The NEED FOR Watching Children Children And TEENAGERS Essay

This record discusses and evaluates the role of observation in a education setting. Section 1 details the importance of watching children accompanied by an analysis of a range of observational techniques. Section 2 looks at the background of the kid being seen in the report whilst section 3 refers to the appendix which contains 3 observations demonstrating a variety of observational techniques. Section 4 is made up of an analysis of the child's learning and developing needs. Section 5 makes suggestions to inform the future practice of the environment and its' experts whilst section 6 demonstrates on the practitioner's role in the observational process.

Section 1 : The Need for observing children.

Observation is a fundamental and crucial facet of the practitioner's role and enables them to comprehend children as learners and as individuals. Observations are a great way to obtain information that allows the specialist to plan a more appropriate curriculum that supports children's development according to their specific needs. It really is a fundamental element of the examination and planning cycle.

Observations involve observing children play and take part in activities both outside and inside the classroom. Observations permit the practitioner to obtain knowledge and knowledge of what's interesting and motivating to children both as individuals so when groups. Children answer in different ways to activities, experience, and areas of provision. They acquire skills, learning styles, friendships, and behavioural patterns which are individual to each young one. Observations give the practitioner an opportunity to record this kind of information as well as aiding them in deciding where the child is on the training continuum and highlighting any challenges they may have. This information can have a very positive effect on children's learning when used effectively in informing the look process.

Observations give vital information regarding the efficiency of provision. The introduction of areas in a educational setting considers their success with the children that use them. Observations are essential when analyzing such areas as they give a genuine record of how the children use the region and the potency of it. Children's behaviour, comments, body language and interactivity using their peers and practitioners give an invaluable insight in to the effectiveness of the provision. Practitioners are responsible for facilitating a child's learning. Observations allow the evaluation of the potency of the practitioner's role and can notify a practitioner with their professional developmental needs.

The planning process considers the needs of every individual child which process is prepared through the research / analysis of the observations carried out by the practitioner. Without such observations it might be an impossible process to ensure that the designed activities of the setting up, the regions of provision, and the methods used by the practitioner were meeting the average person needs of each child. Such is the value of observation.

As Sharman, Mix and Vennis (2007, p. 9) express, 'children and young people are unique and to be aware of their qualities we need to take an interest in what these are doing, pay attention to what they are saying, study from what they are revealing to us. '

Evaluation of a variety of techniques.

There are a number of different techniques that the practitioner might use when observing children and areas of provision. The observation method used will normally be dependant on the purpose of the observation. Observation methods include narrative / free information, checklist / pre-coded, time sampling, event sampling, tracking, pie / bar graphs, histograms and sociograms. Professionals may carry out observations as the participant or a non-participant observer. Each method of observation uses different techniques which may be more suited to observing particular characteristics or behaviours.

Free Explanation / Narrative : Free explanation or narrative observations require watching a particular child or group of children or indeed an area of provision. The free explanation observation should track record the name of the kid, children or area being witnessed along with the time, time and name of the person carrying out the observation. Clear seeks and aims must be established before the start of observation and should be complete on the observation sheet. The specialist should have a sound knowledge of the purpose of the observation and the benefits associated with it to help ensure that it's completed appropriately. It is important for the practitioner to decide if they should see as a participant or a non-participant. The specialist should become aware of the influences their involvement may have on the child's behaviour if observing as a participant. Similarly, when observing as a non-participant it is very important for the practitioner to draw only a small amount attention to themselves as is possible. The observation should also contain a conclusion and an analysis of what has been noted. Tips should then be produced to go the child's learning forwards.

The practitioner files information in the present tense detailing what they monitor as they notice it. That is done over a pre-set time period which may be changed during the observation if considered necessary. The practitioner should keep an eye on the value of remaining objective when recording details of the observation. It's important for them to ensure that personal opinions, experiences and / or prejudices do not affect their judgement. Each specialist will however have their own perspectives and therefore it is good practice to use all practitioners inside a setting to handle observations over a period. This can help ensure that the info bought will be balanced and offer a fuller picture of the child, children or area being witnessed.

