As a plan and a task, the task of marketing includes a kind of product, a type of service or the development, definition, promotion of any thought. The purpose is to meet the organization or personal need through exchange or transaction. Marketing means that with the directions of customer's need, the enterprise's process of manufacture, transaction, after-sale service.
For the original definition of marketing, there is absolutely no universal definition. We are able to classify this is of marketing in two aspects, as the technique of marketing, traditional marketing means selling with no technique of internet. As the idea of marketing, traditional marketing concept means no internet technology impingement. As a word, we can judge this is of traditional marketing is this is before internet technology arrived to forth. The web marketing appeared in the end of 1990s. And the definition of marketing in 1990s is: Marketing comprises of three plates, including P (Positioning), STP (Segmentation, Targeting, Positioning) 4P(product, price, place, promotion).
1. 1. 2 The introduction of marketing and marketing theory
Marketing was originated in USA in 1920s. As the introduction of the social economy, the marketing had radical changes. From traditional marketing to modern marketing, the use of marketing has extended abroad and is rolling out to different kind of organizations. Nowadays, marketing has been combined with the administration of the enterprise. As identical to Economics, Behavioral Science, Anthropology, Mathematics, marketing has turned into a subject with edge management application. The introduction of western marketing is closely related to the change of commodity economy, business philosophy.
There are four steps for the development of definition of the marketing.
. The start stage
After the individual revolution of the key capitalism countries, the production capacity had a substantial increase. The urban economy developed quickly, in the same time, the commodity need had big increase which is simple for the product to actualize its value. The marketing happened in this example. In 1902, some universities in USA create the main topic of marketing, some pioneers of marketing appeared, such as Arch W Shaw, Ralph Star Bulter, John B Swirnly and J E Hagerty. The characters of the marketing research in this era are:
Emphasizing selling and advertising, there is no theory, definition and principles of the existing marketing research.
The society and the enterprises didn't pay a lot focus on marketing concept.
. The application period
The period from 1920s to the end of the Second World War is the application stage. The introduction of the marketing in this stage is seen from the application form. The research theory of marketing started out to be recognized to the society, the enterprises started to pay attention to the theory of marketing.
. The development period
The period from the finish of 1950s to 1980s is the introduction of marketing. Furthermore, the supply of products is more than the customer's need from this period.
. The Maturity period
The period from 1980s to current time is the maturity time of marketing, which has two characters,
Marketing became related to other subjects.
Marketing has its own theory system. 1980s' marketing is the revolution time of marketing, that was an integral part of modern-day marketing and a new beginning of marketing.
The classification of marketing
Integrated Marketing Communications
Integrated Marketing Communications is quite typical in current enterprises, which includes common advertise, direct communication with customers, promotion, in once, this type of marketing combines the distributed information in order to make the sales of the products clearly and continuously.
Database marketing methods to gather the consumers' behavior information, the news of different stores also to accumulate the information in a format database. This sort of marketing will maintain forth in appropriate opportunities according to the analysis of database.
Internet Marketing is an important element of a company's marketing strategy. The purpose of internet marketing is to actulize the overall objectives of your company, including all types of activities with internet marketing method. The functions of internet marketing include website promotion, internet brands, online research, customer's relation, distribution channel, sales promotion and information broadcast.
Direct Marketing (DM) means to transfer the merchandise and service to the consumers without the dealer. The largest feature of DM is to talk to the consumers directly. Usually the medium tools for communication of DM are different from the other general medium such as TV advertise, their communication tools is oriented to specialties, for example, some merchants print their advertisements in the packages of facial tissues, they distribute the tissues freely to the consumers. Some other methods such as telephone promotion, TV shopping participate in DM too.
In most situations, the company can't find the instant transaction, so they always set up a long-term relationship with the customers. The company need to show their excellent service ability. Since the customers became globally nowadays, they want to be supplied different products in different area, maybe from different suppliers in order to solve problems in different areas. Once the management plans for relationship of the customers implement, the organization must emphasize the management of customers and products. In the same time, the company must realize that although the relationship marketing is very important, but it is not effective in every situation. Therefore, the company must find out the most important relationship marketing from careful analysis.
Green Marketing is to meet the habit of consumers in order to fulfill the necessity of environment requirement, whose manufacture idea is obeying the green culture. Their marketing activity is usually oriented to the environmental products.
Social Marketing is based on the social welfare through business marketing techniques, or to promote their products and service through social welfare. As identical to general marketing, social marketing is to improve the behavior of the mark consumers, different point is that their motivations are non-commerce.
Virus Marketing is a kind of information transferring, they duplicate their information like virus from public people to make more people know their products. This type of marketing method is common in Email or company's website, which might ask you to 'tell a friend', or request you to invite others to visit the website etc. Due to the cheap cost and good effect, this kind of marketing is adopted by more and more companies.
Crisis Marketing is adopting a series of measures used in crisis and urgent situation in order to lessen the bad influence. The measures include, broadcasting the company situation, allow staff know the truth, establish good relationship with the medium, keep contact with the clients.
Contemporary Marketing Channels
2. 1. 1The importance of marketing channels
The decision and management of marketing channels are important aspects of the strategy of marketing. In the past marketing disciplines in China, the main thing is to analyze circulating business economy. Because in planned economy, the manufacturing companies are only in charge of manufacturing, they don't care how to market or where you can sell. However, in nowadays, after establishing the marketplace economy, the enterprise became individual operator and pursued the max benefits. Especially to the manufacturing enterprises, how to overcome the final market and meet them has become the key point for them to win.
