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The Politics Of Secularism In India

Secularism in India is definitely more of a politics when compared to a philosophical happening. Secularism may be one of the basic features of the Preamble but its validity among the basic features of the Constitution and its own practicability in Indian world is questionable. There is an increasing use of faith in the public construction of ethnic and communal id which is made the basis for the articulation of common financial interests and political mobilization. Addititionally there is the construction of the pan Indian Hindu awareness that slices across caste and local divisions. While secularism has been vital to India's democracy for more than 50 years, its limitations & implementations are indeed things of acrimonious question even even today. Discussions on the area of religious community in Indian modern culture have turned on the opposition of "secularism & communalism" and of "modernity & traditions". Secularism is unalterably linked with modernity, however the ideal of identical respect for any religions is not translated into interpersonal reality, and the end result is something termed as pseudo-secularism.

Modernity was seen as a the emergence of public, civic and privatized spiritual entities, concepts of any liberal democracy and a land condition, and the "secularized" individual who is unfettered by ascriptive identities. But such a trajectory of human development and social transformation required a knowledge of humanity that was fundamentally ahistorical. Both Round Table Meetings as well as the Constituent Assemblage Debates battled with the issue of formulating a liberal democracy for people who got historically been symbolized, and in turn came to symbolize themselves, as dependant on the ascriptive identities of sect and caste. Whenever critiquing secularism, the question of caste is definitely sidelined by the preoccupation with religion. However the politics of secularism in India is integrally reliant and revolves around the co-optation of untouchables into an higher caste Hindu personality. The crucial truth that should be clarified is the fact, somewhat than being distinct from the categories of community and caste, nationalism and communalism, liberalism and democracy, Indian secularism surfaced as the nexus of all of these.

The Indian Constitution has spelt out several provisions regarding the secular express even before the term secularism was launched into the Preamble of the Constitution in 1976. Articles 14, 15, 16, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 325 all incorporate the concepts of

1. Flexibility of religion to individuals as well concerning religions.

2. Equality of citizenship no discrimination on grounds of religion.

3. Parting of Express from religious beliefs.

It is visible that the motive of the Constitution is neither to oppose faith nor to market a rationalization of culture, but simply to keep up the neutrality and impartiality of their state in matters of religion.

The 42nd Constitutional Amendment Action of 1976 stated that "Secular means a republic where there is similar respect for those religions", but the Supreme Court of India has been interpreting secularism in the Constitution in another way through the years in its various judgments.

To analyze the vicissitudes of the Indian experiment with secularism, one needs to understand that there's a dichotomy in Indian population- Firstly, the political society comprising parties, moves, non party political formations which channelise popular needs through a kind of mobilization referred to as democracy- and subsequently the civil population for whom the affirmation of secularism has been through the state and its institutions, schools, colleges and the British media.

In Indian population, the merits of secularism have been familiarized only by the academy and intellectual circles (civil society) whereas Hindu communal history has pervaded the pavements and common sense (political modern culture).

The relationships between state, contemporary society and religion are not well described, personal laws vary with religious communities, the precarious position of religious minorities, the affiliations of politics formations with spiritual fundamentalists, increasing need for the Hindu and more importantly the Hindutva philosophies pose severe troubles to the success and future of secularism in India. It must be conceded that secularism in India today is too politicized and statist operating as an ideology of the state and an instrument of power. It is necessary to find ways to depoliticize secularism and to move it further into the domain name of civil modern culture.

The job will put forward and comparatively review both the Gandhian and Nehruvian approaches to understanding secularism, just how secularism has been interpreted by the judiciary at times even contravening constitutional provisions, and lastly the researcher will attempt to discuss whether a coexistence of democracy and secularism can be successful in a diverse and plural world like this of ours.

Through the research newspaper, the researcher endeavors to advocate the next:

"Secular means a Republic in which there is similar respect for many religions" - Inside the light of this remark, comparatively review the Nehruvian and the Gandhian understanding of the concept of secularism?

Referring to the Constituent Assemblage Debates 1946-1950, and landmark Supreme Court docket Conditions, discuss the changing perceptions to the concept of secularism and whether such decisions have been a reflection of the Nehruvian or the Gandhian understanding?

Can Secularism in India survive the functioning of democracy where in fact the will of the majority is enforced on the minority and their consent is gained by a mere strength in amounts?