Free information observations may be difficult to track record as the practitioner may need to write a lot of information down in a short timeframe. There is the potential to miss important info. The practitioner's judgement may be affected by outside the house factors.

Checklist / Pre-coded : Checklist or pre-coded observations may be set out in a variety of formats and are usually lists of particular skills within an part of learning. They require planning and prep before the observation being carried out. Information about one child or several children can be registered using the checklist or pre-coded method. Checklists or pre-coded observations should contain the name and era of the child, the amount of individuals and children present, the activity being observed, the region where in fact the activity takes place, and the aims and goals of the observation. The goal of the observation affects the information comprised within the checklist. For instance, an observation with an aim of determining the fine engine skills of a particular child may contain such assertions as: 'can keep a pencil with tripod hold' or 'can control a pencil. ' (WAG, 2011, p. 9)

These skills may get a code to aid the practitioner carrying out the observation to complete it more easily. This would be specifically helpful when observing a number of children at the same time. Checklists can even be used to track record activities and their improvement.

It is vital to continuously make reference to the purpose of the observation while preparing the assessment conditions for the checklist. The specialist should ensure that the requirements are both relevant and appropriate in aiding the analysis and analysis of an specified purpose. For example, the practitioner must ensure the conditions is get older appropriate and procedures available to the kid support the skill being witnessed. As with the free description observation it is rather important for the practitioner to remain objective. All practitioners should perform similar observations to help ensure that the information bought will be balanced and offer a fuller picture of the child, children or area being observed. It is good practice for a specific skill or behavior to be observed several times before a standard judgement is manufactured. The observation will include a final result and an analysis of the recorded information and suggestions should be produced.

Checklists and pre-coded observations can be restrictive as they might need a simple yes, no or practically response to each criteria. The info recorded might not contain much information or background information of the kid.

Time sampling : Time sampling is a technique that requires the practitioner to see the child, children or area on the subject of time. It could be used to keep an eye on behaviour, social relationships and dynamics within communities, words skills, and usage of areas of provision.

Time sampling observations can be completed using written descriptions or pre-coded requirements. The practitioner should stay objective when doing the observation and a number of personnel should complete similar observations to ensure dependability. Additionally it is very important to the practitioner to understand their participation and the have an effect on this may have on the kid or children being observed.

This kind of observation is very adaptable and can be improved to suit the individual setting. It really is a quick way for recording information. It could be used for folks and groups. There is no requirement of a background understanding of the kid.

Time sampling observations do have some disadvantages. They offer information that can be time consuming to analyse. This type of observation may need to happen over an extended time frame. There's a probability that something significant may be overlooked if it does not happen within the observation time scale.

Tracking : Another method of observing is monitoring. Tracking can be used to track record a child's actions within the setting as well as enough time they devote to a particular activity. It really is an appropriate approach to highlighting the areas of provision a child has a preference for along with the way in which the area can be used.

Prior to the observation occurring the specialist should complete an idea of the area and consider how they will record the moves of the kid. A code enable you to help with this. Times may be noted if required. If it's necessary to record skills this is done separately.

Tracking is helpful as it can be used in any area of the setting, both indoors and outdoors. It supports the foundation phase curriculum which requires the usage of the outdoors as part of the child's learning and consists of less structured, more impartial play. It could indicate popular areas and provisions which allows the practitioner to start to see the preferences of the kid and gives them the opportunity to adapt their likely to suit the child's needs. Additionally, it may indicate the interest span of a particular child.

Tracking may become very difficult if the practitioner has to monitor more than one child at a time. The plan may become untidy and hard to check out if the child visits lots of areas. Tracking is not particularly informative for exterior professionals. An in depth description of the child's motions may not be registered and information can be limited.

