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The poverty issue

This problem of" Poverty" has been basic concern to humanity because of the serious setback it is causing globally. It is just about the World's epidemic intimidating some economical especially those in the Least Developing countries (LDCs). Hence, the magnitude of poverty though varying in different elements of the world is known to be prominent in the LDCs. Countries could be found in Asia, Latin America, and Africa. Regarding to Raanan Weitz 1986, "While humanity shares one planet, it is just a planet on which there are two worlds, the rich and the world of the indegent" these poor world countries are called the Third World. [1]

They are seen as a low economic expansion, low per capital income, low expectations of living, low level of technology, high illiteracy rate, politics instability.

All of these help as an impediment to the economical growth processes of these countries.

According to Allan Cochrane" A crucial aspect of poverty is the way in which It reduces potential of people to take part in the normal lives of their neighborhoods with stress being positioned on the deprivation which results from the shortage alternatively than low income itself"[2]

Poverty can effect policy intervene in virtually any society which is central to insurance policy debates relating to development on welfare concern.

After the finish of the first and second World Wars that lead largely to the devastation of Europe, a group countries came jointly to form the group that will seek to the Affairs of their countries, promote international relationships wanting to operate in a variety of areas of human activities. This resulted to formation of International Governmental Business (INGOs) costed with the responsibility and eyesight to facilitate the problem of battle and peace, disease protection and peacefulness, and economic development. These IGOs seem to be prominent in modern-day international affairs.

Besides, other actors who also play significant role in influencing and identifying the course of international relations but yet aren't so officially recognized by state governments, (nonprofit making, voluntarily farmed, specific aims and aims and that which are active in various real human welfare), are Non- governmental Business(NGOs).

According to Daniel S. Papp, Non-government Organizations are extremely divers in Size, composition objective and include bodies including the International Olympic Commission payment (IOC).

The Committee for nuclear disarmament, the International Federation of Air collection Pilots Relationship, International Save Committee (IRC).

The International Chamber of commerce, and the planet Federation of true Union. [3]

In minimal developed countries like Africa, both income and non- income aspect poverty is pervasive scheduled to problem stretches from bad governance and mismanagement, poor economic expansion, unemployment and underemployment, lack of access to communal services, low degree of investment, high degree of indebtness and many others. The above, talked about views are buttress by Santiago (1973), thus "the 3rd world, with 77% of the populace, subsists on only 22% of the world income and even this people is within abject poverty[4]

Nevertheless, the majority of the LDCs have designed policies and approaches for poverty decrease in their development programs supported and financed by international organizations.

Sierra Leone at the west coast of Africa, corresponding to world society data of the guide bureau, Sierra Leone has an estimated population of about 4. 5 million. Using the natural resources change from fertile land tropical mineral deposits. Yet, it is positioned at the bottom of united country Human Development Index (HDI) as the poorest on earth.

In support to further reforms and work to stabilize the overall economy, "the International Monetary Fund(IMF)approved an financial program inflict assistance to facilitate the economy in December 1999. The World Standard bank also launched the Economic Rehabilitation and Restoration credit to assist Government in repairing protective and economical security.

Other donors like the Islamic Development Bank or investment company (IDB), THE Division for International Development (DFID) UK and the Western Economic Commission payment (EU) or (EEC) have provided ongoing disaster restoration assistance and budgetary support to enhance government capacity to fund critical program and improve service delivery"[5]

In a bet to boost on the efficiency of donors support, the federal government has centralized help Coordination in the Ministry of Development and Economic Planning (MODEP) to formulate humanitarian guide for all NGOs working in the country.

About 75. 5% of the populace live below the poverty collection significantly less than one USA dollar (UA$1) per day" [6]. This low individuals development will include indications like: low principal college enrollment, high illiteracy rate, high maternal death count, and low level of security etc.

However, the poverty situation becomes worsened through the war when most sectors from which the federal government was receiving income especially the mining sector end up being the aim for of the warfare. With the end of the warfare and successful conclusion of Presidential and Parliamentary elections on the 14th May 2002, Authorities has already carried out series of strategies that seek to alleviate poverty. To redress poverty, the government articulated and interim poverty lowering paper (I-PRSP) in June2001.

