to judge the whole undertaking of project work as a task in class and adopting a new task-based material design approach, and in conformity with the tenth step of the task, the teacher designated a questionnaire to the students (See the questionnaire in Appendix 4). The questionnaire was put in French (L2) to be able to avoid any ambiguity of words or any misunderstanding. In response to the first item associated with the explanation behind doing the project, students indicated their motivated thoughts of strong desire for the communicative terms use of British and their need to break up workout of the class. They were influenced by their adherence to skills improvement and getting accustomed to research works (research, methodology, confirming skills, statistics, data analysis, etc) and almost all of all to get ready themselves for the ultimate year dental exam of British.

The second question asked them about the gains looked for from the task. In response compared to that, students reported that they had access to dialect used in many contexts as they got familiar with companies' staff and managers. They learned the difference between that which was theoretical and sensible (class vs. reality). They obtained delivering skills (in conditions of volume, quality, timing, pronunciation, planning, managing, etc). They learned how to and what things to select among a plethora of documents and data in order to give only the fundamental and needed outcome (i. e. , only properly sufficient information). Lastly, they satisfied their educator, thus establishing a good rapport with him and suiting his anticipations (material pay back). As for item 3, it concerned the new linguistic acquisitions, students discovered new lexis, phrases and expressions within business British. They improved their communication, research skills and strategies. The job work was a fitness in managing, arranging and planning one's data.

Item 4 elicited their reaction to the encountered obstacles. We were holding mainly technical conditions and their translation that have been unavailable in standard dictionaries. Some elements of the assignments lacked sufficient information (especially data about weaknesses or dangers). They lacked internet skills and even if they knew a little, it was commitment consuming. Students didn't have the habit of presenting work in English (that was new to them). These were not also used to working within particular time constraints. They had structural problems (tense/ functions/ varieties/ grammar/ vocabulary/ pronunciation).

Items 5 and 6 were mainly about some methods for future peers who would be engaged in this activity. They advised these to limit the target just on necessary information (not nurturing about variety but quality) also to optimize the use of time. They were also recommended to seek advice from many resources of information for the sake of dependability and validity. They had to consult the instructor for feedback. They could recommend the utilization of realia while presenting their works (brochures/ folders/ posters, etc) to be able to make an impression and get their audience attention. The best essential thing they suggested them on was to have self-confidence and work in an organization and exchange opinions on a regular basis.

Concerning item 7, this time students were asked to give some tips to the teacher. So, they recommended him to assign feasible project subject areas and especially previously treated ones for students to check out the same rules and guidelines. They added that the tutor was invited to elicit much more student participation and determination in the executing. Students advised having some mini-workshops or mini-seminars to be able to sensitize students to the value of tasks as well as how to deal with them. They called for more time specialized in presenting and discussing projects. Lastly, they recommended making of projects a actually regular category activity within the course or the curriculum.

According to item 8, students were asked if they were for or contrary to the teacher's intervention in the job formation. Most students were in favour of his presence as this might facilitate their tasks (a screen/ guide/ supervisor/ regulator) and would bring tranquility to the group with his consultation and opinions when necessary (he clarified what was required from them), i. e. , he'd arranged them right. His presence reduced their stress and puzzle. Yet, it was only a minority who portrayed their unwillingness to work with teacher simply because it could disturb their way of thinking and not foster their self reliance.

The 9th item enquired about their manner to surmount PW words problems. They reported saying that they resorted to dictionaries. A few of them relied on L2 (French) and then translated into British to facilitate the duty. They recommended reading in British and concentrating on phonology and morphology. Finally, they required the assessment and the help of others especially advanced colleagues.

The last item of the questionnaire targeted to state the overall feedback regarding PW. Most students, regardless of the obstacles and constraints met, stated that PW was a good oral exam preparation. It was a good effort that helped them to obtain new different kinds of skills. It improved their self-esteem and personal delight (due to achievement itself) as for some it was source of self-satisfaction. It had been a good method which involved students in a pleasurable task of delivering a job reflecting students' efforts. It advanced their terminology level and helped them to be operative rather than merely recipient terminology learners. Finally and this was mostly distributed by all, English as a global language in the world deserved such an executing of PW.


The implications that may be deduced from today's project work method of teaching ESP will be the following: First, instructors are advised to consider their students' long-term language needs. Second, they are also invited to identify the social and professional contexts where their students are supposed to function. Third we, as instructors, have to think about similar projects that want the utilization of language our students will be asked to fulfill in the foreseeable future while considering what is possible, i. e. , what is in your students' reach. Fourth, there is no point in insisting our students automatically interview native loudspeakers of English and we have to not abandon the idea of forming a job if ideal circumstances aren't available as most professional conversations in English may be carried on among non-natives.

Fifth, we have to not give up due to the fact a pool of local speakers or authentic printed materials are unavailable near hand. Last, however, not least, we have to be engaged in a whole lot of planning, in other words, before producing the project, we must identify subject areas of possible hobbies, the educational value of the results, matching activities and students' materials or cognitive needs in conducting the project. In a nutshell, planning is crucial.

Suggesting ideas for other teachers

Before undertaking any kind of project, professors are invited to select the suitability of the task work in terms of both content and format to their particular context, which might depend on a number of factors such as curricular aims, course prospects, students' degree of proficiency, students' interests, time constraints and materials availableness. Accordingly, instructors have at their removal three models of projects plus they may choose the the one that suits them and their context. First, structured assignments are teacher-based, that is, it's the teacher who can determine, organizes and specifies it in conditions of matter, materials, methodology and presentation. As a second type unstructured tasks are student-based since it is the students who choose and design everything for themselves. The 3rd one is called semi-structured projects that happen to be based and identified on identical footing by both professor and students jointly.

To illustrate some instances of potential topics that may be included in assignments, one can mention assignments reflecting real-life concerns (e. g. Italian ESP students' task work of a leaflet on electro-mechanical systems for your Euro Community; see Legutke and Thiel 1983). As another example, job can be done using one of real-world issues through simulation (e. g. EAP students may stage a question on the pros and negative aspects of censorship). In another value, assignments can be associated with students' hobbies as well (EGP students can interview international travelers in air-port, see Legutke and Thiel 1983).

Teachers likewise have several data collection techniques and resources of information for students' projects at their disposal: studies data can be collected through library research. Likewise, text projects involve encountering texts (literature, reports, information, media, video tutorial, computer-based information) somewhat than people. Correspondence tasks require communication with individuals (businesses, institutions, specialists, chambers of business) to collect data through letters, faxes, phone calls or e-mails. Survey projects involve setting up a survey device, then collecting and analysing data from subject informants. Encounter jobs entail face-to-face connection with individuals or interviewees beyond your class room (See Haines 1989; Legutke and Thomas 1991 for these steps).

Finally, there is several way of reporting the information gathered as argued by Haines (1989). First, students who take on production projects will be likely to create bulletin panel shows, videos, radio programs, written reports, brochures, handbooks, characters, and so forth. Second, those who find themselves involved with performance projects, their report may take the shape of staged debates, oral presentations, theatrical performances, food fairs or fashion shows. Third, for organizational projects the planning and formation of an club, conversation desk, or conversation partner program may be considered a suited by-product as a written report.

Whatever format it may take, any project is normally fulfilled intensively throughout a short period of time or lengthened over a few weeks or a full semester. They make be accomplished by students individually or in smalls communities or as a course. They can be held entirely within the class setting or extended beyond its wall surfaces into the community or with others via different types of correspondence (See Stoller 1997 for other details and tips).


The present newspaper reports the explanation, the methods and the conclusions of your CBI by-product which is a PW carried out by business British intermediate students in a Tunisian context. Its main discussion is that an ESP task work can be viewed as as a car for authenticity as it is a way to obtain learner, text message and process authenticity, each which plays a part in the ESP learners' participation and independence that are two advanced steps towards learner autonomy. Authenticity can be described in terms fulfilling learners' needs, interests and profile and especially in an ESP framework where these elements are assumed to be most important.

This article is based on a paper shown in TESOL Arabia 10th International Meeting: Specifications IN ENGLISH Dialect TEACHING AND Evaluation, Dubai March 10-12, 2004.

Soufiane Trabelsi has been teaching business English for the last five years at the institution of Business, University of Sfax, Tunisia. Presently, he has been recruited at Al-Rustaq University of Education within the Ministry of Higher Education from the Sultanate of Oman. He is pursuing his distance learning part-time PhD at Leeds Metropolitan College or university. His main research interest is authenticity of ELT/ESP materials.


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Appendix 1







Figure 1: Materials Design Model Hutchinson and Waters (1987)

Appendix 2

Starter Reading Content material Teacher


Exposs in L2 Linguistic



Language Record Knowledge Communication Startegies

Business British Lexis Language


Jigsaw Activities

Search/Research/Dictionary Skills



SWOT Research PW

Figure2: A Refined Materials Design Model Hutchinson and Waters (1987)

Appendix 3

The Project Work Steps (after Stoller 1997)

Step 1: Students and trainer agree on a theme for the project.

Step 2: Students and teacher determine the ultimate outcome.

Step 3: Students and trainer structure the task.

Step 4: Teacher prepares students for the terms demands of

Information gathering.

Step 5: Students collect information.

Step 6: Teacher prepares students for the language demands of

compiling and analysing data.

Step 7: Students compile and analyse information.

Step 8: Teacher prepares students for the dialect demands of

the culminating activity.

Step 9: Students present the ultimate product.

Step 10: Students measure the project.

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