Posted at 10.28.2018
The newspaper considers modifications that happen in the course of intercultural Ñommunication, triggered by rapid growth of the new mass communication medium, playing a significant role in the ethnical integration. Their function along the way is amazingly ambiguous: extensive audience, new ethnical space effects greatly public awareness and the character of interaction between the cultures.
Integration of the telecommunication and communication means guarantee remote access and immediate exchange for the info, sound and audio images. The new mass communication medium created beneficial conditions for establishment of the online relations and ties between people. The progression of information in communication provides foundation for the new kinds of the social connections based on the systems of scientific relationship. Nowadays the digital world is interpreted as a free-standing public reality included by special semeiotic, normative, psychological and managerial aspects. The new mass media, indeed, have an effect on and entail us completely as interpersonal and political as well as financial beings. » (Poster, 1999; webpage 11)
Exploring the new communication medium, people tend to build new collective forms of discussion for the psychological comfort, professional, or specific purposes. THE WEB is a communication medium with its own logic and language, it isn't confined to one particular area of cultural manifestation, it cuts most of them. (Castells, 2001, web page 200). H. Rheingoldand (1998), a favorite North american ideologist of informationalism, defined the term virtual community as a home- organizing electric network of interactive marketing communications integrated around common pursuits or purposes.
Value of content or events for one is governed by the subjective attitude towards them, the personal interest. The eye can be understood as a conscient or inconscient desire, favour/aversion, proneness, sympathy/antipathy, love/ hatred felt by people. The primary feature of such interpretation is the fact that interests are socially conditioned by the life span style. Many researchers consider the internet as the online space where more wide open and comfortable relations between people can be shaped. However interactions in the digital communities are alternatively oriented to duplication of the structural integrity on the floor of similar passions, ideals, principles and wishes.
As it's been witnessed by some experts, communications in the digital space are characterized by fleetingness of relations. It is caused by changes in passions and their behaviour of people into the mental health peculiarities of the online communication. The truth is communications between associates of individual teleconferences forums, and chats can increase into the long-term and effective relations and the members will be in a position to maintain personal and business bonds in real life.
The happening of the online community is based on the possibility to understand the intensional data exchange and to control with the take into account the global discourse into the world of computer-mediated solutions. Each new exclusive community is known as to be not just a generalized entity with the already existing interpersonal and cultural relationships but rather a expectable place where new relationships and varieties of communication can be formed. A. Krocker and M. Weinstein (1994) focus on the problem of the so called unhappy crowd». Within their viewpoint the technologically generated community proficiently masks the human being loneliness. The problem of psychological poverty distinctive for the modern culture is described the group of traditional topics in the present-day humanities: E. Durkheim, R. Merton, E. Fromm, etc. The frustrating majority of communal associates are utilitarian, and their quarrels are functional. The profound singleness and impoverishment of the mental life provoke strains. It is possible to build a corporative learning resource but associates of the organization will apply it in the utilitarian way, never allotting it with communicative or interactive functions.
Communication in the digital community implements the compensatory function. It is most likely that computer mediated marketing communications provide tools to solve more everyday problems like the capability to keep in touch with concrete people, to promote oneself or the corporative image, to keep informed of the world's news and events, to understand specific information, etc.
Demand for self-expression, development of different communicative situations, search for ways of self-identification will be the motivational factors in development of different kinds of the internet communication. When making a online community, the average person creates the exclusive id that is manifested in real occupations of those who ranked themselves among the community. The process of socialization combines a free of charge choice of types of informational relationship with enforcement, and network society's sanctioning of the communicative methods. Thereat, enforcement has already been revealed in the process of mastering of the native terminology, which organizes the individuals' thinking. (Konstantinov, 2008)
The first knowledge of the individual about the cultural Internet-reality is got in the process of basic socialization. It is almost impossible to set the lowest age threshold of the basic cyber-space socialization: the essential socialization process starts from the moment of getting the info about the Internet cyber-space phenomenon presence, and this very moment of primary informing depends after various social-economical, politics and other factors.
In its change, the basic socialization process can be split into two levels: 1) archetypical and 2) instrumental-cognitive. Along the way of the archetypical level of the essential socialization, cyberspace subjective the truth is formed in the mind of the average person on the basis of cultural artifacts: while getting acquainted with publications, advertisements, films, catalogs, novels and so forth etc. Thereat, the procedure of socialization continues on exclusively based on perception of interpersonal myths, connected to the cyber-space functioning; and peers, parents, professors of the related classroom disciplines become socialization agents. It is important to note, that the archetypical stage of socialization process is originally inherent in cyber-space. Yet, before the global computer systems have appeared, mythological image of the online environment has been created in the literary works of writers-fantasts and been forecast in methodical magazines. Thus, in their conscious, future computer users have performed cultural constructing of the objective reality of a new human-machinery world, which arrival has been only awaited.