Government Institutions, Industries, International Firm and the international community have refined their plans toward minimizing poverty in the united states.

METHODOLOGY

The researcher due to time restriction, and based on the objective of this work, researcher will be examining information compiled from secondary options/data to be able to produce the mandatory and desired final result.

The researcher opted to combine the qualitative way in this research because of its significant advantages. The use of qualitative data gathering method is helpful as they are more open to changes and refinement of research ideas as the study progresses; therefore that qualitative data gathering tools are highly flexible.

This study will use interpretivist as its main research school of thought. A descriptive research intends to present facts regarding the nature and position of a situation, as it is present at the time of the study (Creswell, 1994).

It is also worried about relationships and routines that exist, values and process that are on-going, results that are being thought or movements that are growing. Furthermore, such approach tries to describe past, present conditions, occasions or systems predicated on the impressions or reactions of the respondents of the research (Creswell, 1994).

The ontology of qualitative methods is constructivist, which contends that sociable phenomenon is constantly being accomplished by social celebrities- they are simply produced through public connection and are thus constantly being revised. [7]

Basically, a descriptive research utilizes observations and studies. It is for this particular reason that strategy was chosen by the researcher, whose intention is to gather first hand data. Additionally, this will allow for a flexible methodology that whenever important new issues and questions occur at the period of the analysis, a further research can be conducted. Another edge is the fact that with this approach, the research will be fast and somehow cost-effective.

Aside from the qualitative finding method, secondary research will be conducted in this analysis. Sources in extra research includes previous research information, development catalogs, world and local documentations, existing results on journals and existing knowledge on books, firsthand communication source from international firm websites, newspapers, periodicals and appropriate use of the internet. The analysis will undertake an extensive overview of the relevant books on the role played by NGOs in alleviating poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa, Research study caritas as a case study. Fundamentally, interpretation will be conducted which can account as qualitative in dynamics.

PROBLEM

Poverty is a predicament which renders communities and people ineffective, passive an isolated, thereby reducing the ability of men and women to participate in the normal lives of their communities resulting to deprivation which is characterized by insufficient income as opposed to the low income itself.

This poverty epidemic is very widespread in Sierra Leone. It penetrates all sectors of our world and at the same time arrests development. Poverty is the major hurdle and impediments of developmental aspirations and strides in the third world which Sierra Leone is an integral part.

JUSTIFICATION

Similar research works have been starting in places, and at various quarters to research the role performed by NGOs in complementing and fulfillment of Government's initiatives in its stride to help increase the welfare of the residents.

However, many promotions, talks and surveys have proved right that NGOs indeed playing crucial assignments in individual activities and have had some examples of successes in obtaining the objective Exemplory case of such NGOs include: The International Red Combination, International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, THE EARTH Vision, Catholic Alleviation Service and the like.

Hence, it is important for a survey such as this to be conducted to see how Caritas in Sierra Leone in assisting to ease. In Sierra Leone like in any other under-developed countries, poverty is a complete rural phenomenon. Study undertaking by various quarters, organizations, experts, civil societies, administration sectors show that poverty is very alarming in the North and Eastern Provinces of Sierra Leone. To include an addendum to this point, the Central Statistics Office now known as Statistic Sierra Leone, (SCOSHEHEA 1989-1990), explain thus: Eastern Province about 26. 4%of the population is poor, North province 35. 3%, Western Area 15. 9% and the SouthernProvince22. 3%.

Poverty is manifested in the following activities, some solo father or mother family begging in roadways, increase in commercial love-making work, and an increase in the number of early relationship and pregnancy, high rate of inflation, massive unemployment of Youngsters etc.

The study looks for to highlight the key role performed by NGOs with emphasis on Caritas in alleviating poverty. It will serve as a basis for now and future projection in the allocation of source of information for development program

Lastly, with the conclusion of the study work, it can be of good way to obtain information for future analysts, who may decide to further check out the role NGOs play in poverty alleviations.

HYPOTHESIS

Caritas Sierra Leone (NGO) is helping and concluding Government's effort to ease poverty in Sierra Leone. How?

