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The Status Of Waste Disposal In Colombo Environmental Sciences Essay

1. Waste products is a product that is no more suited for further individual uses. It might be something worn out or an unwanted by-product of a process. Waste symbolize potential health risks and irresponsible handling of throw away can cause undesirable environmental results such as pollution, litter, obnoxious odour, smells an unsightliness.

2. Hazard throw away such as radioactive waste products may cause dangerous diseases and lack of life, specially delivery defects, malignancy, respiratory problems and pores and skin diseases. Illegal dumping and unplanned land filling would adversely results the surrounding, earth ware and garden soil. The end result of this unplanned removal and improper misuse management system of waste material leads to local as well as global environmental pollution.

3. Colombo as the hub city for trade and business in Sri Lanka, daily produces about 700 a great deal of garbage within its city boundaries. When compared with other main locations, in-house solid waste materials era is also relatively high within the Colombo city scheduled to high population density. Considering the dumping and disposal of the domestic solid waste are incredibly difficult to screen and guide to the correct disposal system as opposed to the bulk waste made by commercial and authorities organizations.

4. Unavailability of proper and appropriate domestic throw away management system in Colombo area, people are subjected with non-hygienic environmental condition. Also indiscriminate dumping of sound waste material has been applied during past few generations within metropolis limits which has induced serious environmental issues such as get spread around of Dengue fever in high volume and put most of the people in to the unbearable separation from other loving belonged.

5. In today's day context the garbage crisis has turned into a socio-political issue in the Colombo city and well-timed clearance of these wastes is a obligatory need and burden has used by the Colombo Municipal Council (CMC). Along with the available recourses such as manpower, equipment and equipment necessary for collection and transfer of solid waste CMC has confronted lot of financial and practical problems. Further as a developing country waste collection, copy and transfer costs are comparatively high than the other countries.

6. Therefore the performance of the CMC in this field got attracted the interest of the multimedia and people recently due to its weakness and shortcomings. Considering the all type of approaches to apply the correct and suitable throw away management system to the Colombo city was not success because of the unevenness and negative attitude of the residences. Support given to the CMC is now become very low by the people to conduct the prevailing waste removal systems. Without interesting the people who have their fully understanding and positive attitude to beat the prevailing situation will be imagined.

GENERAL OBJECTIVE

4. To study present solid misuse disposal systems in Colombo area to ascertain and recommend how effectively and effectively complete it.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

5. The precise objectives are the following.

a. To review the present home solid waste disposal systems in Colombo area.

b. To judge the success of existing waste materials disposal systems and its own effect to the surroundings.

c. To bring in an effective local waste management system.

d. To learn the mind set of public on garbage disposal.

CHAPTER II

METHODOLOGY

THE RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

3. Drastic frame of mind change of general public on need for the waste removal in Colombo area will talk about the systematic, suited and lasting domestic solid waste disposal management system to the town.

STATEMENT WITH THE PROBLEM

6. Our garbage mountains are growing each day in Colombo city, which is badly effect to the environment and will be root cause for the lethal diseases, obstructing of the drains and normal water ways and polluting the land. Currently, Colombo Municipal Council encounters numerous challenges while taking care of the sound wastes in Colombo areas. During further examination, it is discovered that shortcomings in storage area facilities, inadequate source for collection and travel and unawareness of the public on waste disposal methods will be the contributory factors for the improper misuse management. Therefore appropriate method and track record should be create to put into practice the effective misuse disposal system to prevent the environmental air pollution of the town.

7. This newspaper discuses the impact of the improper handling of the home waste material in Colombo city and exactly how to change the attitude of the public positively to actively take part them for applying the systematic, suited and lasting local solid waste removal management system to the city.

SCOPE ON THE STUDY

5. The scope of the research covers today's domestic solid misuse disposal systems implemented by CMC in the Colombo city. Views of individuals in the location and heads of solid waste management sections in the CMC are taken into account to analyze today's shortcomings. Thoughts and opinions of randomly picked residents are analyzed to identify the complexities for inefficient and ineffective waste removal system in the town.