Chapter 1.

Secularism: Nehruvian Understanding Vs. Gandhian Understanding.

"Religious beliefs, " Nehru published to Gandhi in 1933, "is not familiar floor for me personally, as I have grown older I have definitely drifted from it. I've another thing in its place, something older than just intellect and reason, gives me durability and hope. Aside from this indefinable and indefinite urge, which may just have a tinge of faith in it & yet is completely different from it, I've grown totally to count on the workings of the mind. Perhaps they are really weak helps to rely upon, but, search as I am going to, I can see no better ones"

Gandhi's use of the term secular with regards to the state is undoubtedly as may, in modern day politics discourse, be described as "Nehruvian". Likewise, Nehru's positions on the definition of the Indian nation are the same as Gandhi's. That is, Gandhi does not attach any interpretation to the word secular that would have been undesirable to or unintelligible to Nehru. Both possessed a amazing steadfastness of beliefs. Even though that they had strong shared synergies on vital issues, nonetheless there is a creative stress in the Gandhi-Nehru romance. Gandhi and Nehru experienced variations. Gandhi's religiosity and non violent ideas was not shared by Nehru.

Although he opposed the concept of theocratic statehood, Gandhi firmly advocated the importance of spiritual ethics in political practice. Perhaps no leader has succeeded to the same amount as Gandhi in terms of effectively appealing to the Indian people from all strolls of life.

Gandhi expressed the view that their state should absolutely be secular. It might never promote denominational education out of public funds. Everyone living in it should be eligible for profess his religious beliefs without hindrance, so long as the citizen obeyed the common legislations of the land. There must be no disturbance with missionary work, but no mission could benefit from the patronage of their state as it did during the international regime. This understanding arrived consequently to be shown in Articles 25, 26 and 27 of the Constitution. . " Within the last many years of Gandhi's life, a withdrawal from the political sphere to that of private moral experimentation is visible.

. Unlike Gandhi, Nehru was hurled into the ruckus of politics, in demand of a state, the most powerful structured concentration of modern instrumental reason that prevails. He subjected Gandhi's process to scrutiny - could the concept of non-violence seem sensible in politics, where governments are notoriously predicated on violence which is indeed the lifeblood of the present day condition. Nehruvian secularism was characterized by an equal contempt for everyone religions. Secularism as an aspect of modernity, required therefore a non-discriminatory rejection of most religions and everything religiosity from open public, as distinctive from private, affirmation. Nehru was neither irreligious nor antireligious but his method of religion was inspired by 3 basic assumptions of humanist liberal tradition- individualism, rationalism and universalism. Nehru's secularism recommended "independence of faith and conscience, including liberty for those who have no religion, subject only to their not interfering with the essential conceptions of your state. "

Nehru envisaged for India a secularist programme that gave religious beliefs little role in national affairs. Nehru's political wisdom was predicated on a theory of democracy, socialism, secularism and non-alignment. His strategy lay in an all-out invasion on those pushes that threatened disunity: provincialism, separatism, communalism and most importantly casteism.

He could state credit to make democratic secularism India's pathway to today's world. In his view India's face with the West's humanism, skepticism, and its own ascendant science and technology, demanded a radical analysis of all that India understood and was, and in that effort India's spectacular religious history must correspondingly bear any risk of strain of the face because in the ultimate analysis the encounter of civilizations is a matter of spiritual discernment and productive exchange. Nehru was acutely aware and reflected expansively on this is of religious beliefs in the history of Indian civilization, but interestingly he was far from attempting a idea of faith but talked about religion within an anecdotal fashion, allowing others to distil from his remarks a processed Nehruvian theory of religious beliefs.

To summarise, analogous to post modernity's concern with immediacy and the present-Gandhi was a relentless explorer of immediacy- 'immediate needs, immediate means, immediate ends'. In an exceedingly short span of time Gandhi presented new designs in Indian politics with mass effect. But throughout his long job as a politics thinker and activist, Gandhi experienced the issue of either left over faithful to his non-violent key points and risking the inability of the Indian nationalist activity, or focusing at the seizure of political power at the trouble of his moral communication.