Sociogram : Sociograms focus on public development. It shows how the child interacts with other children and adults and can display their popularity. Sociable observations can easily show the social development of children. These details can be utilized by the practitioner to plan activities and activities to further develop the child's public development. Sociograms, however, do not express the reasons why something has occurred. They only feature what has took place.

Event Sampling : Event sampling is used to observe when a meeting has occurred. This sort of observation may be used to record a child's behavioural or psychological development. It can record any event and includes information detailing how and why the event has occurred. This type of observation can help the practitioner to analyse the reason and aftereffect of certain relationships. The data collected may be produced as a chart which makes it easier for the practitioner to analyse.

Event sampling is not suited to observing infrequent behavior and only files the specific behavior as complete in the purpose of the observation. The noted data may be misinterpreted as the observation may well not record any preceding behaviours. Event sampling can be utilized within an early on years placing as it is adaptable and it provides evidence of a specific behaviour.

Pie / club charts : Pie or club charts may be used to give a visible representation of information recorded by the specialist. It is a highly effective method to use with both specific children and organizations and makes data readable. This sort of observation is ideal for early years options as it is very adaptable and may be used to track record information such as: regions of provision used by girls or boys both indoors and outdoors (highlighting children's personal preferences), which children participate in a specific activity (e. g. physical), or what children eat during treat time. This information can then notify a setting's likely to make it more desirable to the children.

Pie or bar graphs do not signify why a specific event has occurred, only which it has happened. They may require a longer create period than other styles of observations and data may be more difficult to interpret.

Histogram : Histograms can be used to plot the introduction of a child over confirmed period of time. The information collected is detailed over a pub graph where each type of activity is shown in a continuing fashion. Histograms allow the practitioner to concentrate on a particular behavior over a longer time of time. Much like sociograms and pie / pub charts, histograms show a particular behavior has happened but will not give the reason why it has happened.

Other types of observation may necessitate slightly different platforms. Samples of work are sometimes included for examination purposes. Photographic and video observations are an efficient way of documenting the child's learning process. Photographs should be annotated or cross-referenced to relevant written observations. Professionals should demand written parental agreement for using photography and video tutorial devices to record and file children's learning.

Section 2 : Record to the individual child.

The child is 24 months and three months old. She has attended the environment since the beginning of Sept 2012. She attends 5 morning hours sessions per week for 2. 5 hours each session. She has 1 sibling which is three months old. The child's mum has up to date staff that because the introduction of the newborn the child's behaviour is becoming much worse than it once was. The child has exhibited such behavior as biting, kicking, reaching, forcing, and screaming when she actually is at home and also external. This behavior is exhibited when the child will not get what she desires.

The child lives on a council owned estate which is within a Neighborhoods First area. Neighborhoods First is a community centered programme that facilitates the Welsh Government's Tackling Poverty plan. It helps the most disadvantaged people in the most deprived areas with the purpose of contributing to alleviating prolonged poverty. Neighborhoods First works alongside other programs with an goal of narrowing the education/skills, economic and health spaces between your most deprived and much more affluent areas. (http://wales. gov. uk)

The area in addition has been outlined as a Traveling Start area. Flying Start is the Welsh Authorities targeted Early Years program for young families with children under 4 years in some of the most deprived areas of Wales. The key elements of the program are drawn from a range of options that have been proven to affect positive effects for children and their own families. These include free quality part-time childcare for 2-3 yr olds, an increased health going to service, access to parenting programs, and early terminology development. (http://wales. gov. uk)

The child's place at the setting up is fully funded by the Flying Start Programme. The child's mum can not work and reaches home with the kids throughout the day. The child's dad works full time during the week and spends evenings and weekends at home. The child's mum has informed staff at the setting up that the kid has many cousins. The kid sees them on a regular basis. The child struggles to discuss or take changes with other users of her family and sometimes exhibits the improper behaviour mentioned above.