DATA COLLECTION

6. The mandatory data for the study will be drawn from the next sources;

Primary Resources.

(1) Questionnaires For the principal data selections, the selected samples in Colombo area were issued the questionnaires in my opinion and obtain answers in line with the questionnaires.

(2) Interviews Hold out interview with the particular Directors in Stable waste removal management in Colombo Municipal Council and Central Environment power.

Secondary Sources.

(1) Official information Accounts and statistics given by Central Environment expert and Department of Solid waste material disposal management in Colombo Municipal Council.

(2) Released studies Shared studies on new technology for home Solid waste disposal management methods on the planet.

(3) Other Relevant data and information from Internet.

SAMPLING

LIMITATIONS AND CONSTRAINTS

1. This research study was completed with in two month of period and limited to study only the general public awareness and frame of mind on the local waste material management system only in Colombo Municipal Council area. Mainly focused the data and information provide by the Solid Waste Management Division at CMC. It also faced the difficulty of getting genuine answers from the general public.

LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER THREE

SOLID WASTE GENERATION AND ITS STORAGE

STUDY LOCATION AND CHARACTERISTICS

1. The city of Colombo which is of area approximately 37 Km2, contain 450 Km of street and about 275 000 premises in 2005. The long term population was roughly 700 000 and the solid waste generation in '09 2009 was around 700 metric plenty per day.

2. For easy supervision in Colombo Municipal Council, the Colombo city is divided in to six municipal districts particularly Colombo North ( Region 1), Colombo Central 1 (District 2A), Colombo Central 2 (District 2B), Borella (Area 3), Colombo East (Region 4) and Colombo Western world ( Area 5). Each of these districts is split into wards. There are total of 47 wards in the Colombo city. Municipal wards in metropolis of Colombo are shown as shape 3. 1 in Annex 'A'.

3. Narahenpita ward was decided on as the study area for certain aspect of the research analysis since it signifies a good test of home area and commercial premises. This area symbolizes all categories such as domestic, commercial, institutions, marketplaces, educational centres etc. In addition Narahenpita ward consists of a well identified road network and land things.

TYPES OF Sound WASTE

4. Waste is broadly classified into the following categories.

a. Stable waste (Non threat, House hold waste products)

b. Threat waste (specialized medical, medical, digital)

c. Radio productive waste

5. Stable waste involves household waste, development and demolition dirt, sanitation residue, and misuse from streets which can be produced mainly from personal and commercial complexes. These are normally called as Municipal Great Waste (MSW). With growing of urbanization and change of lifestyle and food behaviors of folks, the amount of municipal solid waste has been increasing speedily and its composition also change rapidly. Because of this cans, Aluminium foils, plastics, and other such non-biodegradable items are additional accumulation of sturdy wastes.

6. Industrial and medical center waste is considered hazardous as they could contain toxic substances. Certain types of home waste are also harmful but generated volume level is very low and not in frequently. Harmful wastes could be highly harmful to humans, animals, and plants as well as are corrosive and highly inflammable, or explosive; and react when subjected to certain things e. g. gases. Household dangerous wastes can be categorized as old batteries, shoe polish, color tins, old medicines, and medicine containers.

7. Medical center waste contaminated by chemicals found in hospitals is considered as dangerous. These chemicals include formaldehyde and phenols, which are being used as disinfectants, and mercury, which can be used in thermometers or equipment that measure blood pressure. Within the industrial sector, the major generators of unsafe waste will be the metal, chemical, newspaper, pesticide, dye, refining, and plastic goods business.

8. Radio energetic waste is produced during the identification, treatment, or immunization of humans or family pets or in research activities in these fields or in the creation or screening of Chemical.

9. Structure of solid waste materials As shown in the amount below, the composition of municipal sturdy throw away in Sri Lanka is principally biodegradable, for the reason that it decomposes normally. Just under half local waste generated contains materials such as metals, timber, glass, newspaper, building wastes, slaughterhouse wastes, sawdust, paddy husk, garment wastes, polythene and vinyl.

