Posted at 10.03.2018
The world shows Eaton Kerr, a child, in a happy and playful family photography throw with other associates of his family. These family members are his mom, Kerry; his dad, Jonathan; and his doting 8 time old brother, Jordan. The Kerr family lives in North Ireland.
Kerry is plainly enamoured of her little boy. In her own words, she "can't keep to be away from him" and could just "gobble him up". That is probably intensified by the fact that Eaton had been an unproblematic toddler, who slept well, ate well and rarely cried. Kerry and Jonathan seemingly had a simple amount of time in the first couple of months after his birth. This is evident in the casual and relaxed manner that may be seen with the complete family.
However, one. 5 years later, Kerry is yearning for a child girl. Having recently lost two feminine children, and currently bringing up two little kids, Kerry hungers for a female child. A scene where she strokes her dog's head longingly could quite possibly be an indication of how much she craves another child. Kerry tends for potential fatal blood vessels clots, which is typically increased in motherhood. Despite previous medical issues and a knowledge of the associated hazards, Kerry is set to pursue her dream. She actually is booked in to the medical center for a medical scan to evaluate potential threat of cerebrovascular or cardiovascular happenings during motherhood. The email address details are daunting and concur that a pregnancy could be lifethreatening for the young mom.
Understandably, Kerry is dejected by the prognosis, and four a few months later, she still has not come to terms with the outcomes of the check. Her severe levels of unhappiness culminate in medical depression: she is perpetually unsatisfied and worn out; has lost all drive to carry out even mundane everyday tasks; and detects no pleasure in things that normally make her happy (anhedonia). The loss of her two baby females before is apparently constantly on her mind and she maintains image scans of the embryos which would provide as a frequent negative reminder. The actual fact that she has named these two offspring (Jordana and Caitlin) shows the depth of the connection she feels for the kids. In addition, it seems like she has lately lost her father - all these are textbook sets off for clinical despair. Using the DSM-1 classification of mental health diseases, Kerry's depression would be classified as severe, as she confesses to having got suicidal thoughts.
It is a well-known simple fact that depressed mothers find it difficult to respond to their children's needs. In an unhealthy try to discipline her child, Kerry tries to implement demanding upbringing rules which are often not suited to Eaton's developmental phase. This is evidently corroborated by the data of Eaton's related stunted development. However, the tiny son is shown as striving to obey his mother, only becoming rebellious at the often-dreaded bedtime etc, thus displaying signs or symptoms of his first battle for self-reliance at eighteen weeks.
Poor sleep hygiene that is common amongst stressed out patients is also demonstrating to be difficult in the mother-child relationship. In the video tutorial, classifying humans according to their sleep patterns, Eaton is categorised as a lark - early on to foundation and early to wake; while Kerry is a contradicting owl - who's up till later part of the during the night and, consequently, stays on during intercourse till later part of the in the afternoon. This means that Eaton is often up, all night, sometimes for up to three. 5 hours, crying for his mother before he gets any attention. He's losing numerous battles for his independence in this 'ability struggle and is also learning that he has no control over his environment. Though it is not voiced in the videotape, the constant lack of Eaton's daddy, Jonathan, suggests possible family problems. He must leave for work early on as he helps run the family energy business, and appears to be blissfully unaware of the issues in his home. Therefore, Kerry is most likely going through these difficult times only. Without the vital family and interpersonal support, her despair is likely to worsen and would essentially adversely effect on her little youngster.
As Kerry struggles to encourage herself to do anything, she actually is also not capable of revitalizing the young Eaton. Her obvious insensitivity to his mental needs is clearly evident and would be detrimental to the child's development. This is seen with simple tests as outlined below:
John Bowlby's connection theory is a emotional and ethological description that really helps to explain an infant's attachment to a father or mother or caregiver. Infants become attached to men and women who are hypersensitive and reactive in their relationships with them. The way a parent or guardian responds to their young infant in different situations is key to the development of patterns of attachment in the kid. These patterns are the skeletal construction that books the child's feelings, thoughts and anticipations in subsequent interactions (Bretherton et al, 1999).
According to Bowlby's theory, through physical and mental closeness with a father or mother or caregiver, the kid develops an internal working model, reflecting the parent's own response to him/her. In Eaton's circumstance his thought process might mirror the insensitivity that he has experienced from his despondent mother, and may potentially cause problems in the future.
The point of connection should ideally provide a secure base from which the kid can explore the environment and go back when he/she seems fearful. If Eaton lacks that secure haven, his mental health would be affected.