Section 3 - Proof 3 observations using different techniques.

Appendix 1 - proof a free explanation observation.

Appendix 2 - proof a time sample observation.

Appendix 3 - evidence of an event test observation.

Analysis of the child's learning and growing needs.

Child A's mum informed personnel at the setting up that she does not talk about or take changes and exhibits improper behaviour when she does not get what she would like. Mum has pointed out that Child A's behaviour has worsened because the arrival of their new baby.

As Dowling (2005, p. 105) areas, 'we expect a child to show blended behaviour when confronted with the enthusiasm, but also the risk of a fresh baby in the family. '

The free information observation outlined the behavior of Child A when she was located in a position of taking changes and showing a toy. Child A was discovered snatching a doll from child B whilst playing in the home nook of the environment. When Child C attempted to motivate the pushchair that was being played with by Child A, Child A commenced to scream and pinched Child C on the face.

Following a conversation with a practitioner within the setting Child A apologised to the afflicted celebrations however, Child A was then discovered a short while later showing the same behavior.

As Dowling implies children aged 2 - 2. 5 years old are still developing their sharing and turn taking skills. They need to be encouraged and given opportunities to apply these skills through carefully designed activities.

Child A is not able to show or take converts. She does not communicate appropriately with her peers when she needs that can be played with something. She actually is unable to wait until the other child has completed playing with that before taking it. Child A can apologise when reinforced by a specialist.

The time sampling observation was completed 1 week after the free explanation observation. Child A displayed similar behavior in this observation as they did through the free information observation. Child B was playing with a plastic box in the maths area. Child A had attempted to take the container from Child B so when she had not been given the pack Child A hit and pinched the arm of Child B. Child A looked round the setting up and made eyesight connection with one of the assistants. Child A lowered her mind and looked at the floor. Following the specialist spoke to Child A she apologised to Child B. With help from the practitioner Child A accumulated a sand timer and waited until the sand had finished running into the other area. Child A was prompted to ask Child B if she would have her switch with the field. Both children complied with the practitioner's requests and received reward. Child A smiled and had taken the pack to the carpet area where she experienced her turn to play with it.

As Sharman, Cross and Venice (2000, p. 130) state governments 'the developmental milestones reveal that a child aged 2 - 2. 5 years is egocentric. They see the world from their viewpoint. They cannot share and will store things with determination. '

Child A struggles to take turns. She actually is not ready to wait for her switch. Child A exhibits inappropriate behaviour when she actually is not given what she wants when she desires it. Child A can apologise when reinforced by a specialist. She actually is also able to await her move when supported by a practitioner and a visual timing device which in this case was a sand timer.

The third observation was an event sampling observation. This was carried out 2 weeks after the preliminary free explanation observation. The observation documented the behavior and social connections of Child A throughout a morning program. Child A displayed incorrect behaviour at many times throughout the day and in a number of regions of the school room. She had taken what she desired without asking and screamed whenever a child tried to take something back or when they tried to take something that she was already using. Child A did not speak quite definitely to the other children or to the practitioners in the setting. She apologised when prompted to do so by a practitioner. Child A had not been always responsible for the happenings that took place.

As Dowling (2005, p. 108) says 'before children commence to regulate their behavior they must start to find out about cause and impact'. 'Children have to be in a position to empathise - to understand how others feel. . '

Recommendations to inform future practice.

The first observation which was a free information concluded that Child A had not been able to reveal. Child A showed very little comprehension of this idea. She exhibited incorrect behavior to her peers when presented with a 'posting' situation.

It is important for practitioners to understand how frustrating it could be for young children to share and to understand the principles. The ability to discuss is developed over a period of time. Young children find it difficult to understand how others feel as they are not yet in a position to empathise.

Having several type of toy can be good for young children as it gives them an chance to play in parallel with the same kind of provision. Where possible, several of each provision should be made available to the kids in each area of the setting.