Composition of municipal waste materials collection in Sri Lanka, 2005

Source: data bottom part of solid throw away, Ministry of environment, Sri Lanka, 2005.

SOLID WASTE GENERATION

10. In Colombo city sturdy waste are generated by local and commercial. Local waste are produced therefore of your day today basic life activity of the recidance.

WASTE COLLECTION, TRANSPORT AND STORAGE

11. The Colombo municipal council which administrates the largest and the most developed local specialist in Sri Lanka has a obligation to ensure favourable conditions for a superior quality life for the residents living within its region of power as well as those who work and execute business within the town, with a sound and sustainable environmental safety system.

12. With a view to fulfilling the aforementioned requirements the CMC has generated a Solid Waste materials Management Unit for planning, arranging and undertaking the collection, disposal and recycling of misuse and other related activities.

13. The number of waste made by the house holds, business and sectors located within the location is approximately 700 metric tons per day. According to information furnished by the CMC this consists of the next contributors.

Residential people (700, 000): homeowners, schools, office buildings, ext.

Floating populace (600, 000): arriving for purchasing of goods and services, work, academic institutions, hospitals, market segments, hotels, tourists (local and overseas) ext.

11. The resources you can use for the stable waste material management function of a specific municipal region are shown in Annex 'E'. Form of waste material such as normal misuse, tree cutting, dirt, offal, recyclable items, de-silting materials from drains, cleaning material from roads etc. require different kinds of equipment for collection and travel. For example, compactor vehicles could transport sound waste that could be compacted, while dirt or tree cutting necessitate tippers, miss bins or tractor trailers.

3. Three types of systems could be followed for assortment of stable wastes and appropriately the resources should be allocated.

House hold waste products collection.

Light commercial wastes

c. Block throw away collection by tractor trailers.

4. In order to clear the garbage generated within the city limitations CMC is presently in possession of pursuing vehicles.

Type of Vehicale

Qty

Truck

114

Tipper

22

Wheel Loder

4

Poster taking away truck

4

Bob cat

3

Skip bucket

12

Tractor

27

Sweeping machine

3

11. CMC is using there resources and manpower according to the sechedule program to collect the waste material in the city. Within the areas where roadside occurs, most homes simply dump their garbage by the medial side of the road. Some higher income homeowners are kept the misuse by the street side in totes, bins, or neat piles. In some area there are barrels which receive by CMV or any other firm at certain items along the street in which waste products can be deposited.

12. The cleaners carry on along their timetable road and pickup, shovel up or sweep up the waste materials into the tractor trailer, handcraft or garbage pickup truck. The misuse collection durations also vary and some households areas waste is collected every other day, in certain other areas waste products is gathered only twice a week. However slated an the priority of collection was decide and given by the CMC considering the necessity.

STORAGE

11. All gathered misuse by CMC are transferred to city waste dumping factors at Bloomendal and Sedawatte areas marked as dumping sites for the city's throw away and garbage. The garbage dumped at Bloomendal is sorted out for recycling purpose, while the throw away dumped at Sedawatte is not for recycling.

12.

CHAPTER THREE

WASTE DISPOSAL

1. Parliament makes plan decisions, enact regulations and directives regarding waste material management of the united states. In conditions of Article 27(14) of the Constitution of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, the state of hawaii should protect, maintain and increase the environment for the benefit of the community. Waste products management is a significant aspect of this function and government apply and use their waste products management assignments through the CMC.

2. To proper management of the waste material CMC was integrated several waste material management task mainly focusing the domestic waste. Most common approach to domestic waste disposal is littering. It really is now become a simplest way of waste removal system in general public and they are used to be fell their domestic waste material on the roadside, in parks and in virtually any conveniently general public places and beyond your houses.

3. CMC and other accountable authorities are accumulated waste according to their schedule but it is not sufficient to manage and control this matter and now its' already turn into a serious problem. The persistence of littering indicates a simple disregard of others' health, property and comfort.

