In this article I will take a look at what hypnosis is. I will look at the definition of the word hypnosis and how it pertains to the practice of hypnotherapy. I will then continue to look at the history, paying particular attention to Franz Mesmer and James Braid. We can look at the difference between hypnotherapy and deep breathing and the normal myths surrounding hypnosis. As well as the physical effects hypnotherapy can have on patients.
Hypnosis originates from the Greek term "Hypnos" this means "to sleep. " Hypnotherapy is circumstances of relaxation where the state of awareness is increased by suggestion. Types of hypnotherapy have been used as long previously as forth century BC, with research to aid it being utilized by the ancient Greeks and Romans.
We will now take a look at Franz Anton Mesmer (1734 - 1815) who was simply born in Iznang, Germany. Mesmer originally studied treatments, where he published his doctoral, "Over the effect of the planets on our body. " The dissertation mentioned the relationship between the human body and disease with regards to the moon and planets. Although this is later thought to be plagiarised from the task of Richard Mead (1673 - 1754)
In 1768 Mesmer hitched wealthy widow Anna Maria Von Posch and changed to Vienna, where he started his work on what he'd later call "animal magnetism. "
"Mesmer had always been convinced that he previously more magnetic power than most people, and so could work the solutions better"
(Waterfield, 2004: 88)
Mesmer's work with Franziska Osterlin in 1774, involved her swallowing flat iron and then inserting magnets on the different elements of her body. The individual said to feel smooth moving through her body and several hours later her symptoms had gone. Mesmer however didn't believe that this is because of the magnets alone which it was the "dog magnetism" that acquired in fact relieved her of her symptoms.
By 1776 Mesmer was bounded by a scandal after he attemptedto restore the vision of Maria Theresia Paradis, a musician who was simply blind since birth. Mesmer attempted to restore the musicians sight but subsequently she lost all potential to experience the piano and was taken away by her parents and Mesmer was then under speculation of using magic. Mesmer then remaining Vienna and relocated to Paris where he began a medical practice. Whilst in Paris Mesmer worked with individuals and communities, by 1780 Mesmer experienced way too many patients and therefore used cure called "baquet" where he would treat up to 20 people at a time.
In 1784 with the submission of King Louis XVI some tests were conducted by customers of the Faculty of medicine to distinguish if Mesmer acquired in fact found out a fresh "physical" substance. However there was no evidence to show this and that it is at fact right down to the creativity. Mesmer died in 1815 of an stoke and in his last 20 years no person knows of any further work that Mesmer may did.
Alexandre Bertrand (1795 - 1831) work was of huge significance to the history of hypnotherapy. He did not trust Mesmer's theory of the mystical fluid and assumed that it was the skill of recommendation.
James Braid (1795 - 1860) began working on his own approach to mesmerisation after witnessing a demo which showed subjects entering a physical state quite dissimilar to their normal behavior. After much work Braid modified his theory of computer being a sleep-based physiological theory to a psychological theory. Braid assumed that hypnotism was a nervous sleep that could be inflicted by looking at a bright subject, although much later Braid explained that only a little minority could be influenced (only 10%. ) Braid used the word "hypnosis" which led to much bafflement as people think that they would in simple fact be asleep, Braid do try and later re-name this to "monoeidism" but people sustained to use the term hypnosis, which is exactly what it is still referred to today. Later Braid quit using bright objects after realising that he could achieve the same outcome simply by speaking with his patients with suggestion.
"He distinguished the shallow and deep phrases or levels of the trance state governments; the first he called 'sub-hypnotic' and said that it was this that the electro-biologists could produce; the second he called the 'two times mindful', because he found his content to be dissociated (as we would now say) using their normal expresses. "
(Waterfield, 2004: 203)
A strong follower of Braids work was Ambroise-Auguste Liebeault (1823 - 1904) who was simply the creator of the Nancy College, also called the "Suggestion College" thought that the verbal recommendation was a robust tool in successfully treating medical conditions and thought that everyone could be hypnotized. Because of the controversy surrounding hypnosis and the difficulty in obtaining consent from his patients Liebeault gave his patients an option. They could either pay for the traditional treatment or consent to hypnotherapy which they could get free of charge, due to most of Liebeault's patients being poor many agreed to hypnosis, allowing Liebeault to continue to develop hypnosis.