Nehru's writings disclose full recognition on his part of the need to strengthen nationalism and democracy in a multireligious modern culture characterized by arrested development while his design of functioning can be an acknowledgement of the limits under which he had to work. A spot that deserves mention is that Nehru didn't intervene even once in the discussions on the clauses related to spiritual freedom in the constitution assemblage debates.

An in depth examination of Nehruvian idea displays his strong notion that the crucial choice for modern culture is not between a set present and a suggested innovation, but moreover it is concerned with an 'uncritical abandonment' and 'structural proposal'. The fact of Nehruvian idea lies in his intellectual and political understanding, in his battles trying to base public life over a reasoned morality. When dwelling on the idea provoking question of whether secularism has another in India or not, the Nehruvian analysis about the parallel streams of the material and the spiritual which he discovered as the fundamental matrix of life, for people and civilizations equally, seems especially relevant even even today.

Chapter 2.

Constituent Set up Debates [1946-50]:

A look into the Constituent Assembly's debates evidently reveals that the general understanding amongst associates of the assemblage was that India was to be a secular state. They may have emphasized the secular basis of the Indian express. They also declare that secularism as implemented in the Indian constitution is no anti-religious concept; rather it inhibits discrimination against the citizens based on religion.

According to H V Kamath, "When I say that a state should not identify itself with any particular faith, I do not mean that a state should be anti-religious or irreligious. India will be a secular state but according if you ask me a secular condition is neither a godless talk about nor an irreligious nor an anti-religious express. "

During the controversy in the Constituent Assembly, Best Minister Nehru declared that secularism was a perfect to be performed and that the establishment of the secular condition was an 'action of beliefs'. It is unlucky that he didn't identify what "faith" the faith that he was referring to actually recommended and in an unfortunate flip of occurrences and circumstances it has been steadily interpreted by the courts to suggest the "Hindu" faith.

The dominating position on secularism a 'democratic' Constitution find place for religious beliefs as a way of life for most Indians triumphed over those who wished for the Assembly to offer only a slim right to religious freedom, or even to make the consistent civil code a simple right.

The critical questions that arose by using discussions in these debates were:

Was a state secular only when it stayed firmly away from religion, and may such a secular status survive only when modern culture was secularised as well?

Did circumstances that equally respected all religions best catch this is of secularism in the Indian framework?

How could a democratic point out represent a spiritual majority at the trouble of the protection under the law and liberties of any minority?

The issue of religious liberty and secularism was reviewed in the light of three substitute theoretical positions:

The no-concern theory of secularism noticed a definite type of separation between religious beliefs and condition. Given the concepts of spiritual liberty and independence of appearance, it was up to the individual to decide whether to be a believer or not, or even to abide by this religious beliefs or that. Predicated on a doctrine of intolerance it confined religious beliefs to the private world. This approach resulted in a conception of any secular condition as one which stays from religion per se. India was engaged in creating a modern nation condition and in this venture, religion which appeared to be an obscurantist and divisive drive, had no place.

The second position was that no links between the state and religion should be allowed, not because it would weaken the state of hawaii, but it could demean religion. Faith could not be made at the mercy of the whims of changing majorities by allowing the democratic state to intervene in spiritual affairs.

The third position referred to as the equal admiration theory started out with the basic principle of spiritual liberty, but performed that in a society like India where faith is integrally related to the lives of the folks, the state should not avoid all religions equally but that it respects all religions likewise.

Thus it is obvious the in these Constituent Assemblage Debates the primary issues of contention were: Whether the right to spiritual freedom should be the right to spiritual worship or to religious practice; If the state should recognise only linguistic minorities or religious minorities as well; The dispute over the Uniform Civil Code, over political reservation of spiritual minorities; Whether there must be religious teaching in state-aided classes. What's finally reflected in the articles of the constitution is a wide definition of the to religious beliefs as the to religious practice, but nonetheless there have been no politics safeguards for the religious minorities.

Landmark Cases

In Sardar Taheruddin Syedna Sahib v. Talk about of Bombay, the apex court docket said that 'Artwork. 25 & 26 serve to highlight the secular aspect of the Indian democracy that your founding fathers considered to be the basis of the Constitution. '

Although in Kesavananda Bharati circumstance, it was announced that secularism was an integral part of the Basic Composition of the Constitution, but oddly enough a yr later in St. Xavier's College Society v. Talk about of Gujarat, Supreme Court docket ruled that it was only by implication that the Constitution envisaged a Secular Talk about. For the first time there appeared to be an apparent contradiction between the judicially constructed idea of secularism and that in the written text of the Constitution.