SCOPE FROM THE WORK

This work is divided into five sections included in these are; section (1) Background/History of poverty

Section (2) Qualifications to research study that is background history of Caritas Sierra Leone, section (3) Source and interpretation of NGOs, section (4) Examination of Caritas activities in Sierra Leone (Agriculture, education, Health), section five Analysis and interpretation of data based on the empirical effect and section (5) summary.

The research work is designed to cover three implementing areas of Caritas with regard to poverty alleviation, they includes:

  • Agricultural Restoration/Activities
  • Education
  • Health

AIMS and OBJECTIVES

The major goal of this research is to examine Caritas Sierra Leone (NGO) role play in alleviating poverty in Sierra Leone.

  • The purpose is to provide brief meaning and origins of NGOs, short historical record of Caritas, also to,
  • Assess the many activities of Caritas on poverty reduction in areas of operations in the Eastern Province of Sierra Leone.

DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES

This analysis is descriptive and also to meet the goals of the dissertation, the workplace research method can be used which involves collection of data from Caritas field officers, and administrators, and documentation etc.

Reviews of the related articles, magazines, books compiled by development authors and development publications on this subject material have would be review and consulted and used. Both quantitative and qualitative methods of data examination will be used.

TOOLS OF ANALYSIS

Tables, Chats, Averages, and Percentages will be utilized to investigate and present the info.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Poverty has turned into a sensitive issue all around the globe. Because of this, individual, consultative group meetings, Government Companies, Non- Governmental Company, Individual Right Activist Teams, Humanitarian Organisation, Civil Societies organizations, Women Organisations, have in diverse ways undertaken research work written catalogs and designed activities and strategies towards alleviating poverty.

In the course of this dialogue, divergent views from picked work will be determine critically to check out the designs and mechanisms followed by NGOs with specific reference to Caritas sierra Leone to lessen poverty in the LDCs.

Peter Townsend (1979) an exponent on the concept and its influence on humanity viewed poverty the following; "Individuals, young families and groupings in population can be said to be in poverty when they lack the resources to obtain the types of diet, take part in the actions and the way the living the conditions and amenities that happen to be customary or approved in the societies to that they belong". There resources are so very seriously below those commanded by the average person or family that they in effect excluded from the ordinary living habits, custom and activities.

Similarly so in Sierra Leone, a situation current under that your bulk of the populace is being damaged more especially in the rural areas.

This work will however verify the length and magnitude of the indegent status under which the inhabitants is categories and how it has been alleviated with the intervention of Caritas in Sierra Leone.

Evaluating the impact of NGOs, Women's Connection in Rural Poverty Alleviation, Connick (1992) discussed the spending vitality of the common urban household is 2. 5 times as the average rural, household, with a sizable percentage of the rural home clustered in the lowest spending expenditure teams. The selection of the researched location of the study is a definite indication to the fact that the poverty is a rural trend in Sierra Leone and the need for partners in development like Caritas to activate in activities that alleviate poverty in this area is a much matter to the research.

Galbraith John Kenneth (1970) discovered that, poverty may itself be considered a reason behind poverty. This is because; it denies the united states from investment, earnings for education or purchasing vitality for consumer product, which, is an inventive to effort. Thus, poverty perpetuates itself. Such will be the important that both systems must harm. It is improbable, that that the causes operate in the same form and in the intensively in any two conditions. Effective disorders therefore require not only productive remedies but also effective diagnosed of the condition to be ameliorated.

In making use of strategies/policies geared towards poverty decrease in the country, proper recognition of the poverty situation should be carried out.

This however, should be complemented by inducting activities and plans to reduce poverty. However, loading the poverty alleviation programs, of Caritas from 2001-2008 is an interval diagnosed as poverty being very prominent.

The strategies and mechanism used by Caritas in struggling with poverty is the backbone of the research work.

Forster and Shorrocks (1991) claim that aggregate way of measuring poverty have to be sub-divided consistent. This poverty of the poverty index is closely associated with the region of decomposability or adaptively across sub-groups. If the poverty index is sub-group consisting, then it must maintain the Forster etal, class or any of their increasing transformation.

In support of Forster and Shorrocks 1991 declaration, Sierra Leone Government put strategy and mechanisms in place, in order to sub-grouped poverty. The Interim Poverty Lowering Strategy was form to look into the poverty situation.

