Posted at 11.23.2018
Human is the most complicated living creature and it is not unfoundedly called a âžrational being". The roots of human behavior and development of person for each characteristics and characteristics are extremely eye-catching and inquiring subject to investigate. However the interest in expanding this subject is not within modern times distinctively. Researches relating to this area were present even in the antiquity. Aristotle developed a theory explaining the phenomenon of human being development. He figured there are three factors present: physis which means human aspect and individual as a biological organism, ethos, that is a habit or custom that is affected by cultural life and logos which is known as reason and person's head, which can work despite the traditions and their nature when there is a statement that confirms the necessity of a change. The main affirmation of Aristotle's theory was you need to be created as a individual carrying appropriate features of body and soul, however, many characteristics aren't depended on beginning because they could be improved through different practices. Because of the Greek philosopher, human being is the only real creature capable of being molded by reason, since it is the only real creature that is the owner of one. But despite all of the dependencies and dominance of one requirements over another, all three factors have to be harmonized to be able to obtain a satisfactory and correct end result, which is recognized under proper characteristics.
2. modernisation of the Aristotle's theory on individuals development
3. defining personality and possible factors shaping it; launching theories likened in the primary body
- personality - for me: a couple of characteristic and specific for each and every creature features deciding behaviour, it could be shaped by lots of varied factors, start from genetics, going right through nurture, social connections, culture or education up to even communal status. In my own essay I am going to investigate different theories regarding the development of human bahaviour and try to detect which best identifies this trend. , it
- There will vary types of ideas concerning the development of personality, for instance: psychodynamic theories (Sigmund Freud, Karen Horney) - focused on the unconcious, behavioral theories (B. F. Skinner, Albert Bandura) - analysing connections between individuals and the environment.
d) - The discussion concerning whether the major value on the individuals development should be given to mother nature or nurture is eternal and most will probably gain new enthusiasts of both of the opposing statements for most more years.
II. MAIN BODY
1. inborn reflexes (in the context of social relationships)
a) inborn reflexes and brain plasticity
This is very obvious and natural for everybody a newborn is "automatically" capable of fulfilling certain tasks like sucking or managing the sygnalisation of various needs (for exaple by reaching something and crying). But since certain inborn reflexes can be found, is it possible that the newborn has already been "equipped" with a "ready" personality that must be gradually developed later on?
- brain plasticity ?
b) "Is it possible to hear me mom?" - a study by H. F. Harlow investigating love in newborn monkeys
In this culture, it is often known and psychologically affirmed by, for example John Bowlby (a United kingdom psychologist and psychiatrist, 1907-1990) in his attachment theory, that "the psychological experiences we certainly have in our early years will own an important effect on our adult behavior and experience" and in addition, that "mothers are an essential part of the child's development and that lots of of the problems of later life can be monitored by limited mothering". Attachment is defined as "a strong emotional tie between two different people" which is very often related to defining behaviour of infants, who are characterized by feeling an extremely strong need to be close to a grown-up, most preferably parent. Harry Harlow and associates, attempting to reduce infant mortality in pets, conducted an experiment evaluating love in child monkeys. The research startef from separating monkeys off their mothers and cultural contact at delivery, when occur tha cage, animals "developed self-injurious compulsive patterns". When come up with, experiment subjects were unable to engage in any social structure, and completely unable to mate. Later there were numerous experiments evaluating the "critical indicators in the development of affectional bonds and 'normal' sociable behaviour". When isolated monkeys demonstrated bonding to nappy pads on the florr, an extremely like the one displayed by human infants and involving a popular teddy carry, Harlow started investigating another aspect - "the importance of medical and body contact in the introduction of attachment". They constructed two surrogate mothers (reffered to as 'models') - one was composed of 'bare wire shape with a wooden head and a crude face' and the other one was covered by 'terry fabric' and presented 'more monkey-like face'. Eight newborn monkeys were involved with this test, each within an individual cage and with equivalent access to both 'moms'. Half of them received milk in one model, and the oher 1 / 2 from the next one. When the quantity of dairy drunk by monkeys and weight gain, no variations were displayed. Inside the further stage of the experiment, monkeys were exposed to various stressful situations, and, irrespecitve of the 'feeding mother' asigned, each monkey seeked security getting in touch with the fabric model. This implies that the monkey infants shown inborn reflexes, such as cravings for food, and were able to deal with that by obtaining food from their models given, but despite the mother chose for these people, little monkeys preffered the structure covered with a enjoyable and cozy materials, since the relationships they egnaged into could probably create the impression of protection and care. This may probably be due to their search need for physical contact providing them with the sensation of being safe and defended. The cloth models could make the impression to be covered with hair, like the babies themselves, which could probably make sure they are easier to actually interact with creatures very much like them.