Many people have the incorrect perception that deep breathing and hypnosis are in fact a similar thing; however it is important to distinguish the distinctions. Whilst they are doing share similar techniques such as visualisation and respiration, meditation is employed to free the mind from conscious thought, whereas hypnotherapy is used for a particular final result. Therefore whilst deep breathing and hypnotherapy both aim to relax the individual, hypnotherapy will lead the individual through therapeutic suggestions. This technique are able to be used to change the sub-conscious head, e. g. revealing somebody who wants to quit smoking that smoking is bad for them. Hypnotherapy is a tool that can be used to deliver messages to the sub-conscious head.
There has been much research done on the physical areas of hypnosis. A number of scientists who have done such research on this subject think that there are no physical dissimilarities to being under hypnosis and those who are not. These scientists state that although the heart rate who slower this is the same for those who were in a comfortable point out. However what has been found to be different is the mind activity. Electroencephalographs or EGG's are being used to measure someone's electrical power brain activity, the first recorded was in 1929 by Hans Barger. Brain waves look constantly different in people who as awake compare to those who find themselves asleep, and people who are laid back compare to those who are at full alert. Neurologists believe that the brain has two attributes, the right side controls someone's creativity and the still left is the logical control centre. Whilst under hypnosis, scientists have discovered that the left part of the mind has a reduced level of activity. There are four types of brain waves, beta, alpha, theta and delta.
Beta brain waves are whenever a person is awake and fully conscious. Like I am now whilst writing this, I am completely alert and my mindful mind is in control.
Alpha brain waves are what everyone has during the day. This is whenever a person day dreams or closes their eye to relax. In alpha the unconscious mind is being more dominant in the conscious mind. One is in a light trance, it is within this declare that hypnotic suggestion can have effective results.
Theta brain waves can be present when meditating, thinking or being "in the area. " The unconscious mind is completely in charge. A hypnotherapist can take you to earlier experiences and where thoughts are available. Theta brain waves can also be present when doing jobs a person does indeed often. Such as traveling home from work, it's a quest that you are being used to and know the streets well, but an individual can bring themselves out of theta in these circumstances is order to "drive carefully. " It really is quite common when entering theta over a familiar drive that you can't actually keep in mind area of the journey.
Delta brain waves are when we go into our subconscious and no other brain waves can be found. Delta is exactly what we experience when we are asleep. A lot of people do not drift off when they are under hypnotherapy, if this will happen then the client can come back into theta talk about where they can follow the suggestions distributed by hypnotherapist. If a client continues to be in delta then advice won't work and it will not succeed in the subconscious mind.
There a wide range of myths surrounding hypnosis, which still leads people to be dismissive of this form of remedy. This includes the popular belief that hypnotists involve some type of "Special Forces" and that they may use these capabilities to get their patients to do ridiculous things, e. g. cluck such as a chicken each and every time the entranceway bell rings or to say or do something that they do not wish to do. This isn't the truth and everyone under hypnotherapy is in charge and can not do anything they don't desire to do. If you're under hypnotherapy and someone orders you to do something you don't desire to do you just will not take action and it most cases it will actually enable you to get out of the hypnotic express. Another misconception is that people who have hypnotherapy are poor minded, it is true that the best patients are those which may have a creativity and are available to the idea of hypnosis will go in to the relaxed talk about easier and deeper but it holds true that many people are suggestible and for that reason it isn't that it will only focus on fragile minded people. It is also a common idea that hypnosis can make a person in physical form stronger or a much better athlete. However hypnotherapy can only boost a person's existing physical capacities. There are many more myths surrounding hypnotherapy which still leave people reluctant to try out this form of therapy, these myths is only going to disperse once people fully understand what hypnosis is.