The press actually exerts a solid influence on the process of basic socialization, and in the course of this process, development of the virtual reality world takes place on the non-public level. Thereat, public myths make up the individuals the lack of basic understanding of society performing in the cyber-space, and also donate to shaping of the socialization process continuation motives.
Thus, at the given level, the procedure of socialization is concluded in constructing into the future virtual individuality, and also in cognitive integration of the individual with the jobs of these or those content, performing in the cyber-space. Precisely on this very stage, an individual is received first familiar with social norms, operating in the cyber-space, and also digests basic elements of the network ethics. His action forms the machine of inter-connected jobs and objectives of the contact with the exclusive environment. Thereat, there is created a pluralistic simple fact, that includes a well-defined fragmentary figure; in the result of his cognitive experience, the individual accepts the cyber-space behavior types of evaluative orientation, that are well-spread within the public conscience.
The archetypical level of socialization is over after the user has been linked to the telecommunication systems, and additional the instrumental-cognitive level begins. Were to take into consideration that upon this new stage the average person must be socialized simultaneously in two sizes. First of all, it is a interpersonal community of the cyber-space. Subsequently, it is a concrete Internet-community, wherein the average person participates. In the process of the instrumental-cognitive stage of socialization, an individual meets alternative habits of considering and behavior, and also a reconstructive form of sociable memory of exclusive network societies. Thereat, the average person studies concrete role orientations, studies to execute interpersonal navigation in the cyber-space also to connect to others, cognates normative types of social relationships, he experiences the impact of interpersonal control system on himself.
Processes of socialization of the online network neighborhoods' participants happen in the frames of in-group behaviour and intergroup relationships development. So, you'll be able to single out the following: 1) types of ritual connection: presentations, forms of address, greetings, goodbyes etc; 2) consumption of peculiar pseudonyms - nicknames»; 3) special symbolic systems, being utilized only in the given cultural group - countrywide terminology, jargon, slang, etc.
Independently from inspiration of the individuals, having joined the digital group, and in order the community, which includes gathered the required number of members, could function efficiently, the users should go through the sense of collective identification. Preserved with computer help, the framework of communication obligatory stipulates the action of imagination, which includes to provoke the image of integrity with other individuals, who are most often faceless or even anonymous» (Foster, 1997; site 25). Due to collective identity, virtual network community becomes the subject of social connection.
Solidarity of the Internet-community is identified by the degree of its elegance from the idea of view of an individual, taking part in it. Individuals think, feel and behave relative to the sociable characteristics of the neighborhoods, which they participate in at a certain minute of time. Throughout communicative methods, performed on a regular basis, community participants build-up a collective we», i. e. collective personality. Yet, at the end of XIX century, E. Durkheim has revealed an integrating quality of the group mindful: The group feels, feels quite in another way, than its customers would undertake it separately. Then, if we bottom on these latter ones, so we will not understand anything of this, the proceedings inside the group. » (Durkheim, 1995; page 91)
Does the development process of collective identity of online network areas' participants contain the components of subjectivity? The answer to this question will be certainly positive, because, as it's been asserted by J. M. Jasper: Collective identification is not simply a structure of the cognitive boarder, it is more than this - it is emotions of other members of the group, predicated on the care of their membership maintenance. » (Jasper, 1998; webpage 18).
Thus, informational culture of users is highly recommended as a precondition of socio- cultural integration and also of disintegration of the cyber-space social system, taken as a whole. Informational culture characteristics are latent and reflect the activity of your person as a cognizing subject, who is constantly interpreting senses, being concealed in symbolic relationships.
Thereat, the procedure of senses interpretation presents by itself a communal process. Interpretation will depend as on the language, by which means communication is conducted, so on the user's culture, historical context, social structure, and also on political factors. Moreover, users' cognitive skills take their origin in the last social connections, and it means our company is to think about this factor as well.
It is accepted that dialect is one of the most crucial factors of the individuals identity, that is why it became traditional to speak about close dialect and culture interconnection. Culture is created during the process of the interactions of people. A person belongs to a specific culture not only due to system of knowledge, which she or he shares with the other folks, but also due to patterns of activity and interaction accepted locally. Common knowledge and activity habits (or interactional knowledge) shared by the particular community associates ensure harmonic interaction and successful shared understanding in the intracultural communication process.