In 1976 the court adopted a more philosophical and utilitarian strategy in the Ziyauddin Bukhari circumstance. In the S. R. Bommai circumstance it was reasserted that secularism was an integral part of the Basic Framework which it was based on "rules of accommodation and tolerance. " Herein what is evident is a euphemistic way - an espousal of a "soft secularism". In this case it was ruled that

The State has the obligation to ensure secularism by responsibility or by executive order. It's the duty of the courtroom to bring every errant political party in line if it goes against secular ideals like casteism and spiritual antagonisms - Jus. Ramaswamy.

The State has the capacity to legislate on religious beliefs including personal laws under Art. 44 and secular affairs of places of worship - Jus. Jeevan Reddy.

If a political party indirectly espouses a spiritual cause, it will be considered unconstitutional - Jus. Agrawal.

It is interesting to note that the Court withdrew from the majority of these commitments in the next years.

In the Ramjanmabhoomi case, the court continued to elaborate on secularism in conditions of Indian scriptures in that way heading back to the Gandhian 'Sarva Dharma Sambhava' - tolerance of most religions. In resorting to religious scriptures the court docket appears to have rejected the american idea of secularism of separation of chapel and point out as propounded in S. R. Bommai case and has truly gone back to initial approach of equating secularism with tolerance and the fact that state has the power to take over any religious place.

Lastly with regards to the latest 'Hindutva judgements' the courtroom enunciated, unlike the Bommai decision that 'a conversation with a secular stance alleging discrimination against any particular religion cannot be cured as an appeal on the ground of religious beliefs. Moreover the court docket appeared to have ideally shifted its stance to uphold the constitutional duty to get politics parties consistent with secularism and most essentially it equated Hinduism and Hindutva with Indianisation and are not to be construed in a narrow sense.

Thus what's clearly noticeable is having less steadiness in these abovementioned Courtroom decisions. The courtroom has mostly stuck to secularism not being truly a wall between the church and the state but a sense of toleration between people of different religions. There were consistent deviations from the Bommai decision, but it appears that the Ramjanmabhoomi case encapsulates the fact of Indian secularism - toleration based on traditions. The 'Hindutva judgements' reassert the popularity and increasing importance of the fundamental Hindu personal information of custom.

Clearly the judiciary in India is a significant site where contests under the banner of secularism have been occurring during the last sixty peculiar years. Though landmark judgements of the apex court docket of the country has been interpreting secularism in the Constitution diversely through the years in its various judgments reiterating the fact that secularism is an integral part of the basic structure of the Constitution and this secularism entails liberty of thought, appearance, belief, trust and worship, even though secularism as a term shows up in hardly any Supreme Judge judgements yet it is apparent that a problems of secularism indeed is present in the world's most significant & most fractious democracy.

With mention of the Constituent Set up debates and the landmark situations the next interesting observations can be deduced:

When discussing the concept of religious freedom in the Debates, there arose a paradox- it is specifically a few of the advocates of a broad right to spiritual freedom who were also the most vociferous competitors of any politics rights for spiritual minorities.

The no-concern and equal-respect positions on secularism clashed constantly during the debates in the Constituent Set up as the question of secularism cropped up in discussions about countless articles.

The difference between tolerance and secularism has never been created by the Indian judiciary.

The apex court handily avoids exact direct mention of the expression 'secular' in its various preceding judgements eg. Kesavananda Bharati case.

A valid debate could be that the Supreme Court docket has not directly addressed the issue of secularism for the easy 'adjectival' reason that it's a thorny issue with also the Constitution being suitably ambiguous would never permit a justifiable interpretation. The interpretation by the court docket displays the interpretation of the Constitution which culture is much more likely to simply accept.

As against the prior instances such as Kesavananda Bharati and S. R. Bommai, post the 'Hindutva' cases, the line of thinking of the Court has steadily been inclined towards secularism being tolerance predicated on tradition however the interpretation of tolerance is more in conditions of grudging accommodation than wholehearted notions of popularity.

What is most incredible about the court's reasoning, from a firmly legal viewpoint, is that it can sketch this unequivocal conclusion regarding the interpretation of Hindutva with no cited practically any authorities-judicial or otherwise in its support.