Von Pisschke (1919) recognized that, poverty is contextual that is not static and it is relative. Micro credit loan was released as a mechanism for the indegent to pursue Poverty Reduction activities which were within means and capacities. The data behind this is that, poverty situation can be upgraded and a means of doing this is through supplying micro-credit loans to co-operative categories, women's Organisation. Individuals, to actively engage in activities like small scale business, agricultural activities, which aid in the increase and improvement of diets as well as participating in the activities with their respective communities. This is noticeable in areas where Local NGOs; International NGOs operate to reduce poverty in the society. A case study is the activities of Caritas in rural areas and rural cities within the last twelve years.

A conceptual structure work is that, micro-credit or small loan suggested as an activity for making income through Agricultural activities. Literacy programs, Skill training or through Small- scale business is widely a concept in the areas where NGOs and other societier Organisations operate. Caritas would be the one under exploration.

With regard to this issue, Khander and Kabeer (1998) talked about the theory that, NGOs and Donors were dictated on plans which specifically needed the increased in micro-credit loans to reach away to women and these micro-credit programmes didn't limit their desire impact to poverty reduction only but extended it to accomplish women's empowerment

Nonetheless, in Sub-Saharan Economics, Agriculture is strictly subsistence and women will be the actors in the production of food and in charge of the smooth jogging of the home, loans are therefore supplying and directed to undertake such activities in the modern culture in order to lessen poverty.

Evidence in Chao Beroff (1999) shown that, micro-credit programmes were designed to help the poor generate income and lessen the poverty sustainable.

Similarly, Mayout (2000) explained in the second paradigm that is called the "poverty Alleviation Paradigm" which manifested in increasing outreach and usage of the poor, providing small lending options for usage and trained in some of the poor segment of the population and they're the ones straight targeted and responsible for the family well-being.

The issue here's that, micro-credit are meant and targeted more specifically for women whose role in the family well-being are extremely significant.

Mansaray Shiekh U. (1995) also explained that, education, per-capital income, level of investment changes in farm size, occupation health, food and nourishment etc were the brokers or sectors of development.

However, an improvement in these sectors will bring about sustainable development that will reduce poverty. The role of Non-governmental Company in development with specific recommendations to the association of Rural Development was used as the subject on these issues.

Susistainable development, however offers to growth leading to a high quality lifestyle. With regard to this, poverty will be alleviated. This study focuses and it is however related to examination of the role of Caritas in alleviating poverty with special sources to the aspects of Agriculture production, skill training Literacy which is area of the industries, outlines in development.

Gordon Drabek (1988) layed out various analytic principles and prescription within the idea of promoting NGOs in the expanding countries. Many reasons related to the blunders which have been occurring over time by socio-economic developing countries and making the individual who are intended to gain from these developmental guidelines continue to remain poor as ever before. However, NGOs have added significant learning resource of different categories to development programmes at community and countrywide level for the benefit for the deprived groups in the rural and metropolitan communities. In assessing the role of Caritas in alleviating poverty in Sierra Leone will be an obvious toward NGOs performance in their intended purposes.

Also, Chamber R. (1988) used the thought of "Additionally" to provide the excellent contribution of NGOs to development programs. "Additionally" here means the making of things better than they would have been and allows for bad as well nearly as good effects. Quiet a substantial amount of NGOs which operate in Sierra Leone which Caritas is one among the countless. Caritas in this value is targeted to see the magnitude of its contribution in poverty alleviation well made up, organized, proven and their contribution towards bettering individual activities in rural and urban communities is well organized.

  1. Raanan Weitz (1986)
  2. Allan Cochrane (1992) "problems of poverty" And abstract from sociable problem and the family pages
  3. Daniel S. Papp Modern day International Relation Web pages 91-92.
  4. Santiago (1973) Declaration of UNDER-DEVELOPED, World Economic
  5. Republic of Sierra Leone. Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper June 2001.
  6. Human Development Reports 2002. United Nation Development Program New York.
  7. Creswell, J. W. (1994) Research design: Qualitative and quantitative solutions. Thousands of Oaks, California: Sage. in Bryman (2001) Sociable Research Methods, Oxford School Press, Oxford, p. 264
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