In his publication, A Secure Basic, John Bowlby (1998) describes the initiation of the mother-infant relationship. He highlights an initial elation and extreme possessiveness immediately after delivery. This stage was probably apparent in Kerry, in the first couple of months when she explained her joy and reluctance to let Eaton out of her view. However, the well recorded lively social interaction alternating with stages of disengagement may are suffering from a pronounced aftereffect of the latter stage, especially after the disheartening results of her hospital scan.
Peri- and post-natal conditions that may affect (hinder or foster) positive connection and the effective creation of a secure base, as reported by Bowlby (1998) are discussed below:
It is not yet determined from the simple videos of the videotape which, if any, of the above mentioned factors can be applied to Kerry's experience. However, interpreting non-verbal communication and looks, I think it is possible that Kerry will get little or no support around the house, especially as Jonathan departs for work early and eight-year old Jordan would be if limited help. This proposed lack of support could imply that Kerry doesn't have her own personal security base and might have been around in need of assurances. While we are not privy to Kerry's birth experience through the delivery of little Eaton, her earlier medical history, moreover assertion "I've cheated life once already", claim that she may have had a difficult motherhood, which, in addition, can have led to prolonged periods of parting from her newborn in the periods rigtht after the labor and birth.
Revisiting the controversial 'maternal deprivation' theory, in the World Health Organization report on Maternal Treatment and Mental Health, Bowlby (1951) explored the effects of deprivation of maternal health care. Maternal deprivation is not limited in description to mothers who are bodily absent using their infant's lives; it also applies to mothers who are not sensitive or attentive to their child's needs. In this particular report, Bowlby concluded that a warm, romantic and ongoing child-mother relationship, where both get-togethers find satisfaction and pleasure, is essential. Insufficient such a reasonable relationship may lead to significant and irreversible mental health malformations.
The circumstance of Eaton and his mom, Kerry, could be observed as a vintage example of the maternal deprivation theory. While Kerry is present physically, her own self-admitted insufficient drive and uninvolved frame of mind is not satisfactory to foster that close romantic relationship with her second child. As highlighted by Bowlby and later his close colleague, Mary Ainsworth (1962), Eaton could be at risk of having some mental problems in the future, if the timely and effective treatment is not applied.
The outcomes of the indegent maternal and possibly paternal conversation which Eaton is familiar with can't be overemphasised. In a recently available study using a conceptual model produced from the attachment theory, it was shown that connection anxiousness and low empathy significantly escalates the probability of child molester position (Woods and Riggs, 2008). Furthermore, connection insecurity in youth is linked to externalizing behaviour and higher and steady habits of depressive behavior at the adolscence level (Allen et al, 2007).
Also, conversely, avoidance of closeness in stressed out mothers is implicated in the introduction of internalizing symptoms in their children, because people who are avoidant of closeness, logically, are poor care givers (Whiffen et al, 2005). Research also implies that infants and toddlers of depressed mothers are in increased threat of developing attachment insecurity and behavioural challenges than offspring of nondisordered mothers (Cicchetti et al, 1998).
Observing the effects of maternal despair on interpersonal cognition and behavior in parent-child interactions, Lovejoy (2007) depressed mothers, as a group, exhibited more negative behavior. Furthermore, maternal unhappiness was found to be associated with negative parent-child interactions plus more negative, albeit reasonably correct, perceptions of child behaviour. This factor is actually a major implicating element in the apparent poor development that Eaton shows.
An older study by Seiner and Gelfand (1995) exhibited that enacted maternal drawback and depression resulted in toddlers literally withdrawing from their moms, making more negative physical bids for attention and generally becoming unfocused and negative, showing their stress in a developmentally appropriate manner. In addition, the kids made no attempt to comfort their mothers; this is related to Eaton's unsympathetic a reaction to his mother's visible problems in the video tutorial.
There are numerous other studies in the literature that explore the negative impact of poor connections between child and mom (or attention giver). There's a clear association between connection and maternal depressive disorder, and the introduction of the recipient child.
Recently, Vieten and Astin (2008) evaluated the effectiveness of an eight-week mindfulness-based intervention during motherhood on prenatal stress and ambiance. Their findings show that mothers who received this intervention proved significantly reduced stress and anxiety and negative result through the third trimester in comparison to those who did not receive the intervention. It is well-documented that stress and negative ambiance during pregnancy raise the risk of poor childbirth outcomes and postnatal spirits problems and may interfere with mother-infant attachment and child development. Consequently, such interventions may be pivotal in encouraging mothers in planning for child delivery.
In the course of research for this write-up, I've a gained a larger knowledge of the attachment theory and the role of the "secure foundation" in molding a child's development. More importantly, I am now alert to the necessity to provide just as much support to the mom as is expected for the newborn. That is especially the circumstance for at-risk moms. Partners and family members have to be a part of the support program to ensure that mothers receive the care and security they want in order to effectively carry out their newly acquired duties.