2. 1. 2 Distributors
The decision and management of marketing can solve two types of problems, first is the efficiency, second is the service for the clients. The efficiency problem run through the manufature, sales and research of the merchandise. However, nowadays, the distribution cost is higher and higher, in once, the competition of the distributors is stronger and stronger. The main element point for the enterprice marketing is to serve the client and make them satisfied. It is important for exploring some new ways to save lots of the customers' time. Although some enterprises provide their service or product through direct sale, they must focus on the distributors. Even like the famous company Dell, it can't leave the distributors and after-sale service provider. Anyway, direct sale is a kind of distribution too. For the enterprise depended on direct sale, they need to consider how to promote the merchandise, how to control the company, how to set up the logistics etc. In other words, those types of enterprises distribute their products from direct investment, management and control. In addition they need to make decision on the distribution strategy.
Also, the biggest challenge for the manufacturing enterprise is the grown-up of the distributor. Wal-Mart, as a retailer, has been the NO. 1 in top 500 companies for three years, which is a best evidence for all of us to comprehend that the distributor may become stronger than the maker. The manufacturer can't only manage their competitor in manufacturing industry, but also have to consider the change of marketing channels. Of cource, there are many marketing channels for the manufactures to choose.
3. Internet Marketing
3. 1 Definition of Internet Marketing
Internet Marketing, Also known as Web Marketing, Website Marketing, Search Marketing, Advertising on the internet, or eMarketing, Internet Marketing integrates a number of creative and technical facets of the Internet, including design, development, advertising, and sales. Internet Marketing is best deployed as part of an overall strategic web marketing campaign, which should be looked at as a synergy of business models, platforms, technology and techniques applied to meet business objectives through good online marketing.
As same as traditional marketing, the purpose of internet marketing is to improve the protential exchange into acutal sales, which emphasizes the need of consumers. In the web environment, the consumers have more initiatives. Therefore, the target for internet marketing to fulfill the max need of the customer.
3. 2 The Characteristics of internet marketing
As the development of the internet, internet combines the enterprises, groups, organizations and people together, the largest essentials of marketing is to transfer the information between them, so the internet has some characters
Highly Targeted: the digital nature of the internet gives you to offer specific and customised content to every individual. Because of this, it gives you to attract highly targeted customers to your website who are likely to be thinking about your products and services;
Easily Measurable: focusing on how many people are visiting your website, how they found you and what they looked at are invaluable elements to gaining an improved understanding of your customers and having the ability to supply what they require. Emarketing gives you to acquire full tracking figures and can permits an in depth study of the Return on Investment (ROI) of any campaign;
Immediate: time is crucial in business and an emarketing campaign has the benefit of being much quicker to set up and put into play than other marketing techniques. In the same way importantly, the response mechanisms are equally quick which means you can begin to see the results (quite literally) immediately;
Tested and Refined: but the immediacy and speed of a campaign is important, the product quality needs to be just as high. To ensure it remains so, you have opportunity to ensure that you refine any campaign as it is going on to make sure you get the perfect results. By adopting this content and format which is reaching the best response rates, you can continually improve your outcomes and number of visitors.
Cost effective: with budgets tight, all the elements above mean that companies needing clear ROI figures off their marketing activity will be well served by a built-in emarketing campaign. Having the ability to react quickly and in a very targeted way does mean that they can avoid delays and the costs associated with them.
Internet marketing is relatively inexpensive in comparison with the ratio of cost up against the reach of the mark audience. Companies can reach a wide audience for a little fraction of traditional advertising budgets. The type of the medium allows consumers to analyze and purchase products and services at their own convenience. Therefore, businesses have advantage of attractive to consumers in a medium that can bring results quickly. The strategy and overall effectiveness of marketing campaigns depend on business goals and cost-volume-profit (CVP) analysis.
Internet marketers likewise have the benefit of measuring statistics easily and inexpensively. Almost all aspects of an Online marketing campaign can be traced, measured, and tested. The advertisers may use a number of methods: pay per impression, pay per click, pay per play, or pay per action. Therefore, marketers can determine which messages or offerings are more desirable to the audience. The results of campaigns can be measured and tracked immediately because online marketing initiatives usually require users to select an advertisement, go to a website, and perform a targeted action. Such measurement cannot be achieved through billboard advertising, where a person will at best be interested, then decide to obtain more info at a later time. .
Because exposure, response, and overall efficiency of Internet media are better to track than traditional off-line media-through the utilization of web analytics for instance-Internet marketing can provide a greater sense of accountability for advertisers. Marketers and their clients are becoming aware of the need to measure the collaborative effects of marketing (i. e. , how the Internet impacts in-store sales) rather than siloing each advertising medium. The effects of multichannel marketing can be difficult to determine, but are an important part of ascertaining the value of media campaigns.
3. 4. The implement of internet marketing
As the primary body of internet marketing, the enterprise must try to grasp some principles in order to get max benefits.
First, the enterprise must establish a strategy in line with the characters of themselves,
Second, the enterprise must understand the goals of internet marketing, such as establish the CI, show the merchandise, develop the marketing space, investigate the feedback, increase the after-sale service etc.
Third, the enterprise should incorporate the professional team and outsoursing projects. The professional team themselves should maintain charge of the cooperation themselves. Then outsourse the establishment of the web site. It is convenient and simple to transfer the duty of establishing website to the experienced team, in the same time, a good consultant can really help a lot.
Forth, the enterprise can make the functions he need, maybe start from a main page to manage a website, from advertising to establishing relationship, from sending emails to establishing supply chains.
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