The problem of reaching shared understanding (both cross- social and intracultural) is usually described by experts as the situation of cultural individuality of the communicants, personality sets on the based on self-identification with particular ideals and norms historically accepted using culture and gained by the individual in the culturalization and socialization functions.
Development of anthropological paradigm in ethnical and linguistical studies observes the challenge of cross-cultural communication in a different way: cultural personal information is defined not only by the language itself but by its consumption for different communicative and cognitive goals in a certain linguistic and cultural environment. A particular language is undoubtedly a specific route and a ethnic code to establish shared understanding. That implies ability of a particular language usage relative to working conditions as a certain social code. It also means that it is impossible to decode appropriately details of the message having not enough knowledge of the culture.
A person realizes one's id being the part of a certain culture. This realization is fixed in language awareness and is mirrored in communicative action. Communicative behavior is the sum of norms and practices of communication accepted in a specific lingual culture.
The subject matter of communication can recognize person as familiar or unidentified anticipated to person's discourse activity. Such identity may be known as as linguacultural identity. Linguacultural identity is an identity being formed on the basis of recognition and use by the main topic of communication types of discourse occasions accepted in a specific culture and gained by the topic in the socialization process.
Due to the quick recent development of the communication and information means as well as the communal, political, and economic changes, have led to the trend that more and more people cross cultural barriers, that early were dividing them, and co-operate with associates of other cultures, that are significantly different from traditional ones. Millions of individuals have found themselves in new cultures that threaten their linguacultural individuality.
Cross-cultural communication is the procedure of personal connections of individuals from different words and cultural communities. The popular thoughts and opinions that people are able to reach common understanding because they speak a typical language is an unhealthy illusion. Each language offers a unique system of means using which people understand and explore the globe and others. Matching to this issue of interaction, the problem of intercultural communications became vitally important and interesting. It offers the opportunity to see differentiation of consciousness signal mechanisms of staff of different ethnicities, seeks to determine reasons and also to define the bond with the lately emerged trend of united cultural space spaces formation.
In order to understand a rep of the other culture a person should know of this there are different cultures, languages, norm, ideals, different ways of thinking and expressing the personal». This recognition can be explained as the first and the main level in the linguacultural change process, that delivers a personality with an capacity to restore the balance through the seek out the correspondence of the image of the world and the environment that is changed. It also helps a person to look at himself to the limitless variety of real communication situations and choose definite discourse strategies and models of discourse situations in each particular occurrence. Linguacultural transformation makes it possible to define a new person's role in the improved communicative context and so to save the integrity of a person. Thus there are two global tasks for a modern subject of communication: 1. A person must be in a continuous search for his or her identity and must defend it; 2. A person must have an experience and capacity to transform his or her linguacultural individuality when he or she meets something weird different and alien. Quite simply a person can transform himself and to save his own integrity.
The procedure for transformation begins from the level of misunderstanding and even hostility towards the other culture and discourse activity causes a result a person not only accepts cultural differences, but is ready and in a position to adjust his own communicative habit to conform to different norms, to empathize with folks from different civilizations. Such bi-cultural and bi-lingual person doesn't your investment modals of discourse occasions accepted in local culture but integrates the other culture models into his / her language consciousness. Personality transformation gives a person an opportunity to decode specific cultural information coded in these or those types of cultural situations, it also allows to reach subconscious compatibility with the reps of the other culture, it can help a person to comprehend and sometimes to simply accept new social norms and ideals. Connection with cross-cultural communication grounded on mutual understanding of the interlocutors provides person a fresh basis with regards to individuality, and broadens the space in which they might feel safe and understandable.
There are three major theories of the international communication procedures analysis: cultural imperialism, ethnic hybridization, and globalization.
Media imperialism is often referred to as a process whereby america and Western Europe produce almost all of the advertising products, make the first revenue from local sales, and then market the products in UNDER-DEVELOPED countries at costs considerably less than those the countries would need to bear to produce similar products at home. » (Ogan 1988; page 94).
Cultural globalization term relates to worldwide ethnical standardization - as with 'Coca Colonization' and 'McDonaldization' - as well concerning postcolonial cultures, ethnical pluralism, and 'hybridization. ' The many aspects of globalization which have promoted growing connections between different civilizations, leading partly to increased understanding and cooperation and partly to the introduction of transnational neighborhoods and hybrid identities. » (Moghadam, 2005; web page 35).
