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The Opium Conflict PLUS THE Unequal Treaty System Background Essay

The Westerners have been trading with China for some time. But, there is a great trade imbalance. The Chinese experienced many goods that the Westerners desired, the Westerners had very little to own Chinese in return. Then, the Westerners realized China's craving for opium on the black market. Opium experienced turn into a problem in China. The outlawed drug had claimed many victims to cravings, and lots of the addicts were high end officials. This, subsequently, created various cultural problems.

Despite this, the British began to import the medicine from India. Since the drug was outlawed, aboveboard purchase was impossible. Opium importation became opium smuggling, and great levels of the medicine were smuggled in. For the first time, China was importing more than it was exporting. Yet, because the government was unable to tax the opium imports, the Chinese market was destabilized. Eventually, the Daoguang emperor implemented radical prohibitory laws. An official, Lin Zexu, was commissioned to enforce the new laws and regulations. In 1839, Once the British came up to bring the opium, 21, 000 chests were confiscated from the boats. The British observed this as a reason for battle.

The Chinese weren't prepared for battle; their military experienced neither the technology nor working out. As a result of this, the China were humiliatingly defeated by 1842, and the image of these imperial power was blemished. The Treaty of Nanjing was signed following the Chinese's surrender. The Treaty of Nanking relinquished Hong Kong to THE UK, ended the licensed monopoly system of trade, and exposed five ports. The treaty was called "unequal" because China do all the providing, and received little in exchange.

Social unrest prolonged to grow following the Opium Wars. By 1851, the deadliest of the four major rebellions erupted. This is the Taiping Rebellion, led by Heterodox Religious Hong Xiuquan. Hong thought that he was the brother of Jesus, and developed a religious sect called the God Worshippers. The God Worshippers ideology was starkly unique of the traditional Chinese language way. The main target was to stamp out demon worship. Since they looked at the Manchus to be the key propagators of demon worship, they desired to stamp out the Manchus. Thus, the communication became politicized.

In July 1850, the God Worshippers massed and created an huge military services camp and started out to create an army. That is when the Qing federal government realized the risk was serious. The God Worshippers started to march, and seized many small towns on their search. When the God Worshippers captured Nanjing, they gone no more. Here, in 1864 after many lives were lost, these were defeated by the Qing federal. The "most important reason behind the inability of the Taiping Trend was military beat at the hand of Chinese civil servants who were deeply committed to traditional Chinese language culture and who found the Taiping as spearheading an strike on their life-style. " (Schoppa 77).

While the government was preoccupied with the Taiping Trend, a fresh rebellion was underway. The Nian Rebellion, which began in 1853, was the only major midcentury rebellion that had not been motivated by religious aspects. Instead, the Nian Rebellions contains sets of antigovernment rebels who had been discontented by years of famine and flooding. Although Nian bands weren't a hazard to traditional cultural identity, these were a menace to the government's expert. The rebels used guerrilla strategies and used "various predatory techniques - banditry, smuggling, theft, plunder, kidnapping, and planned feuds. " (Schoppa 78). But, the Nian bands lacked important ideology and effective leadership. In 1868, after several blows from Qing armies, the rebellion was taken to a detailed.

In1855, shortly following the Nian Rebellion started out, the Panthay Rebellion arose. This rebellion was waged in Southwest and Northwest China. Ethnic and spiritual tensions have been growing among the Han Chinese language Muslims (Hui) and the imperial administration. The tensions arrived to a boiling point when economical rivalry arrived to play. The Han Chinese's mines have been exhausted over the years, and they established eye on the Muslim's mines as a result. Brawling and violence began among the two groupings. The rebellion picked up tempo in 1856 when a Manchu official organized a massacre of two to three thousand Muslims. As Muslims fought back again, killing Qing officials and seizing Dali, a tone of voice for the rebellion rose up. Du Wenxiu was an informed Hui who immediately claimed the title of sultan. Du's pushes required control over about 50 % of Yunnan. Du was eventually challenged by another Muslim faction and local military services forces. The locations that Du controlled were seized, resulting in atrocious massacres by imperial pushes. In the long run, Du was apprehended and put to death.

The Panthay Rebellion had not been the only rebellion that engaged clashes in ethnical identity between the Muslims and China. At the heart of the Northwest Muslim Rebellion, which took place from 1862 to 1873, was Muslim-Han China animosity. After an unsettling Taiping expedition happened near to home, Han Chinese language and Muslims of the New Teaching sect began to form armed service defenses. Both edges eventually started out attacking each other. The Qing pushes were able to contain the assault, mostly because many Muslims evaded west to Gansu. The Muslims controlled essentially all of Gansu by 1867, and the Qing federal was effectively ousted.

This ability that the Muslims performed would not go on long, however. The Qing court given Zuo Zongtang to marketing campaign resistant to the Muslim Rebellion. Through the five season long plan, his pushes were merciless. A multitudinous volume of Hui - men, women, and children - were slaughtered. The Chinese language empire was rebellion free for the first time in a long time.

The Imperial federal of China was unprepared for the crises it was confronted with in the mid-eighteenth hundred years. The Opium Battle, the "unequal" Treaty of Nanjiing, and the rebellions throughout the sprawling empire delivered the Qing forces in a tailspin. Essentially many of these crises lifted and threatened issues of personal information. Rather than the rebellions being suppressed by Qing officers, they were managed by scholar-officials who strived to save the Chinese language culture, despite their dissimilarities with the Manchu overlords. "In a single sense, the military actions of the scholar officials were situations of ethnic Chinese saving Manchu overlords; but more accurately, they were attempts of scholar administrators imbued with Chinese language culture assisting their rulers also focused on that culture. " (Schoppa 84)

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