Even when the apex court docket has addressed the issue of secularism it has not been even in its judgements. On the main one hand it includes effectively legitimized the Hindu Right's understanding of secularism and backed its nonsecular plan, but on the other palm it has additionally in no uncertain terms condemned the tactics of several customers of the Hindu Right. Thus the decision distributed by the court in the Hindutva cases is a contradictory one, wherein they have both condemned as well as condemned the Hindu Right.

Chapter 3.

Sixty years ago, 565 princely claims and 13 British-ruled areas became united into one sovereign nation, with a secular democracy as its Constitution's primary guiding principle. In our country, eight major spiritual areas co-exist, namely the Hindus(82%), Muslims(12. 12%), Christians(2. 6%), Sikhs(2%), Buddhists(0. 7%), Jains(0. 4%), Parsis(0. 3%) and Jews(0. 1%). The single-most defining component of the Indian democracy is the popularity of most religions in the nation's Constitution, granting explicit freedom to all or any its citizens and residents to apply their faiths without violating the others' right to do so. It really is out of this explicit liberty that residents experience other freedoms essential to realize their lives. In stark contrast for some 90 percent of Asian nations, the center East, Africa and Latin America, India ensures that right.

A declare that arises from democracy do not need to be totally secular. Democracies are flawlessly capable of giving an important role to faith in the affairs of the state. It is the challenge of aggregation that is very important. A democratic status will have a tendency to reflect in its own makeup the difficulty of the individuals it signifies.

The challenge facing the theorists of Indian secularism is therefore to devise a remedy to the problem of intolerant religions. If one or more religions in a pluralistic society preach their unwillingness to co-exist with others, and insist on religious beliefs as the unitary platform for individual, society, and state, just how do we specify a secular plan for such societies? No viable style of secularism can be built on conditions defined by anybody spiritual group even if it's the majority community, especially so since its setting of toleration has historically included absorption, subjugation and marginalisation of religious minorities.

The Indian democracy provides mechanisms, available in a secular democracy, to temper extremism and intolerance natural generally in most religions; it leads diverse spiritual areas, especially the Hindu majority, to simply accept that the health of all humans consists in respecting the others' religious and civil protection under the law, specifically that of minorities.

Many critics reject secularism as radically alien to Indian culture and traditions and advocate a return to genuine religious beliefs and the indigenous traditions of spiritual tolerance as the best means to maintain a pluralist and multireligious Indian culture. On the other hand Nehruvian theory shows that democracy would have never been possible in a non-secular India. Nehru claims that if democracy requires a bare minimum consensus about the basic values and organizations of modern culture and the rules of the politics game, then such a consensus could not have been built on the religious basis in a pluralist country like India. This fact is clearly reflected in the failing and following removal of the communal electorate system in the wake of India's self-reliance.

Whether India is a sufficiently secular condition and whether circumstances are favourable for the survival of secularism will depend on ultimately after the readiness and potential of its people to maintain an autonomous political community. The problems of casteism, communalism and spiritual fundamentalism affecting separatism in India are the major threats to your Secular status. They weaken the working and stableness of our democratic secular National condition and militate against the basic principles regulating our countrywide life and providing methods to our new personality. Communal riots and caste carnage must stop if India has to emerge as a secular and democratic polity.

Large-scale communal riots broke out in India after the demolition of Babri Masjid by the Sangh Parivar in Ayodhya. Both Hindus and Muslims were wiped out in the communal backlash that adopted. The attacks on Christians in Orissa and Gujarat made headlines in electronic and print mass media. The grouse of the Sangh Parivar would be that the Muslims possessed demolished their temples, humiliated Hindus during Muslim rule and partitioned India and thus justified their animosity and episodes on Muslims. The Godhra and Post-Godhra incidents directed to the lack of political sanity in Gujarat. Little or nothing could represent a far more provocative insult to the nationwide commitment to communal tranquility and pluralist co-existence than Narendra Modi's repeated taunts of the Muslim minority people of his own point out, his insinuations that they are vunerable to the supposedly daring designs of Pakistan and his last desperate suggestion that if the opposition Congress is victorious the election, it would represent a success for Pakistan. The terrorist attack on Indian Parliament on Dec 13, 2001, was unprecedented not only in the history of India but also in the history of democracy on earth. It manifests utter disregard and contempt for parliamentary democracy by Pakistan which only can boast of a armed service democracy.