DOMESTIC Throw away DISPOSAL

4. A couple of essentially two methods utilized by households to get rid of solid waste, particularly dumping and burning up. Dumping of garbage is usually done in another of the next manners:

a. By digging a (shallow) pit in the bottom, usually in your garden, where the waste products is dumped. After dumping the pit is either crammed or the waste materials is periodically used up.

b. By simply tossing the garbage in the easiest place. Usually this either the roadside before the home, or some unused land (ordinarily a natural area) around the house. Garbage dumped by the roadside is often accumulated by local authority cleaners, or regularly burned up. The lighter materials (clear plastic sheets, handbags and newspaper) are usually dispersed by wind, pets or animals and moving vehicles.

c. By dumping the throw away in a location which is also employed by others. This can either be considered a formal dumpsite, which is also employed by the local regulators, or a casual site, which is more common.

d. By dumping the throw away on a piece of low-lying land (usually marshy land) for filling up.

e. By dumping the waste material into normal water ways or normal water bodies, where it is occasionally washed away. This is mostly observed in low-income areas that can be found along rivers, canals, lagoons, tanks, drainage programs or the sea.

OPPORTUNITIES TO BENEFIT FROM WASTE

5. It is the responsibility of each person to minimise the waste material it creates, to recycle whenever you can and finally to dispose of its waste products within an environmentally safe manner. There are many methods and functions, described below, which offer opportunities for strong to benefit from environmentally sustainable throw away management practices, some of which help save on cost while others help create additional income.

6. Biodegradable waste products A lot of the waste made in this country is biodegradable; quite simply, it is with the capacity of natural decomposition. Although there are numerous means of recycling biodegradable waste products, composting is generally considered to be the most environmentally friendly option.

7. Separating of the compostable waste products at the point of generation will be easier and less costly during the process of composting and stored in the separated bins. Normally it takes month to year or two to turn misuse into compost, depending on several factors such as types and levels of materials being compost, the temperatures, moisture content and the quantity of air in the combination.

8. Compost can be sold to small-scale farmers and household to use as a dirt conditioner or fertiliser. With increasing demand from consumers for organic and natural foods, the demand for good quality compost will also grow in tandem.

9. Bio-gas The composting process produce gasses, compressing mainly of methane (55%-75%) and skin tightening and (25%-45%). These by products can be converted directly into energy. The methane in bio-gas combuste more cleanly than coal and produces more energy with less carbon dioxide emission. The harvesting of bio-gas is an important aspect of misuse management scince methane is a greenhouse gas with a greater global caution potential than skin tightening and.

10. . Metallic waste Metal and other iron-containing subject are some of the most recycled materials and one of the easiest material to recycle, as possible segregated magnetically from the waste products stream. Flat iron can be regularly recycled several time due to his properties and quality of the recycled product will never be changed.

11. Most tins and cans are produced from aluminium and can be recycled. They are shredded and surface in to small pieces and melted within an aluminium smelter to produce molten aluminium. At this time the recycled aluminium is indistinguishable from virgin aluminium. In Sri Lanka collected aluminium is exported to India as there are no existing production facilities to melt and recycle.

12. Wine glass waste Waste glass is accumulated and sorted corresponding to its color and taken up to a glass recycling vegetable where it is monitored for purity and impurities are removed. The cullet(cup waste material) is smashed and put into a raw material combine in a melting furnace and then mechanically blown or moulded into new jar or bottles.

13. Newspaper waste Paper can be directly recycled or treated with other biodegradable wastes. In direct recycling it is separated in to its aspect fibres in normal water, creating a pulpy slurry. After eliminating printer ink from the newspaper these fibre taken in to make recycled newspaper. Paper is principally reused to make newspaper luggage and cardboard.

14. Polythene and Plastic material Discarded polythene and plastics, because of wide-spread use, are one of the biggest problems experienced in misuse management. Another reason is that they are not biodegradable, and stay in the environment once disposed. The majority of plastics produced today are thermoplastics, and therefore they soften when warmed, and thus are much easier to recycle.

