Posted at 10.11.2018
Certainly, there is no doubt that lots of IR theories have regularly been enhanced, improved, and developed over the time in line with the nature and results of the international celebrities in international systems. In the similar sense, the global issues and diverse, intricate challenges of international actors leading to many various results need IR ideas to be explained, ascertained, and interpreted. Therefore, IR theories are so important to be used in the analysis of international relationships to comprehend and explain the wide range of international happenings and issues which range from the neighborhood to the global level outright. Furthermore, the 21st century sophisticated international occasions can be best discussed by using neoliberalism as the basic theory rebuilt from the traditional liberalism.
Neoliberalism which is the renewed liberal strategy was proven from around 1950s to 1970s, and it embraces four important strands: sociological liberalism, interdependence liberalism, institutional liberalism, and republican liberalism. With all the renewed scientific strategy and its construction of ideas/concepts about the optimism of the likelihood of progress as well as changes that might be seen in today's phenomena at local and global level in reality, neoliberalism can best clarify today's international events.
The first strand of neoliberalism is sociological liberalism that focuses on the transnationalism or the transnational relations of international celebrities, both point out and non-state celebrities (Robert & Georg, 2007). According to the neoliberal scholar Wayne Rosenau, transnationalism refers to "the process whereby international relations conducted by point out government authorities have been supplemented by relations among private individuals, groupings, and societies that can and do have important consequences for the span of incidents" (Robert & Georg, 2007). Moreover, in this similar sense, sociological liberalism validates that IR is not merely about the mere state-and-state relationships but also about the transnational relationships between individuals, categories, and organizations belonging to different states/countries. For certain, after the Second World Warfare and specially the collapse of Soviet Union, the quick increase in not only the point out actors due to the decolonization and secessionism but also in non-state stars in international relationships due to the emergence of intricate, diverse global obstacles. Therefore, in this 21st century, areas are no longer in the positioning of the one single stars in international system. Along with point out actors, non-state celebrities like individuals, communities, and organizations are also important in international relationships today. For concrete example, Cambodian authorities alone cannot effectively prevent or even reduce HIV/Products at all. Thus, in assistance with numerous transnational non-state stars like Oxfam, PSI, Save Children, the Products ACCESS Foundation of Thailand and so on, the Cambodian federal can effectively and successfully cut down the number of HIV positives and neutralize as well as prevent the spread of HIV/Products to some particular extent. Similarly, in Cambodia today, International Labor Corporation (ILO) actively functions on various areas which range from the drafting of laws and the use of internationally-agreed benchmarks to establishment building, health and safety, labor migration, public protection, discrimination, turmoil response, child labor and obligated labor (ILO, 2010) because the government alone is insufficient or even impossible to successfully solve the problems related to labor violation and abuses. At global level, during the 2010 UN General Assembly in NY, NGO categories as lobbyists persuaded says to really put their initial agendas used with regard to realization of the true sustained economic expansion and lasting development also to pay more attention to human rights and other related issues.
Moreover, another neoliberal scholar, Karl Deutsch, emphasizes that the high degree of transnational tie up between societies brings about peaceful relations and social integration (Robert & Georg, 2007). "Social Integration", matching to Deutsch, means "sense of community" (Robert & Georg, 2007). Therefore, this theory means that with the sense of community, international point out and non-state stars together resolve the normal issues and global challenges. Lately, in his recently publicized article, Margaret has found that some conflicts nowadays often require transnational armed teams who respond autonomously from identified governments, and these groups include transnational terrorist communities, rebel organizations, cross-border irregular armed organizations, insurgents, dissident military, guerillas, international liberation moves, and multinational liberty fighters (Margaret, n. d. ) which have posted great dangers to international calmness and security. For instance, Al Qaeda terrorist groups today have many transnational networks in various countries and pass on their terrorist marginal or large scale attacks in a few particular countries like U. S. , Russia, Britain, Afghanistan, Yemen, and Iraq. Therefore, with sense of community, not only talk about celebrities like Cambodia, U. S. , France, Russia, Germany, Britain, as well as many other countries but also some specific non-state actors together have the same goal to combat contrary to the terrorism and keep maintaining the international peacefulness and security. Also, regarding to current global weather change, not only claims themselves but also numerous non-state actors like World Crazy Fund for Nature (WWF), Greenpeace, International NGOs Weekend, and other transnational NGOs take the common actions to prevent the global climate change, protect environment, and pursue the lasting environmental development nowadays.