Cultural hybridization is unobjectionable when stars perceive it to be under their own control, but is resisted when they see it threatening their moral integrity. Others object to conversations of ethnical hybridization that neglect to recognize that ramifications of hybridization are experienced differently by those with power and those without power. The thought of ethnical hybridization has been criticized severely because the very attempt to discuss ethnic mixtures assumes that "pure" civilizations existed prior to blending. (Schultz, Lavenda, 2009)
The term "Globalization" was generally propagate in the later 1990s and early on 2000, it's important to note that which it meant different things to different scholars. For a few it was nearly a synonym for ethnic imperialism, for others for the pass on of modernity as well as for others its most important referent was economic, the get spread around either of free marketplaces, or of fundamentalist free-market economic doctrine. (Downing, 2008)
New media solutions, widely available nowadays in various forms provide higher sender and receiver conversation than was possible ever before been. Therefore, the ethnical imperialism argument that has been framed in terms of center countries with ability over disempowered periphery nations must be reevaluated as the advanced marketing slowly permeate into developing countries.
Intercultural media effects denotes the idea of change or changes to the culture of individuals living in a given society induced therefore of their exposure to media content stated in another modern culture. Cultural diffusion occurs when an individual faced with a situation in which the cultural behaviors of his own society are not fully sufficient, copies the behavior of the members of another culture. While throughout background humans have interpersonally channeled social diffusion, today electronic digital media that course the world at tremendous speeds can potentially contribute to the diffusion of culture. When contact with imported tv programs is found to affect some aspect of a local viewer's culture, a proper label for this result is media-accelerated culture diffusion (MACD). (Elasmar, 2008 ).
The notion intercultural marketing communications» was produced for the very first time in 1954 in G. Trager's and E. Hall's work Culture and communications. Analysis model». In such a work intercultural marketing communications were thought as the ideal aim that your person should follow, in desire to adjust to the surrounding world as better and effectively as you possibly can.
At the ethnical level unstable identity poses both potential issues and difficulties which, if they become part of the political activity, or a linked with the politics of feminism, ethnic/racial minorities, lgbt positions, may lead to a fundamental concern to modern sociable institutions and structures. Communication theory needs to account for electronically mediated communication and in so doing take its proper host to importance generally speaking sociable theory. » (Poster, 1995; webpage 56)
Today's features of intercultural marketing communications are studied on the interdisciplinary level within the limits of such sciences as social science, psychology, linguistics, sociology, ethnology and etc. , each which uses special approach to the framework and the research, therefore, it is clear that problem of intercultural communications cannot be reduced only to the language problem. The data of terms of the other culture carrier is necessary, but still it isn't enough for a adequate mutual knowledge of the members of the communicative act. Moreover, cross-cultural communications assume living of not only divergences between two different languages, but also distinctions when working with one terms.
Today, basing on E. Hall, E. Sapir and B. Whorf, F. Boas works and their fans (A. Kardiner, R. BenediÑt, M. Mead researches) it is possible to allocate some habits (Piker, 1998) of intercultural marketing communications:
The culture is impossible from the communicative process;
The culture influences the behaviour of the individual;
Language and culture are interconnected, exactly specifics of verbal marketing communications depends upon features represented by communicants from different cultures;
The sender and the addressee of the meaning belong to different cultures and realize ethnical differences of each other;
Intercultural communications are based on an activity of the symbolical discussion between individuals and organizations, cultural distinctions which is possible to tell apart.
The types of culture allocated on continental sign and scale, have received the name of macrocultures. Many people are an integral part of one or other public groups having the ethnic features. From your structural point of view it is microcultures (subcultures) in a structure macroculture. Each microculture has simultaneously similarity and distinction to the maternal culture that delivers their associates with an identical understanding of the world. Differently, subcultures may be thought as cultures of different communal groups and tiers in one culture.
The structure of our own consciousness greatly demonstrates surrounding world that's the reason radical changes took place nowadays could not go without going out of traces in a culture. Therefore prompt development of the mass communication means certainly should have an impact on both culture in a complete, and in a particular intercultural communication.
However just lately in a framework of today's global problems requirement for occurrence of integrative type of culture arose, that will form a loan consolidation basis of all humanity. Because of this you will see a rapprochement of countrywide cultures and worth, strengthening social, communication ties, and achievements of science and the arts, new types of social and political activity will begin to spread and attained in society, developing its integrity. Concurrently with that creation of a fresh integral culture, or single cultural space, does not imply unification of ethnic norms, means of perception and understanding of the world, ethnic genotypes, systems of traditions. Any ethnos, express, or population should understand from global system common cultural ties and relationships that are appropriate for their traditions, mentality, psychological turn of mind.
Special value in ethnical integration is directed at the means of media, and their function in this technique is incredibly ambiguous. They, certainly, have got a couple of characteristics (rate of information deal, availability in any point of planets, probability of simultaneous translation from any words and etc. ) that allows put into action in life the thought of integrated culture. However worldwide distribution of identical ethnical samples, an openness of edges for cultural influences and extending ethnic dialogue drive to speak about globalization process in modern culture.