15. To help make the environment to encourage the people for waste products management, the CMC executed several jobs to encourage and comfortable the general public during the home waste disposal. Here they are made money value for the throw away and encourage them to do the disposing method properly.

a. Implementation of 3-R system Lowering, Reuse, Recycle in collection and travel of domestic sound waste.

(1) Issuing of poly-sack totes and accumulate the separated waste materials such as vinyl, polythene, paper, material particles and a glass.

b. Six Eco-Kiosk centres There are five misuse collection stations are proven in metropolis premises and encourage the visitors to handover their waste material to this collection point after separating it. Separating throw away in to newspaper, polythene, plastics, cup ext. should be achieved by the public before handover it. Pursuing are the set up waste collection factors in Colombo area.

(1) 145, Vauxhall neighborhood, Colombo 05.

(2) 84, Green journey, Colombo 07.

(3) 256, Sri Dhamma Mawatha, Colombo 10.

(4) 213, Torrington Avenue, Colombo 05.

(5) 480, Galle Road, Colombo 06.

c. Home composting job Providing bins and knowledge to encourage the public to control their throw away by their self without putting any where and obtain the value for it. For this project there are no need large space and with the coordination and combine with the other neighbour can established the common place for the removal.

REASONS FOR Inability OF EXISTING Waste material MANAGEMENT RESENT PROJECT

16. Lack of consciousness and education

17. Difficult in finding suitable landing for practical and lasting municipal solid waste products management.

18. Lack of accountability operating delivery.

19. Insufficient resources for capital investment, operation and maintenance.

20. Insufficient technology use.

21. Weak and slow financial resources mobilization, allocated in budget.

22. Reluctant creation and execution of by laws.

23. Lack of political commitment whatsoever levels of federal.

24. No proper removal facility.

PUBLIC AWARENESS

1.

2. Basic people do not seem much aware of the possible environmental problems brought on by the disposal of household misuse Most have never thought about what goes on to spend after disposal. It seems that garbage is merely regarded as a problem when functional issues appear in storage or disposal. Storage space problem occur mostly from insufficient space and disposal problems from insufficient a good location to dump or burn off, and from problems with using up or buying waste material in bad weather. Most people who have enough room do not see throw away as issues.

3. From multimedia and school education most people can say for certain about the consequences of improper throw away controlling such as medical condition and just lately experienced Dengue. However if people know and treat waste products properly almost all of the health issues can be prevented.

4. On the other hand, waste materials that are sold by homeowners to house-to-house collectors aren't really seen as "garbage". These exact things are seen as something that still has some value, which really is a good thing for future recycling programmes. However, even these materials are disposed of when not gathered. Most people won't go to any trouble to store a lot of the material for collection, or even to deliver it to a buyer themselves.

5. Proper collection and succeeding central disposal is seen as the solution to most garbage related problems in areas where throw away is not gathered. A lot of people thnk that the government should take the initiative to organise collection. As final disposal is not really considered a challenge by most people, they do not realy care what goes on to the misuse once it is remoed from their line of view.

6. When asked what they consider as choices for community involvement, most people see their possible role to accumulate their own garbage, either at home in a bin or handbag or in a central bin no too far from the home.

6. Everyone has a significant role to play along the way of effective waste materials management. There is a need for folks to consider responsibility for the waste material they create and to allow them to be made alert to their work to get rid of it within an green manner.

ACTIVE STEPS FOR Local WASTE DISPOSAL

7. Misuse avoidance and reduction The era of waste along the way of ingestion is inevitable. To be a evident corollary, increased usage means increased waste material as well. However if everyone performs his or her part to make a considered effort to all the consumption of unwanted materials and partcipates in good housekeeping techniques, the waste made can be appreciably reduced. Excessive and pointless packing triggers a colossal increase upsurge in the era in solid waste material. Consumer should, as a matter of prudent plan go for product that use biodegradable or recyclable materials for packing rather than harmful PVC and other petroleum derivatives that aren't biodegradable.

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