Later it was proven, that whenever monkeys were raised by the towel mom for 5 calendar months and then separated from each other for 18, making an almost 4 times longer timeframe, they still confirmed the same degree of attachment when reunited. It was also observed, that even if monkeys were increased by the cloth mother, but were not experiencing any public connections with other individuals, these were incapable of developing any socially healthy relations in further life, while monkeys that were in a position to play with another 3 monkeys for one hour a day, viewed no difference in sociable behaviour from monkeys raised in the natural situation by their delivery mothers. Those analyzed lead to an extremely interesting summary, that "social contact, rather than contact comfort, or even mothering" are the "crucial element for the healthy mental development". Furthermore, "scientists assume that early contact with diverse environmental influences creates the initial neural architecture of each individual, good demands of the environment".
2. inborn instincts and drives, psychodynamic theory
a) Sigmund Freud's theory
Sigmund Freud (1856 - 1939), one of the most famous and recognizable, but also controversial, figures in emotional and psychiatric history, was called "the father of psychoanalysis". Main idea of Freud's psychoanalytical theory was that it ought to be obtained through an in depth inteview of the psychopathological patient. He identifies the experience obtained during childhood pertaining to this period of being the most influential for further development, which quite definitely pertains to the connection theory suggested by John Bowlby.
Freud developed three individual personality systems: id, ego and super-ego.
i) ID, EGO, SUPER-EGO
id: instincts, the primary system, contains the entire hereditary and inborn psychic âžequipment" (like the drives), it keeps relates to the physiological procedures which will be the way to obtain its energy, Freud called it "the real mental simple fact" since it represents the internal world of subjective activities; id cannot 'tolerate' painful states of tension, it reduced the strain due to the 'pleasure guideline'; it battles those bad sense in two ways: using the inner reflexes or, the burkha process (wish-fulfillment process) which works throug imagining pleasure items that reduce the bad tension. Freud also presumed, that dreams are disguised fulfillments of unconcious wishes
ii) different development levels in Freud's theory: the most crucial period for the development of personality is the time between delivery and 5th yr old, he stated that whenever a child is 5 years old, itd personality is well shaped, "child is the father of human"
iii) psychosexual development phases:
b) Karen Horney - criticism of Freud's theory, moving over the concentration from urges to culture
Horney aimed at eliminating the limitations of Freud's ideas, she considered them too much centered on natural and mechanistic aspects and influenced by the mentality of his period. Karen claimed, that Freud was very restrained and that his ideas are biased because he tended to consider his culture as one that is present all over the world. She stated that we now have many more factors beyond the genetics and drives that effect the introduction of behavior. She critised his very little emphasis on common social relationships. She switched the Freudian focus on urges to the concentrate on culture. Because of Horney, concerns about security as well as psychic and personal alienation are the main forces influencing the development of personality.
- another quarrels against Freud
- Karen Horney's theory - main statements
3. newborn as a "bare page", analysis of social affects on personal development, behavioral theories
a) Bandura's interpersonal learning theory
- humans learn behavior by enjoying others and imitating them (observational learning)
- includes: attention, retention, motor reproduction and drive (influenced by: consistency, id with the model, rewards/punishment - vicarious reinforcement, and liking the model)
- "Bobo" doll study
b) B. F. Skinner's theory
- the foundation of understanding personality is to acknowledge the development of behaviour considering human as a creature constantly interacting with environment
c) John B. Watson's theory
- Watson is the originator of the term "behaviorism", a theory which assumes that " action is observable and can be correlated with other observable occurrences", which means that there exist occurrences that precede and follow behaviour, the aim of the idea is to clarify the partnership between "antecedent conditions (stimuli), tendencies (reactions), and effects (reward, abuse, or neutral effect)"
- "The Story of Little Albert" - research study (J. B. Watson and R. Rayner) - conditioned emotional reactions; demo of program of behaviorist theory to humans (reffering to the traditional conditioning by Ivan Pavlov)
Researchers intentionally caused their subject (at the start of the analysis - a 9 months old newborn) to become distressed
Albert's behaviout does not suggest that mental reactions to stimuli can be learned
- children acquire knowledge through interpersonal environment and culture
- culture: teaches what as well as how to think
- child's development predicated on connections within the contemporary society and cultural tools (both the tool typical for a particular culture like computers, and the implicit and explicit guidelines detected within one)
- knowledge: moved through imitation, instructions, collaborative learning
e) effect of poverty on further life development
- poverty may effect the education or population that sorrounds a child, but those factors can form the personality of your person, children experiencing very low social position and life standards may experience impaired brain development and cognitive functioning due to very high levels of stress hormones
- poverty can also highly impact person's degree of self-esteem
f) other factors
- education, relations with peers, effect of mass media, influence of ad,
William Stern's convergence theory
The argument relating to whether the person is designed by nature or nurture can last infinitely. In my own view the most acceptable solution is a merger of those two major factors considered. William Stern proposed in 1938 a convergence theory:
main claims of the idea:
at each moment, the development is inspired by inborn, hereditary, and environmental factors, where all of them are cooperating
while genes name the borders of developmental opportunities, the surroundings accomplishes them
other concluding quarrels: