Posted at 11.25.2018
In order to learn how helpful the Computers Model is in relation to internalised gender oppression, I have to first gain insight and make an effort to understand the composition of Neil Thompson's theoretical model. The PCS Model identifies the necessity to recognise that discrimination performs at three individual but interrelated levels, the non-public, ethnical and structural which interact with one another. The PCS Model makes an attempt to describe how and just why discrimination occurs and for that reason causes internalised oppression. The links between discrimination and oppression can be seen throughout such things as the overall economy, the differential syndication of money and the allocation of society's rewards is an integral factor underpinning global poverty and interpersonal deprivation. Other public reasons include the degree to which an individual is integrated into society and will get the benefits associated with its opportunities; this usually depends on their social status in terms of social divisions such as category, ethnicity and gender. Politics access to power is not uniformly distributed throughout modern culture and once again relates to cultural divisions, the changing component as it pertains to social company. These existing inequalities are maintained through procedures of discrimination that allocate somebody's life chances and electricity resources in such a way as in to reinforce existing electric power relations.
The personal degree of the Computers Model refers to the way that an individual's thought, feeling and the resulting activities can have a significant effect on inequality and oppression. Discrimination on an individual level is also known as prejudice. This involves an individual forming a judgement and refusing to consider or change their judgement, whilst disregarding any considerable data that could contradict and undermine it. Often such judgments derive from a perceived stereotype of a particular individual's social position such as class, ethnicity and gender. However, explanations of internalised gender oppression on personal level need to be comprehended in its broader context as it ignores other contributing factors such as culture and the surrounding environment. The personal level only considers the individual's significant role towards gender oppression, which can frequently be refused if they feel as though it was unintentional somewhat than understanding how their attitudes has helped it become internalised. The non-public level also fails to recognise the influences of discrimination on the individual, as the distinctions of impact can fluctuate, whilst others may correspond.
However, the ethnic level recognises that an individual's beliefs, ideals and actions are simply social patterns that are distributed across particular categories. 'Culture refers to the means of life of the users of a culture, or of groups within a world. It includes how they dress, their marriage traditions and family life, their patterns of work, religious ceremonies and leisure pursuits' (Giddens, 1993). Dialect can be seen as a fundamental element of cultural behaviour as it shows the social norms, assumptions and habits whilst adding to its circulation through the generations. This combo of words and culture can show the way for individuals to consider things for awarded which Berger and Luckmann (1967) refer to as, the 'taken-for-grantedness' of each day life. Both lead to thoughts and actions that individuals feel they do not need any extra confirmation about apart from its simple living, so that it becomes boring often minus the individual's awareness. The individual is with the capacity of engaging in hesitation about their lifestyle, but feels obliged to suspend such uncertainty as they consistently exist in everyday life. This may lead to an individual's psychological integration to be able to go after their everyday activities without questioning their desire, thus protecting against an overload of information. On the other hand a person may have trend to see their lifestyle confined to 1 culture as they agree to a set of social norms and values failing to recognise significant social differences based on an individuals recognized judgement any particular one culture is more superior than another. The ethnic level of Neil Thompson's Personal computers Model is important in assisting understand internalise gender oppression as 'culture is, in itself, a niche site of discrimination. ' (Thompson, 1998). For instance, equally racism is the opinion of one culture having superiority over another, sexism is the idea of one gender having superiority over another. The resulting oppression is simply therefore a socially built and supported mistreatment of a gender. The cultural level recognises the significance of difference and variety rather than failing to go beyond an individuals own perspective. 'Thus, for men to understand the importance of sexism and to contribute to anti-sexism, they need to begin to see the particular world appears like through women's eye. ' (Thompson, 1998). Therefore, living life from a masculine perspective and overlooking to comprehend another can lead to a narrow view and connection with internalised gender oppression. However, the average person actions on a social level have restrictions as it is underpinned by the entire structure.
The structural level considers the affects of various interpersonal, political and financial factors because they are constantly interacting. The political factors are the unequal circulation of electricity between individuals and groups leading to monetary dissimilarities such as riches and poverty increasing communal divisions. Theoretically the cultural habits of internalised gender oppression are a result of men maintaining sociable order and positions of electricity through organized inequalities relating 'a process where individuals or organizations with particular traits are better able than those who lack or are rejected these attributes to control or shape protection under the law and opportunities because of their own ends' (Thompson, 1995). This allows advantaged communities to profit from greater opportunities and ensuing privileges that exist within contemporary society. Anthony Giddens (1991) recognized that are four institutional measurements of modernity including capitalism, for its control over the system of development and industrialism fro the use of power through production. Thirdly, Giddens recognizes coordinated administrative electric power focused through the monitoring of security and fourthly, its armed service power each participating in a pivotal role in modernity. The PCS Model also considers capitalism to be involved in the exploitation of a person or group by another for economical control relating to other types of exploitation and internalised gender oppression. The consequent administrative vitality is allocated those groups who've a substantial role within culture such as social work as they have the power to influence the more vulnerable customers of population.
'Discrimination is merely a matter of identifying distinctions, and can be positive or negative' Thompson (1998), however negative discrimination requires not only identifying differences but also making a poor attribution therefore attaching a poor or harmful label or connotation to the individual or group worried. This means individuals or communities are being discriminated against pursuing clear social patterns in terms of class, race, gender, age, disability and intimate orientation etc. When such negative discrimination occurs, the causing experience is often one of oppression which can be explained as 'Inhuman or degrading treatment of people or groupings, hardship and injustice brought about by the dominance of 1 group over another, the negative and demeaning exercise of electric power. Oppression often involves disregarding the protection under the law of an individual or group and is also thus a denial of citizenship'. (Thompson, 1997). Discrimination is a significant contributory element in regards to oppression. That's, a fundamental source of oppression is the set of processes by which certain social communities are discriminated against and in so doing disadvantaged.