As Fisher (1993, p. 29) state governments 'correctly resourced and supported, child-initiated activity can result in some of the most creative and progressive learning in the classroom"

Planning activities which encourage change taking will allow the child to apply this skill and would also allow them to begin to realise that they can have their own opportunity to play with a specific item.

The second observation, time sampling, concluded that Child A cannot communicate her needs correctly. Child A hasn't yet learnt to require what she wishes. Instead she exhibits inappropriate behavior such as pinching. Child A is able to apologise to the affected get together when prompted to do so by one of the professionals. She actually is also willing to wait for her turn when supported by a specialist and a visual aid demonstrating a set timeframe - a sand timer.

Encouraging Child A to ask for a specific item and satisfying her with praise when she will will reinforce to the kid that it's appropriate behavior. Skinner suggests that reinforcement of a particular behaviour will prompt a repeat of the same behaviour at another time. Sharman, Mix and Vennis (2007, p. 11) express, 'children need individuals to notice their achievements and offer an environment to aid their further development. '

Games such as dominoes or snap credit cards will improve and support transform taking skills. Other activities which encourage turn taking will allow the child to decide when they have finished playing with a piece of equipment. Some children may be pleased to give the item to another person when they feel they may have finished using it.

The third observation, time sampling, registered some similar behaviours as the previous observations. Child A had not been in a position to take turns when using the pencils. It also provided information that Child A is able to perform some instructions such as tidying up. Child A was pursuing an education and putting the cars away. She snatched one from another child to put it in the appropriate box. Child A had not been able to ask for the car and simply required it. Child A was also unable to discuss the parachute and she screamed when another child tried to carry it.

Where a child is not able to take changes, the specialist should support them by explaining why they should take turns and can use something to display a set timeframe, for example, a sand timer. Whilst a child waits for their turn the specialist should support them by suggesting an activity to do. The specialist will give the child simple choices so they can choose something, game or activity for themselves which will allow these to feel that they have got made their own choice.

Reflect on your role in the observational process.

Through observations the specialist is able to learn what the children know, examine their needs and plan appropriately to facilitate their learning. Staff training can be an integral area of the setting's self-evaluation process and allows the practitioner to consider the importance of observing children and developing the necessary skills. The specialist will organise an allocated observation time and is more alert to the need for incidental observations.

The specialist has an improved understanding of the importance of gathering information from a range of contexts, both inside and outside the environment. Observations should be a constant source of vital information regarding both the children's and the setting's development. They must form a fair, rounded and holistic record over a period. The specialist will address their observations during the setting's every week planning meeting and will reveal information between practitioners.

The practitioner further understands the necessity for the effective execution of observations and their impact on the near future planning of the environment to facilitate the training needs of all the children.

As Fisher (2000. P. 19) says, 'ensure that the planned curriculum is appropriate. This contributes to planning that is tailor-made for each child because the foundations of learning are unique.

The evaluation of the environment which involves all staff helps to ensure that the training environment helps children in initiating their own learning. The specialist is totally aware that observations must be fed into the evaluation process for specific children. Parents will be further motivated to donate to observations through casual and formal conversations with the practitioner. Proformas will be utilized to ensure uniformity of information within each kind of observation. Photographic proof will be annotated to aid observations to file the children's learning.

Sharman, Combination and Vennis (2007, p. 2) cites the work of CACHE (2005) who suggests that 'play staff exist to aid children's natural play plus they do that by creating spaces where play can occur. Then they unobtrusively watch, intervene very occasionally, and then reflect on what they have seen and done. '

Appendices.

Appendix 1

Observation 1 : Free Information / Narrative.

Date : 23rd Oct 2012

Time Commenced : 09:40 Time Completed : 09:45

Number of Children : 3 Area : Ty Bach Twt

Name of Child : Child A Get older : 2yrs 3mths

Aim : To observe the behavior of Child A during 'free play'.

