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The RAMIFICATIONS OF Colonialism On Gender Inequality Politics Essay

The North/ South divide and gender inequality are intertwined and influence the lives of ladies in the northern hemisphere significantly unique of that from women who are inhabitants of the southern hemisphere. This paper will discuss the role of globalization as a multidimensional process and exactly how it affects the life of women in terms of economic, social, and cultural development. Globalization has resulted in violations of women's civil rights because of the decline of the welfare state, the increased poverty among women, the role religion plays in fundamentalist societies and in armed conflict. However, it has also caused tremendous opportunities for females to better their lives and hereby setting standards to demand equal women rights. Taking into consideration the percentage of ladies in the world population it is important to study the role of gender equality. Women as laborers and their contribution with their communities and national economies have a significant impact on globalization. Furthermore, the emphasis on social justice and democracy as a preferred political ideology to stimulate globalization makes gender issues a key point. Gender inequality is caused by our social institutions and organizations who suppress women's social and economic rights, often unknowingly, by putting insufficient importance on gender as a factor in decision making. Some say that inequality and economic growth are coexisting phenomena but it is not any argument to permit exploitation and marginalization of selected groups. Neo-liberalist thinking promotes globalization but it also creates opportunity for avoidance of social responsibility by governments and multinational corporations. Gender inequality can most effectively be influenced by changing the political agenda. A country's national governance on legislative, judicial and executive policies will stimulate a dialogue that brings about change.

Globalization: North vs. South

The term globalization does not have any accepted definition and therefore the interpretation depending on who uses the term, can vary from a pure financial perspective to a far more liberal definition in terms of civil development. Adam Smith described in his book the Wealth of Nations, how economical growth causes change in social behavior and eventually change in public policy. Globalization by these means is an activity whereby a society acquires financial growth and sustainable human development through processes of democratization. However, these processes traditionally do not include gender in negotiation and representation.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union and communism as an ideology, institutions that promoted global economies as well as the spread of capitalism appeared. The divide between East and West became a divide between North and South now based on economic perspectives rather than political doctrines. Globalization is than seen as a free trade and the virtual removal of borders to be able to market exchange of goods, services and capital between nations. The countries in the northern hemisphere have observed at least one commercial revolution and therefore have the good thing about being able to produce higher quality goods and using more advanced technology in their production methods. Countries in the Southern hemisphere are predominantly agrarian, so generally feudal societies rather than industrialized ones. This observable fact, insufficient industrialization, is directly from the disadvantages that many developing countries experience, to contend with the countries of the developed world. As a result their participation in the globalization process is bound to being suppliers of recycleables. The "Northerners", or developed countries, use these materials to create high-end products for the globe market including to countries who will be the very same raw material supplier. The obstacle for developing countries to compete equally is often caused by the backwardness of these economic development based on their history of colonialism.

Imperialism and colonialism theorized

Imperialism and colonialism are factors one should consider when analyzing a countries successful participation in the global economy. Not only did these phenomena damaged the colonialized countries economies by stripping their resources. Its population experienced a so called identity crisis, because these were not used with their independent status nor had they the understanding of political functions and their relationships. The inequality between developed states and developing states is discussed in the politics of modernization by Max Weber. You will discover three theories that are influencing developing countries. The first one, the Dependency Theory is a marxist inspired theory that entails concepts such as Core or Metropolis, (developed states) Periphery or Satellite ( developing states) and semi periphery( industrialized states that are still considered developing countries). There is a dependency between your Core and Periphery because of their interaction with one another. The core provides technology and expertise and the periphery provides the raw materials. The raw materials are offered really cheap, but in return the high end products are sold for a higher price, which results in poorer countries facing a continuous deficit between their export and import income. The idea assumes that core and periphery need each other to exist, but based on this interdependence some scholars of Stanfords Universities' Hoover Institution's Office of Public Affairs, maintain that globalization is another type of imperialism.

Marxist ideology as an inspiration for the Dependency Theory, claims that isolation policy supplies the solution for getting rid of the unequal interdependence between rich and poor countries. Siegel et al claims that using methods such as import substitution strategy cause decline of export industry which is essential for investment in technology to achieve advanced phases of industrialization. The theory is challenged by the lack of categorizing NIC's, or new industrialized countries. A good example of an NIC are oil producing countries, but calling them semi peripheral takes them out of the equation in which core and periphery are compared.

To deal with crisis of nation building, state building, participation and distribution, (Almond and Powell 1966) comprehension of the Politics of Modernization is necessary. This pro-capitalist perspective assumes that modernization will establish similarly in the North and the South. The second theory as described by Burnell and Randall (p17), Gabriel Almond's Political Development Theory, uses a structural model for comparative analysis in which he incorporates input functions (i. e. political socialization, political recruitment, interest articulation and political communication) and output functions (i. e. rulemaking, rule implementation and rule adjudication) as a guiding principle for political development. Furthermore, a well balanced government is required to change traditional habits and principles. However, to the contrary, Burnell and Randall ( intro4) claim that developing countries, in their post- colonial phase show: authoritarian rule, political instability, internal conflict, corruption and politics of religious or ethnic identity. The third theory of modernization, the Globalization Theory focuses on the introduction of communication, technology and infrastructure resulting in global economic integration. According to Burnell and Randall, the Dependency- and Political Development Theory were more worried about politics and the role of the state of hawaii, which is completely opposite of the Globalization Theory which mainly targets development of global trade, foreign direct investment and global finance. One direct consequence of this focus is the fact the nation state loses its autonomy and eliminates one of the very most primary functions, security. Protecting of your respective borders, economy and inhabitants is a function that is important for inadequate countries as their existence is depending on it.

The controversy about the modernization theories is they are based on ethnocentric political perspective. They are promoting at the very top band of the "haves" and/or a capitalist class. The notion that globalization may bring everyone involved up to middle income system is ineligible. The free market system can not work for any developing countries due to backwardness of their economy ( Burnell & Randall, p3). As it took developed countries centuries to get where these are, the developing countries have to go to many stages of development to have the ability to compete. However, developing countries can not all be categorized in one group and to assume that all countries develop by the same principle is narrow sighted. Although, they do have a brief history of colonialism in common, their post -colonial development is depending on different factors. The Anglo- Saxon settler countries, United States, Australia, New Zealand and Canada overran the traditions, rules of law and property and individual rights of the motherland, the uk. As they kept close ties with the "previous occupiers" by conducting trade and foreign investments, the transition to a developed nation was flawless. In other colonies, we see political fragmentation caused by religious and ethnic division in the countries. The financial effects of imperialism and colonialism are undeniable. The legacy is still noticeable in current world political dynamics and plays a substantial role in developing countries ability to develop successful economies and achieve the same standards in civil development and human equality.

GLOBALIZATION AND INEQUALITY

Globalization decreases inequality! That is a assumption for most people, but few know how inequality and economic growth are linked. For the purpose of this paper, we must take a look at several types of inequality as gender inequality is in conjunction with economic, social, and political inequality. Taking a look at financial growth in most countries, you can conclude that globalization is wonderful for everyone because so many people, even the very poor achieve prosperity. Lall et al. , discusses the correlation of this viewpoint with Kuznets's hypothesis in which income inequality rises at the start of the industrialization process but once established it decreases again. They observed that increased technology, financial and trade globalization increased inequality, while liberalization of trade and financial markets lowered income inequality. The other outlook claims that prosperity is not shared by the whole population and this only a small group benefits from monetary growth. As a matter of fact, the alleged income inequality does not advance globalization processes as the so called "losers" could become an encumbrance on the welfare state. Concurrently, the machinery of globalization is obstructed rather than all opportunities are exhausted. For instance, proceeds are not invested in the industry however in distribution of income. Social inequality identifies differences in class and status. An example is the cast system in India, predicated on religion but also on heritage. The ranking of elite groups based on descend can be an inequality that's not due to globalization. However, the status inherited was included with special treatment such as education opportunity and predisposition to financial and other business dealings. In america, equality of men, specially the black man has been legitimized simply a few decades ago. Women, especially, the ones that are in fundamentalist religious societies are denied basic social rights and are clearly victims of social inequality. In lots of developing countries political inequality becomes evident in traditional expressions of tribal culture, the client-patron relationships, nepotism and the lack of established laws for civil and constitutional rights.

GENDER INEQUALITY

Gender inequality is a present-day world problem and is found in developed and developing countries. The Worldbank claims that in any region, any state and any social class inequality between men and women exists. A number of exceptions to this rule will be the Scandinavian countries. The strong democratic political structures of Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland and strong women organizations are believed to be the explanation for this transformation in policy making. Gender Equality defined as the difference between women and men and equality in their rights perceived fair predicated on their biological differences. Traditionally, gender distinctions and roles between women and men is based on the fact that women are the bearers and caregivers of children. Men are physically more robust and for that reason, the breadwinners. Each culture has their own interpretations of these gender specific roles, but with globalization socio-economic trends change as well. Inequality, weather economic, social or political have been researched and play a substantial role in economic development, but also in human civil development. Gender inequality is linked to appropriate functioning of our social institutions and organizations. Suppression of women's social and economic rights often happens unknowingly because there is insufficient importance positioned on gender as a factor in decision making. However, I see patriarchy as the determining factor resulting in inequality in women's life.

MEASURING GENDER INEQUALITY

The US Human Development Report measures inequality between men and women in countries. This method, GEM or Gender Empowerment Measurement, considers political participation and decision making, monetary participation and decision making, and the usage of economical resources. Than a calculation of every genders percentile in three areas is studied. The first measurement talks about the percentage of each gender in parliament. The second measurement focuses on the level of the positioning held, whether it's executive or managerial or staff. The last measurement, researches the disparity in income. Both percentage data for female and male are paired for each measurement and combined in the EDEP, (Equally Distributed Equivalent Percentage). The GEM is than calculated by averaging the EDEP's.

Gender equality by regiongender_equality_index. jpg

WOMEN'S ROLE WITHIN THE POLITICAL PROCESS

For the longest time women havent participated in the political process because of several reasons. First of all, women suffrage is not an option in every country and was not established until the late 19th century. Most ladies in developing countries cannot vote before mid 50's. Governing is definitely a "man's job" and before networks to promote women's voices and their right to be heard were build, taking part in the political process was impossible. Another obstacle is illiteracy; about two thirds of the world's illiterates are women. Rao and Kelleher studied institutions and organizations that get excited about supporting women. They conclude that organizational structure and culture is the situation to the stagnating trend to policy change. The women's conference in Beijing in 1995 proved that ladies are mobilizing and that women's political activism and NGO's are increasing. The stigma that feminism creates has sometimes worked adversely for grass roots women movements and the resistance of an male driven government. Sikoska and Kardam infer in their study that engendering the political agenda is a slow process and requires gender advocacy over a government level. They assume that the concentrate on getting more women in parliamentarian seats does not warrant that ladies issues will be addressed. As strange as it might seem gender inequality also exists due to lack of equality consciousness by men and women.

gender_education1. jpg

INCOME AND LABOR

Women earn significantly less than men which phenomenon arises in both developing and developed countries. This inequality has been accepted up to the 20th century as normal. Yet, the difference in pay of man and women is a form of exploitation as the employer can make additional profit predicated on the income inequality. Swasti Mitter's claims regarding the working circumstances in the technology manufacturing industry in India, confirms my proven fact that in globalization the principal concern is profit. She says that to be able to mobilize the employees to demand unions and healthy work environments their must be an opportunity for change, but as employees in this industry are so easily replaced it is hard to get active support. Generally in most developing countries women do not get paid for work on the land or any other domestic duties. They must take care of the children, the animals and incredibly often they function as the head of the family. The patrimonial system, with men as the top of the families prevent women to possess land and therefore, government support for women in the agrarian sector is not available.

HEALTH ISSUES

Education is a first requirement of women to stimulate their personal and monetary growth. Women who are educated are better in monitoring their families health (mothers make sure children get their vaccines) and providing proper nutrition. Burnell and Randall point out that the pronatalist view of developing states increases inequality as women don't have the capability to make choices over their bodies in terms of contraception and abortion. Many women die in labor and because of the restrictions on emergency contraception, local abortion practices lead to serious health issues and sometimes in death. Among the direct results of the federal government imposed restrictions is overpopulation, which leads to higher poverty and famine.

Case studies.