However the oppression associated with sexism is not simply due to prejudice 'bigoted men' as discrimination far more intricate having its foundations within the social sciences among other contributing factors such as those inexpensive and politics. Oppression is suffered through ideology and the power of propaganda. If an individual is unaware of this subtle ideology they will find themselves reinforcing existing ability relations whilst retaining natural inequalities. The ideas, beliefs and assumptions to aid the dominant position of men have been developed through such patriarchal ideology, which is preserved as a dominant social push. A countervailing ideology would attempt to oppose and struggle this, such as feminism, as it is in immediate opposition to the dominance of patriarchy. Sexism is evident with regards to biology, as assumptions are made towards 'biological role' and nurturing characteristics of a female. Grabb (1993) argues 'that inequality is preserved by among other activities, a mechanism of ideological control. It includes the control of ideas, knowledge, information and similar resources in the establishment of organized inequality between teams or individuals. ' Equality is a politics term much like democracy and freedom to promote a particular groups own prices or interests. Therefore it is an ideological principle involving the power of ideas getting used to bolster and legitimise existing ability relationships. Ethically challenging discrimination is therefore a question of morality and thus values as Banton (1994) argues, 'The best protections against discrimination are those in the hearts of folks who believe discrimination is incorrect'.
Contemporary western societies are characterised by inequality. For cultural workers, this gives a fundamental concern with regards to the decisions that are made and the actions that are used. These can make a significant effect on the progression towards a greater degree of equality or the reinforcing of existing inequalities. Communal work often will involve the execution of electricity, frequently with somewhat powerless people. Therefore the employment of a social employee can play a substantial role within in the service itself and can inevitably change the user's experience of the discrimination and oppression arising from inequalities. Social workers have a important role in promoting equality, rather than reinforcing the inequalities that already exist in culture. Traditional approaches have a tendency to pay little focus on issues of inequality, discrimination or oppression subsequently leaving service users sense alienated.
Psychologically this is subdivided into three aspects of behavior - cognitive, affective and conative which simply refer to an individual's thoughts, feelings and consequent actions. Cognitive thought habits can be seen to vary accordingly to cultural divisions. For example, there are significant distinctions in the use of vocabulary across genders and ethnic groupings with the conversation patterns of dominating groups being seen as superior or more renowned. Affective and emotional reactions are also rooted in social divisions. 'For example, replies to loss is seen to vary between men and women' (Thompson, 1995). Conative and behavioural norms follow distinctive patterns in terms of class, competition gender, age group etc. In each three types there have a tendency to be clear communal expectations as to how people of a specific group or cultural category should think, feel and action with strong sanctions against those who are unsuccessful or won't adhere to these objectives.
Inequality is an inescapable part of population, therefore any try to triumph over inequality can be argued to be destined for failure. While an component of inequality may well prove to be unavoidable, this does not mean that substantive progress can not be made in terms of minimizing inequality and alleviating the sensation of oppression. However it isn't just a matter of minimizing inequality, it is approximately ensuring it generally does not increase.
The Personal computers Model takes into account the three main cultural sciences including psychology, sociology and idea. Psychology is displayed by the personal level concentrating on the individual head. Sociology over a cultural level in conditions of the influence a particular environment can have on the public patterns that exist. Finally Beliefs is displayed in the structural level as it commands things to be observed and understood over a much broader scale. Neil Thompson's Computers Model really helps to explain how and why discrimination occurs and thus contributes to oppression. It identifies many links between discrimination and oppression and the main element factors underpinning poverty and sociable deprivation. The non-public level of the Computers Model refers to the way an individual's thought, sentiment and the resulting actions can have a significant impact on inequality and oppression and whilst recognising the various forms discrimination may take, such as prejudice. However, this involves an individual developing a judgement and ignoring any considerable data that could contradict or undermine it whilst the ethnical level understands the role of dialect with regards to cultural behavior as it displays the ethnic norms. Neil Thompson recognised that the degrees of the Computers Model are in continuous interaction between each other with the structural level taking into consideration the influences of various social, politics and economic factors. In theory the overall framework underpins cultural habits of internalised gender oppression because they are the result of men maintaining public order and positions of electricity through organized inequalities. That is produced from capitalism and industrialism, because of its control over the system of creation and the application of power through production. The PCS Model also considers capitalism to be involved in the exploitation of an individual or group by another for monetary control relating to other forms of exploitation and internalised gender oppression. Neil Thompson's PCS Model recognises the significance of difference and diversity whilst heading beyond an individuals own point of view. Therefore, living life from a masculine perspective and overlooking to comprehend another can lead to a slim view and connection with internalised gender oppression. However, the individual actions on a social level have limits as it is underpinned by the entire structure.
In theory, everyone has a tendency to be narrow minded with their views as they can only just judge situations based on their own specific perception. An individual's emotional characteristics in relation to their feeling of internalised gender oppression can rarely be comprehended but can never be truly comparative unless they themselves have the pressure of internalised oppression. For instance, a man can't ever truly know very well what it might be like for a lady growing up in a producing urban area.