Objectives : To observe and record Child A's ability to talk about.

Child A is participating in in the house corner of the environment with 2 other children. Child A snatches a doll from Child B. Child B will not try to take the doll backside. Child A puts the doll in a pushchair. Child C needs hold of the deals with of the pushchair and tries to drive it. Child A starts to scream and grabs the deals with of the pushchair. Child A pulls the pushchair away from Child C. Child C maintains your hands on the pushchair. Child A maintains one palm on the pushchair and uses the other side to pinch Child C on the facial skin. A specialist intervenes at this point. The practitioner talks to Child A.

'Don't do that. It is not nice. You must not pinch. It hurts. Child B was playing with the doll. Is it possible to give the doll back again to child B please. Would you like to play with this doll instead?'

Child A decreases her mind. The practitioner asks Child A to check out her. Child A will not respond. The practitioner asks Child A to check out her again. Child A makes vision contact with the specialist.

P-'Can you supply the doll back to Child B please. You may play with this doll if you would like to'.

Child A gives the doll back again to Child B.

P-'Can you say sorry to Child B for snatching the doll?' Child A 'Sorry'. P-'Da iawn Child A. '

You can have a flip of this doll when Child B has completed using it.

P-'Child C wishes to experiment with with the pushchair to you. He is your good friend. You can make Child C sad if you pinch him. Is it possible to say sorry to Child C please for pinching him. '

Child A 'Sorry'.

P-'Da iawn. Merch dda. Can you push the infant together? That is clearly a nice move to make. Mae'n neis i rannu. '

Child A nods. Child A and Child C thrust the pushchair over the room. Child A grabs Child C's hands and pinches them. Child C enables go of the pushchair and Child A runs across the room with it. The same specialist intervenes.

Conclusion : Child A wished to play with a doll that had been used by Child B. Child A snatched the doll from Child B and did not ask if she could play with it. When Child C attempted to use the pushchair that Child A was playing with, Child A screamed and pinched Child C on the facial skin. Later, Child A decided to allow Child C to push the pushchair with her, but after an extremely short time frame Child A pinched Child C's hands. Child A discovered the room with the pushchair when Child C let go of it.

Evaluation : Child A struggles to discuss or take changes. She will not communicate correctly with her peers when she needs that can be played with something. She actually is unable to wait until the other child has completed playing with that before taking it. Child A is able to apologise when supported by a practitioner.

Recommendations :

Give opportunities to practice sharing and change taking skills through carefully designed activities.

Encourage the kid to share and remind them that it's nice to talk about with their friends.

Give immediate reward when child stocks or takes turns.

Appendix 2

Observation 2 : Time Sampling.

Date : 2nd November 2012

Time Commenced : 10:20 Time Completed : 10:27

Number of Children : 2 Area : Maths Area

Name of Child : Child A Time : 2yrs 3mths

Aim : To see a aim for child interacting with a child of similar time whilst playing in the maths area.

Objectives : To observe and track record Child A's sociable interactions.

Child A has just came into the maths area and talks about the jigsaw puzzles up for grabs. Child A approaches the table and starts to take the portions out of the jigsaw. Another child has already been playing in the area. Child B requires a plastic package from a shelving unit and begins to shake it. Child A looks at Child B and the pack. Child A techniques Child B and efforts to adopt the field from her. Child B does not allow Child A to consider the box. Child A visits Child B on the arm then pinches it. Child B begins to weep. Child B remains to carry the plastic field. Child A appears around the environment and makes eyesight connection with a practitioner. Child A lowers her brain and talks about the floor. Child A lets go of the clear plastic box. The practitioner walks to Child A and kneels down. The practitioner asks Child A to check out her. Child A does not respond. The practitioner again asks Child A to check out her. Child A raises her head and makes vision contact.