Engendering globalization in India

India, an associate of the BRIC countries due to its tremendous economical growth in the past decades is considered a good example of successful globalization. The country has the most significant population of one billion inhabitants, on the globe. In addition, it has one of the highest poverty degrees of approximately 350- million people that are living below the poverty line. The overpopulation and illiteracy is one of the main reasons this country is so poverty stricken, with women and children as the primary victims. Although the united states has experienced an tremendous economic growth, the selectiveness of the industries involved with this development are not providing revenues for every area. The center class has experienced exponential increases in growth and wealth, but this has lead to deeper inequality. With other words, some parts are developing rapidly as a result of new financial development (the urban areas) and there is the rural part that will not experience the growth. Actually, people in the rural areas are receiving poorer because of the commercialization of agriculture. THE BRAND NEW Economic Policy of 1991 instigated by the IMF and the entire world Bank urged for human development but the policy has not been effective with some cases it worsened inequality. Rekha Pande argues

" structural adjustment specifically is not gender neutral" which developmental policies influences men and women. However, she highlights that women "carry the double burden of poverty and discrimination". She states that girls are underpaid compared to men; they are not credit worthy to accomplish loans, nor have the same usage of resources as men and that these factors lead to help expand inequality. Women generally aren't considered land owners even if statistics show that agriculture employs 85 % of all working women. The commercialization of agriculture caused a lot of women to reduce their source of income, as they could not compete with the bigger farms and landowners now hired cash workers rather than leasing their land to the landless women. CQ Researcher describes the way the subsistence economy, where most of these women lived off to feed their families and make some income, providing they could sell their surplus, was now recinded and poverty deepened. Relocation to the cities is usually the only option available for these female farmers. These displaced farmers become hired employees and are being exploited for suprisingly low wages, long working hours and no security or social benefits. Globalization will not provide the sort of richness folks from the impoverished layer of the populace expect. On the contrary, for most, globalization causes insecurity and inequality. Pande claims that ladies lose their identity and independence giving up agriculture for a life of "marginalization and pauperization".

Case study: Afghanistan

Afghanistan a country in South Central Asia, has a population of 28 million inhabitants consisting out of the Pashtuns, 44 % and Tajiks 25%. The remainder is divided over minorities groups. 60 %60 % of the populace is female, which is assumed happened because of the war casualties. The poverty rate is very high, in some areas over 90 %. The occupation by the Soviet Union and decades of civil war with the Mujahideen and the Taliban created an environment of economic and political chaos. They lack all essential resources, to stabilize their government but according to Huma Ahmed-Gosh this is actually the best period to determine a new monetary polity because the united states is transf0rmation. The united states had an economic growth of over 10% between 2003 and 2008 and the Afghans believe this growth may be accomplished again in the near future (World Bank 2008). USAID and the Afghan government are working together to determine economical programs that diminish poverty, provides security and stimulate the private sector to do investments and create job opportunities. The agrarian industry is the key income source for some Afghans. In cooperation with the globe Bank a $30 million grant was approved for the Afghanistan Rural Enterprise Development Program to assist farmers in the rural areas. An additional $23 million was pledged by the UK. This pilot program targets 20 different communities and it is headed by one male and one female. Savings Groups were setup to be educated in finances and provide small loans to members of the communities. Enterprise Groups were established to generate community based activities and projects. For the purpose of integration of ladies in the economical process, this pilot can already be looked at successful as after 4 months over 300 groups were established from which half of them by women. Humah-Ahmed Gosh interviewed three Afghani ladies in Turin at an International Conference for women about the role with their respective women's organizations and their conditions for establishing equal women rights. RAWA, which stands for Revolutionary Association of the Woman in Afghanistan focuses on social justice and human rights for women. HAWCA or Humanitarian Assistance for girls and Children in Afghanistan agenda is to better the lives of women and children through empowerment and support women's involvement in rebuilding Afghanistan through education. The 3rd organization, The All Afghan Women's Union, is headed by Soraya Parlika. She claims that teaching women skills and creating jobs is the best way to change family law and present women autonomy to eventually work to estebling a democratie. Non Governmental Organisations (NGO's) will be the most productive and effective methods to change the political climate in Afghanistan. Globalization can change the patrilineal family structure by eliminating women's financial dependency.