In addition, Wayne Rosenau pressured that the transnational relations of individuals, groups, organizations cause two important repercussions (Robert & Georg, 2007). First, you have the expansion of cross-border activities owing to better education, digital communication, and travel (Robert & Georg, 2007). Surely, the wide-spread transnational expansion of relations between individuals can be seen almost everywhere in this time. For example, Cambodian people openly and readily communicate with People in the usa, Japanese, Chinese language, Israelis, or even Africans anytime and anywhere through modern telecommunication such as the Internet, telephone, electronic digital fax, and e-messages with fast quickness and time keeping. Additionally, individuals, teams, and organizations today may easily expend their relationships through travelling from one destination to another worldwide. Second, such transnational partnerships/relationships constitute a hybrid kind of governance where non-state celebrities co-govern along with point out actors and in doing so choose governance functions that have formerly been the sole authority of sovereign areas (Robert & Georg, 2007). This means the capacities of areas for control and polices of their territories reduction in an even more complex world. Simply put, the national sovereignty of areas declines when there is the increase in transnationalism. For the concrete instance, Angkor Centre for Conservation of Biodiversity (ACCB) criticizes Cambodian federal government when there is the increasingly deforestation without the strict actions considered by the government. Thus, Cambodia's autonomous rights which are unquestioned and always rightful based on Westphalian sovereignty are now eroded. Furthermore, commonly seen, transnational NGOs undermine states's sovereignty by building a "world civic politics", and those NGOs lead to the "a fresh cosmopolitan order" that will reduce the autonomous rule-making specialist of expresses (Englehart, 2004). For example, World Wildlife Fund for Nature (WWF), focusing on local communities, will try to foster green routines in its global activities with little regard for the particular institutions of individual says. Hence, in this sense, the increase in transnationalism is eroding expresses' autonomous rule-making authority of states somewhat.
The second strand of neoliberalism is interdependence liberalism. This strand claims that the higher level of transnational relations between countries means the higher degree of interdependence (Robert & Georg, 2007). Corresponding to David Mitrany, the higher interdependence in form of transnational tie up between countries could lead to peace because the complex interdependence brings more friendly, reciprocal, and cooperative relationship between state governments (Robert & Georg, 2007). As clearly observed in Asia Pacific today, the economic interdependence among state governments (except North Korea) in this region is almost unprecedented following the Second World Warfare and specially the demise of Soviet Union along with the increase in transnationalism and the advancement of monetary liberalism and globalization. As the degree of economical interdependence is remarkably high, this region remains quite peaceful despite some marginal disputes. Therefore, predicated on the truth, the higher level of economic interdependence among areas in Asia Pacific causes the higher level of peace maintenance in this region. For concrete example, following the China's monetary reform in 1978 toward the entire world market market with private areas, the economic relationships between China and Japan today have grown to be more economically unbiased despite only some marginal/small anxiety on the problem of territorial claim between them. Japan needs China's big market potentials and conducts business in China on a larger range. Plus, Japan recognizes that the growing surplus of cheap capital, in combination with a policy that explicitly inspired foreign FDIs, particularly in the four newly created Special Economic Areas in Guangdong and Fujian provinces and in the coastal cities (Claes, Patrik, & Naoyuki, 2009). In return, China also benefits from more Japanese FDIs and overseas trade potentials. The number of the bilateral trade and mutual investment predicated on Sino-Japanese economical interdependence come to from $1 billion to $266. 79 billion in 2008 (Jifeng, 2010) and it is estimated that you will see more positive benefits following the global financial meltdown in 2009 2009. Subsequently, as the economical interdependence rises, peace between Japan and China remains more optimistic since there has been no any large-scale disastrous wars between these countries up to now.
Besides, the 3rd strand of neoliberalism, institutional liberalism, is an important strand of theory to best make clear today's events. Relating to institutional liberalism, international institutions/organizations help cooperate among areas such as UN, European union, ASEAN, WTO, WB, IMF, and the like and also make a couple of guidelines, norms as well as international treaties like today Kyoto Process, TAC, TRIPS of WTO, UN and ASEAN Charter, and so many more binding international conventions/treaties for the sake of mutual advantages and durable peace (Robert & Georg, 2007). Affirmed, after the inability of League of Countries, the introduction of today's UN since 1945 is an international intergovernmental firm under UN Charter to help promote and keep maintaining international peacefulness and security as well as development through its peacekeeping businesses, specialized firms and development programs, and sanctions, particular the economical sanctions as penalty on the belligerent says. For example, the test of nuclear weapons by North Korea in 2006 and again in 2009 2009, the sinking of Southern Korean Cheonan ship by North Korean torpedo, and currently the release of North Korean artillery shells on South Korean islands that could threaten the earth tranquility and security are highly criticized by UN and also other countries. In response, UN and other states, especially U. S. , have enforced the heavy economical sanctions on North Korea to be able to pressure North Korea to turn back to peaceful negotiations and also to prevent more intense future actions. Without UN, perhaps North Korea would become more and more ambitious in violation of international norms and the world calmness and security. Another good example is ASEAN. Under umbrella of ASEAN Charter, the prevailing international treaties, and declarations, ASEAN member expresses cooperatively build and foster common understanding, provide mutual reciprocal assistances, and build durable serenity, balance, as well as prosperity. Consequently, there is no any visible large-scale devastating war or issue in this Southeast Asian region.