P-'It isn't nice to pinch other children. It hurts. Child B is your good friend. She is crying because you pinched her arm and harmed her. Is it possible to say sorry to Child B please. '

Child A says little or nothing and just talks about P.

P-'Everyone must take turns. It is Child B's choose play with the field now. You could have a turn of playing with the pack in few minutes. Wish to come with me and fetch the sand timer so that we know when it is your turn to play with the field?

Child A says nothing at all and looks at P.

P-'If we get the sand timer you can hold it watching the sand tell you. Then we will know when it is your change. '

The practitioner supports out her hands to Child A. Child A needs the practitioner's hands and gathers the sand timer with her.

P-'Turn the timer ugly and watch the sand set you back the other area. '

Child A does indeed this.

P-'When all the sand gets to the other aspect then it is your use play with the package. What shade is the sand? Could it be red? Is it possible to see it falling to the other area? It's falling quickly isn't it? When all the sand is in the other area then it is your use play with the package.

Child A pieces the sand. '

Child A - 'It's slipping. It's slipping. '

P-'Yes it is. It offers nearly done. '

The timer surface finishes.

P-'You can go and have Child B if you can have your decide on play with the pack now. '

Child A walks to Child B who have been comforted by another member of staff.

P-'Ask Child B if you can have your switch now. '

Child B gives the plastic box to Child A without hesitation.

P-'Da iawn Child B. Dyna ferch dda. Da iawn am rannu. '

P-'Da iawn Child A. You waited for your switch. Can you say diolch to Child B for giving you the container?'

Child A - 'Diolch'.

Child A smiles and needs the package to the carpet area where she begins to play with it.

Conclusion : Child B was playing with a plastic field in the maths area. Child A had attempted to take the box from Child B and when she was not given the field Child Popular and pinched the arm of Child B. Child A looked across the environment and made eyesight contact with one of the assistants. Child A lower life expectancy her brain and looked at the floor. After the specialist spoke to Child A she apologised to Child B. With help from the practitioner Child A gathered a sand timer and waited until the sand had done running into the other part. Child A was prompted to ask Child B if she can have her switch with the pack. Both children complied with the practitioner's requests and received compliment. Child A smiled and got the container to the carpet area where she acquired her decide on play with it.

Evaluation : Child A struggles to discuss or take converts. She does not communicate appropriately with her peers when she would like to experiment with with something. She is unable to wait before other child has done playing with the item before taking it. Child A is able to apologise when backed by a practitioner. She is also able to await her flip when supported by a specialist and a visible timing device which in this case was a sand timer.

Recommendations :

Plan games to aid sharing and taking changes.

Encourage Child A to ask for a particular item when they would like to play with.

Give plenty of compliment when they are doing so.

Appendix 3

Observation 3 : Event Sampling.

Date : 8th November 2012

Time Commenced : 09:30 Time Completed : 12:00

Number of Children : 2 Area : Painting Area

Name of Child : Child A Get older : 2yrs 3mths

Aim : To see a goal child's behaviour throughout the day.

Objectives : To track record any happenings of anti-social behavior.

To identify and track record what was taking place before and following the incident.

Conclusion : Child A displayed improper behaviour at several times throughout the day and in a number of areas of the class room. She took what she desired without asking. She screamed when another child tried to take an item back again or when they attempted to take something that she was already using. She did not speak quite definitely to the other children or even to the professionals in the setting when she was taking something from another child. She apologised when prompted to do so by one of the experts. Child A was not always responsible for the happenings that occurred.

Evaluation : Child A struggles to talk about or take changes. She does not communicate correctly with her peers when she needs something. Child A can apologise when reinforced by a specialist.

Recommendations :

Encourage Child A to talk about and take turns by giving opportunities within the setting up.

Encourage Child A to talk to her peers and fast her to ask for an item instead of snatching it.

When Child A shows inappropriate behaviour continue steadily to remind her that it is unacceptable.

Praise Child A immediately when she displays appropriate behaviour and reward

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