Conclusion

Globalization and gender inequality are closely intertwined with each other. My studies of the subjects taught me that a thriving globalization process is dependent on many factors and there is significant variations in how every individual country 's development is afflicted by these factors. To begin with, the divide between North and South or rich and poor if you will, comes with an intricate influence on the power of nations to fully exhaust the opportunities of globalization. The fact that Northerners had an edge in the globalization race because of their role in imperialism is a fact. These nations already had gone through various stages of industrialization and achieved a higher level of civilization, leading to higher educated employees and advanced industrialization technologies. In addition, their wealth opened opportunities for fast capital investments with tremendous gain. Most of the world's multinational corporations were founded in the North, and that's where the gains are disbursed. The settler colonies are an exception to the rule as they were in a position to develop thriving economies in their post- colonial phase. Burnell and Randall analyze this phenomenon to be area of the dichotomy of the colonial elite which makes me think that Orientalism plays a significant role in the interaction between countries of the North and the South.

. The role of patriarchy is rooted in society and is one of the key evils leading to inequality for ladies. In the developed world women experience less gender inequality by means of opportunity but more by means of outcome.

Secondly, as I mentioned processes of democratization are a vital requirement for a country's monetary growth and sustainable development. Democracy as an ideology, develops in various forms and previous colonies did not always develop into a democracy, due to the fact with their pluralistic nature. However, globalization did develop in a few countries with an authoritarian regime. This happened for their resources. Cases are the oil producing countries. In view of that, one can infer that the theories of modernization are incomplete. Some reasons are that they are eurocentric, anachronistic, uni-linear and the belief that politics in developing countries are created by domestic forces. The politics in developing countries are driven by the partnership between the state and society and will depend on aspects such as finance, economy and technology. I think that countries, better said political leaders and heads of multinational corporations, are rational actors which choices made derive from opportunities for personal gain and economical benefits.

Women work hard in the development world and with globalization their numbers are increasing. Multinational corporations have transferred their manufacturing activities to developing countries for their human capital. Globalization as an activity should not have a poor effect on ladies in the developed world if it uses democratic processes and pursues rising the human standards of living. The controversy however, is the fact free trade and openness of the monetary markets is not monitored by states. Transnational corporations have only one goal which is making profits. In the developed countries regulations were in destination to prevent exploitation of the factory staff through trade unions and labor laws. Because so many developing countries havent experienced an commercial revolution on their own, the procedure is expedited plus some crucial steps of labor development are bypassed. Lack of education and poverty are the drivers for most women to sustain the procedure experienced in their work environments. Changing the politics and mentality is a slow process and NGO's promoting the welfare of women gain only small victories. The nation state should seize control by using their sovereignty and demand changes as it pertains to abuse of the inhabitants. The dominance of the richer states undermines this right, but it is apparent that countries like India and China are being listened to. Once a standard is set it can certainly be globalized as a standard for many countries. I used India as an example in a case study because of my hypothesis. My choice was lead by factors including the level of successfulness of the countries globalization, but also the adverse effect of globalization on the feminine population, resulting in gender inequality. Afghanistan on the other hand is an example, from which I think that globalization can effect gender inequality positively. As shown by the humanitarian aid projects, whereby women's involvement is strong, interference by fundamentalist religion diminished. As discussed by Osborne and Gaebler, governments should steer not row. The conflict needs policies to resolve gender inequalities on a worldwide scale as the diversity among people and the differences in cultures and tradition require different measures in each country. Therefore a global effort is necessary by cooperation of the nation states.

I researched India as an example because it fits my hypothesis that globalization can cause more inequality for ladies.

With other dominance of the richer countries, their MNC's, foreign investmSecondlyents and transfer of resources has undermined the role of India as a nation state.

ORIENTALISM AND RACIAL DOCTRINESj

*Empowerment thru collective action instead of culture

Women who get excited about subsistence economies, nor partake in the industrialization process.

Globalization in Developing countricesk

Globalization in fundamentalist societies

Inequality as a tool Traditionally, men monopolize politics and

Organisations

The role of Democratie

Engendering local and national politics

References

Hoover Institution: globalization versus imperialism Hoover Report February 11, 2002 Hoover Daily Report, produced by the Hoover Institution Office of Public Affairs

Florence Jaumotte, Subir Lall, and Chris Papageorgiou : Rising Income Inequality Technology, or Trade and Financial Globalization?

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