Means of visual and sensible information transfer allowed to create ideal ethnical patterns of global range which form preconditions to the start of a new period - the metacultural amount of economical development. Globalization of backbone links induced such way of cultural development which is carried out by transfer of ethnical models on informational level, outwardly and unilaterally leveling sociocultural processes worldwide, forming ethnical patterns. Universal ethnic patterns do not reveal objectively sociocultural, politics and monetary conditions of today's and historical formation of culture of the countries where these informational paradigms are now created and formed. In place, global informational patterns in the ethnic plan can mesmerize» consciousness and activity of broad masses almost in all UNDER-DEVELOPED countries.
Informational cultural stereotypes, outwardly based on the on democratic key points, do not contain ideological elements of any religious beliefs, but dismiss both important historical root base, and top features of economic development of distinct countries.
Speaking about impact of the media means on intercultural communication at microlevel, it is necessary to indicate that the general characteristic feature of all types is unconsciousness of ethnic distinctions by its individuals (with the exception elite). The problem is the fact culture propagandized by nearly all media means seen as a staginess, stereotypification, standardization, availableness, clearness, created semblance of the ease of access of other, easier lifestyle for the individual that should promote subconscious idea in benefits of certain way of life, to its noncritical popularity and idealization.
Media don't have a straightforward one-way regards to population and culture, there is a continuous relationship between them and the final results are complex, unpredictable and various, depending on a specific situation. The marketing are more likely to influence indirectly, however the effects should not be underestimated.
The internet serves as a a new communication environment, that's the reason considering that communication is the most important human being activity, all aspect of cultural life are being revised consuming internet itself and its own users. Virtual communities, as part of a network contemporary society, significantly influence people's lives, head, identity (both specific and social). This transformation causes many opportunities as well as troubles. On the main one palm, internet provides various opportunities for educational purposes, free usage of the info worldwide, quick information exchange, and this significantly erase communal inequality, because the thing you will need is usage of the internet. Moreover studying the wider worlds, provision of sociable interaction basis, expanding the creativeness also attribute to the present day method of mass communication. Alternatively internet is rather chaotic system, with a great number of mistakes, phony and hazardous information, where it isn't very easy to find what one's needs in this information flood. Widely pass on habits and erased ethnic as well as nationwide edges, form system without explicit id. Communication, as part of real human life, shifted from a genuine world to network, so if one is off-line he or she is separated from the culture. Person needs not only regular usage of the internet, but additionally the presence in a digital space. British is a most popular terms in a net, still it is important to keep in mind about the unity of terms and consciousness. For many people, wide-spread use of British can be considered a threat to ethnical identification, and, in many parts of the world, may bring in your thoughts of a long colonizing background. » (Kramarae, 1999; page 50).
For the most part of Internet users English is not really a mother tongue, and not all of them have a good knowledge of English, that's the reason there is not an idle threat of the consciousness retrogression. Media have been said to lead to decrease in cultural specifications, social variety, personal isolation, increased passivity and depressive tendencies. In our current period of globalization, international and intercultural communication within a dominant vocabulary may have two other results: on the one hand, it may bring about segregation between the haves and the have-nots; on the other hands, it may facilitate connections between the two. » (Hashimoto, Kudo, 2010; webpage 386).
And only facing staff of other ethnicities, it is found out that habitual models of behaviour stop to work that one occupations, places for leisure and entertainment, retailers which is etc. will be more exclusive than others and a way to propagandized success not is simple, and sometimes and is unattainable. It is especially dangerous to young era when the emotional sphere develops based on feeling of satisfaction or a dissatisfaction.
So, steadily the population and culture around the child becoming for it the only real unique and existing world. World with which it completely recognizes itself.
The picture of the world is made under the influence of mass culture and placed in a consciousness of the individual, this picture will not always adequately reveal the truth. In result the impossibility of your embodiment of 1 or other ideas can lead to feeling of inferiority with regards to own culture: loss of personal information with own culture, absence of identification with a culture of the majority; feeling of loneliness (isolation); violation of the role expectations and feeling of the self-identification; the alarm passing in indignation and disgust after recognition of ethnic distinctions, and, as effect, teenagers fatality from an anorexia, alcoholism, a medicine addiction, increased number of hermitry cases, all of this are the features of acculturation and ethnical shock.
Thanks to mass media the wide-ranging audience is involved with modern communicative process. The new cultural space arose - the world of a word, a audio and the image, - making huge effect on public awareness and persona of connections between cultures.