Moreover, the last major strand of neoliberalism, republican liberalism, can best make clear today's happenings. This strand of neoliberal theory says that the liberal democracies are definitely more peaceful and law-abiding than the other political systems (Robert & Georg, 2007; WP, n. d. ). Simply put, the argument is the fact that democratic states do not struggle with one another. In his article "Perpetual Peacefulness" written in 1795, Immanuel Kant arranged with the aforementioned argument and validated that the constitutional republics was only 1 of several necessary conditions for a perpetual calmness because almost all of folks in the republican or democratic politics system would never vote to go to wars unless in self-defense (WP, n. d. ; Ludwing, 2002; Robert & Georg, 2007) and will not endorse and support wars between other democracies. To support the argument, Melvin Small and J. David Vocalist responded in 1976 that they found an lack of wars between democratic says and only the marginal/small disputes that would be possible to occur. For instance, regarding to the Khmer-Thai border dispute, the probability of large-scale wars between both democratic countries, Cambodia and Thailand, is so small because the majority of folks of the two countries do not want to own wars with one another, and state governments themselves are not willingly to salary any large-scale wars that would harm the type of democracy and their national interests. Moreover, at regional level, according to the Copenhagen criteria of 1993, the member countries of EU must be democracies (Andrew & Joshua, 2007) since it is generally believed that democracies rarely go to conflict with each other and that individuals rights, market-oriented guidelines, and rules of legislation are strictly respected. For sure, presently so far we've not seen any large-scale destructive armed issues or wars among those 27 democratic EU countries. Also, corresponding to Immanuel Kant, you'll be able to encourage what he called "spirit of business" for shared and reciprocal economical gain between democracies in financial co-operation and exchange, and the republican liberalism also argues that tranquility in democracies is strengthened through economic assistance and interdependence (Robert & Georg, 2007). Surely, in the same EU case, predicated on the 1991 Maastricht Treaty, all European union members have to get rid of their tariff and non-tariff barriers in order to make the trade move smoothly within a European union market (Andrew & Joshua, 2007) for the mutual economic reciprocity resulting in peace. Strongly remember that the recent European union financial crisis shows European union a great lesson to reformulate or improve its fundamental economical regulations among its democratic member areas toward more effective and more successful EU economies through co-operation in democratic characteristics which results in calmness in European union region.
Moreover, Immanuel Kant agree that democracies contain the common moral ideals which lead to the formation of "peaceful union" in which there is the advertising of the mutual understanding and peaceful ways of resolving conflicts are seen morally more advanced than violent actions in democracies (Robert & Georg, 2007). Supportively, regarding to Michael Doyle, the republican or democratic countries have democratic political cultures in aspect based on peaceful discord resolutions (Robert & Georg, 2007). To support apply this theory in today's events, we ought to take a review circumstance of Korean peninsula problems. Since the end of the Korean Warfare in 1953, there has been no any calmness agreement reached by two Koreas. Noticeably, the tensions have been waged since North Korea under the authoritarian/dictatorial program has developed its nuclear program and analyzed its nuclear weapons in 2006 and again in 2009 2009. The procedure of peaceful issue resolutions have been used by many claims engaged and two Koreas themselves through many discussions and diplomatic Six-party discussions in order to get a finish to the North Korea's nuclear program and reach the peace contract between both Koreas. However, the discussions and other diplomatic negotiations have so far produced no any successful result. IN-MAY 2010, North Korean torpedo attacked a South Korean Navy dispatch named Cheonan taking 104 workers of whom 46 seamen were killed. And again in November 2010, North Korea terminated dozens of its artillery shells onto a South Korean island and wiped out two South Korean military and two civilians. Because the North Korea is under nondemocratic or authoritarian/dictatorial plan, there are low choices that peaceful turmoil resolutions could be reached to understand the peace contract and normalization of diplomatic relations, and there is the high notion that armed conflict or assault could be waged any time in the Korean peninsula as we have seen so far the tensions and armed race between these two Koreas. Again, back to the exemplory case of the current Khmer-Thai border issue, even while some marginal confrontations took place, two democratic talk about governments still have pursued peaceful resolutions through bilateral diplomatic negotiation. At local and countrywide level, diplomatic relations, economic cooperation, international trade, tourism, socio-cultural incidents, and so on are normally control. And it is optimistically believed that there would be a peaceful resolution reached by these democratic countries, Cambodia and Thailand, regarding to boundary issue.
In conclusion, in sociological liberalism, similarly, the transnationalism or transnational relations of not only express stars but also non-state celebrities could pave the way for resolutions of the common issues and global challenges. States' countrywide sovereignty, on another palm, has been eroded since you have the high degree and the extension of transnationalism. Additionally, in interdependence liberalism, it is strongly validated that the bigger level of transnational relationships means the higher level of interdependence. Subsequently, this strong tie/interdependence, particularly financial interdependence, brings about serenity and reciprocity among states involved. Also, the institutional liberalism promises that the international companies could maintain countrywide benefits as well as strengthen the relationship and tranquility among states through co-operation, norms, guidelines of laws, and international treaties. Finally, the republican liberalism firmly is convinced that the high possibility of calmness could be reached and maintained mainly in the republic or democratic countries. Obviously seen, the neoliberalism consisting of four main strands mentioned previously is a basic theory to best make clear today's events which range from local individuals, organizations, and organizations to international condition celebrities and from countrywide issues to global obstacles in the current complex, diverse international relationships.