Thus it is evident that during the last 60 years of independence, India has witnessed both successes and failures in running the secular democratic techniques. It has evolved a prolonged secular constitution, a practical politics system and a functional national secular polity and with strong democratic practices on the one side, but on the other hands it has additionally garnered several communal riots and caste wars. However, it is politics, which became divisive and not religion. It isn't religious leaders by and large (with few exceptions) who separate but politicians who seek to mobilise votes on grounds of primordial identities like religious beliefs, caste and ethnicity. This is the only challenge that India's secular democracy has to overcome. Thus the real soul of secularism in India lies in all-inclusiveness, spiritual pluralism and peaceful co-existence.


"I do not expect India of my dreams to build up one religion, i. e. , to be wholly Hindu or wholly Christian or wholly Mussalman, but I want it to be wholly tolerant, using its religions working side by side with one another. '' - Mahatma Gandhi [1946]

"Our company is fighting with each other this election for the cover of Hinduism. Therefore we do not care for the votes of the Muslims. This country belongs to Hindus and will stay so. "

"We have come with the ideology of Hinduism. Shiv Sena will use this ideology. Though this country belongs to Hindus, Memory and Krishna are insulted. We do not want the Muslim votes. "

- Bal Thackeray. [2006]

The irony of the abovementioned quotations essentially encapsulates the politics of Indian secularism. The politics landscape today seems to have become the territory of the nonrational: populated by new cases to selfhood - couched in conditions of religion, nation, tribe, and culture - prepared to use violence to say their dreams. Reason seems in some way disarmed.

Secularism thus tends to be projected in India as an ideology that can be imposed rather than as an activity of creating the protection under the law of people and bringing out the changes necessary for this. Secularism and faith cannot be taken as equal ideologies since they not only imply another type of kind of way of thinking but also dissimilar cultural concerns. What one needs to understand is that it is not the try to marginalize faith through secularism that has strengthened spiritual fundamentalism but moreover the impact of globalization and concessions to dictatorial politics expert that has led to a parochial retreat into faith in many parts of the world. A couple of certainly no easy answers in the ongoing have difficulties for secularism in Indian democracy, and the carrying on ascendance of the Hindu Right, using its own distinctive claim to secularism, has further intensified the struggle. One cannot contend that the struggle for secularism will be specifically a legal one. But it cannot be refused that legislations and legal discourse will be essential in this broader discursive have difficulty, defending secularism from the corrosive impact of the Hindu Right.

Secularisation must be promoted at the politics level thereby guarding society from religious fundamentalism. Spiritual fundamentalism in the contemporary world is generally a political condition and can be countered if the politics inducement to fundamentalism is terminated. The usage of religion for politics gains constitutes the biggest obstacle to secularism. The reform of the electoral process is required so that there is a switch from vote lender politics and politics of communal mobilization to mobilization based on socio-economic issues. We must realize that in the ultimate analysis a solid and secular condition can flourish only in a captivating secular society.

Thus the real heart of secularism in India is all inclusiveness, religious pluralism and peaceful co-existence. The courts should direct greater attention to unmasking the unstated norms of almost all that lay in the shadows of formal equality and alter their queries to a far more substantive style of equality. Quite simply, equality cannot stay the exclusive keep of almost all community, and it can only be democratised via an evaluation that is attentive to issues of traditional downside. However, it is politics, which proved to be divisive and not religion. In a multi-religious contemporary society, if politics is not based on issues but on identities, it can demonstrate highly divisive. It isn't religious leaders more often than not (with few exceptions) who separate and rule but politicians who seek to mobilise votes on grounds of primordial identities like religion, caste and ethnicity.

One must say that the creation of your secular point out in India is not easy. But with all its sins and imperfections secularism in the sense in which it is described in the Indian Constitution indeed appears to provide the best conditions under which pluralist religions can flourish in India.

As Amartya Sen, attractively concludes that ' the situation for re-examining. . does not contradict the overarching debate for secularism and the mind-boggling need for symmetric treatment of different areas and religions in India. The wintertime of our own discontent might not be giving way, right now, to a " glorious summer", however the abandonment of secularism would make things a lot more wintry than they presently are. '

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