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The mother nature and types of Organizational Structures

  1. 2. 2 Bureaucratic Organizational Model: Quick Historical Background
  2. 2. 2. 1The Idea of Bureaucracy
  3. 2. 2. 2 The Bureaucratic Structure
  1. Figure 1: A Typical Organization Graph: Pyramid Style
  2. Source: http://www. deltaproconsultants. com/org_design. htm
  3. 2. 2. 3 Weber's Ideal Bureaucracy
  4. Employment predicated on technical skills.
  5. 2. 3 Core Components of Bureaucratic Structure
  6. 2. 4 Benefits and drawbacks of Bureaucratic Structure
  7. 2. 5 Problems Connected with Bureaucratic Structure
  8. 2. 7 Areas of Organizational Effectiveness
  9. 2. 8 Impact of Bureaucratic Structure on Organizational Effectiveness
  10. Chapter 3
  11. Hypotheses
  12. 3. 1Introduction
  13. 3. 2 Conceptual Platform of the Study
  14. Chapter 4
  15. Research Methodology
  16. 4. 1 Research Design
  17. 4. 2 Inhabitants and Sample
  18. 4. 3 Sampling Procedure
  19. 4. 4 Data Collection Method
  20. 4. 5 Procedures
  21. 4. 6 Data Analysis
  22. Chapter 5
  23. Data Evaluation and Interpretation
  24. 5. 1 Key elements of Bureaucracy in Bahraini Organizations
  25. 5. 2 Characteristics of Bureaucratic Bahraini Organizations
  26. 5. 3 Problems Connected with Bureaucratic Framework among Bahraini Organizations
  27. 5. 4 Organizational Success of Bureaucratic Bahraini Organizations
  28. 5. 5 Bureaucratic Aspects/Characteristics Associated with Organizational Efficiency of Bahraini Organizations
  29. Chapter 6
  30. Discussion of Results
  31. 6. 1 Center elements of Bureaucracy in Bahraini Organizations
  32. 6. 2 Characteristics of Bureaucratic Bahraini Organizations
  33. 6. 3 Problems Connected with Bureaucratic Composition among Bahraini Organizations
  34. 6. 4 Organizational Efficiency of Bureaucratic Bahraini Organizations
  35. 6. 5 Bureaucratic Aspects/Characteristics Associated with Organizational Effectiveness of Bahraini Organizations
  36. Chapter 7
  37. Conclusions and Recommendations
  38. 7. 1 Conclusions
  39. 7. 2 Recommendations

Organizations are entities that exist for a purpose, that is, to get things done. They are composed of people who ensure that such goal is achieved. Task responsibility and decision making is directed at individual associates and groups and arrangements are made to plan, immediate, coordinate, and control them (Armstrong and Stephens, 2008).

According to Armstrong and Stephens (2008), organizations are wide open systems which enhance inputs into final results and are regularly reliant on and influenced by their environments. Basic issues experienced by organizations are those relating to structure, relationships, and interdependence. The socio-technical model produced by the research workers at the Tavistock Institute led to the development of basic open up systems theory which claims that in any organizational system, technological or job aspects are interrelated with the individuals or sociable aspects, focusing on the relationships between your technical functions of change within the business as well as the organization of work organizations and the management framework of the business (Lewin, 1951).

In any formal corporation, relationships are detailed by means of organizational chart which places out lines of command word and control. In informal organizations, interactions can be referred to in conditions of networks which involve cooperation, communication, and exercise of power and expert (Armstrong and Stephens (2008).

Child (1977) identifies organizational buildings as comprising all the tangible and regularly happening features which help to form the tendencies of its people. ' Corresponding to Armstrong and Stephens, organizational set ups provide the platform for the actions required to achieve organizational goals. In addition, they 'specify and clarify the manner by which the activities required are grouped together into units, functions, and departments, the lines of responsibility, electricity, and authority emanating from the top of the organization. '

Organizations consist of people working cooperatively jointly. Hence, it is inescapable that, at the managerial level, the organization might need to be adjusted to match the advantages and capabilities of the individuals available. Although the result may not conform to the ideal, it is more likely to work than a composition that ignores the individual element. In addition, it is always desirable to really have the ideal at heart, but it is equally desirable to to change it to meet specific situations.

Basically, organizational constructions can be categorized as unitary, divisionalized, centralized, matrix, and process (Armstrong and Stephens (2008). Unitary composition, the most typical structure, can be described as single and distinct unit with no divisions where the heads of each major function directly reports to the very best. However, such key functions can vary greatly from one group to some other.

In a unitary composition, relationships are simple and obviously defined. However, insufficient assistance between functions or departments may always present and this can be avoided if the principle exec coordinates and directs the actions.

Centralized composition places authority at the centre which totally regulates the activities and decisions of any divisions, subsidiaries, or regionalized products. Such control is exercised by authority from the headquarters who defines insurance policies, procedures, targets, and budgets to be followed and achieved(Armstrong and Stephens, 2008). The creators further declare that in a centralized framework, close control can be maintained over divisional activities, standardized techniques and systems can be utilized, and information is provided by practical specialists at the headquarters. However, a drawback of this composition is that it restricts the opportunity of divisional management to take care of their own affairs in the light of local knowledge and insufficient autonomy in divisions can constrain initiative and entrepreneurship.

Decentralized structure, also known as divisionalized structure, is one which gives operational autonomy to divisions, subsidiaries, or strategic business units under the entire path of the centre in order to attain desired results. However, the amount of autonomy

2. 2 Bureaucratic Organizational Model: Quick Historical Background

2. 2. 1The Idea of Bureaucracy

Bureaucracy identifies the collective organizational structure, types of procedures, protocols, and set of regulations in spot to deal with activity, usually in large organizations and authorities characterized by standardized treatment (rule-following) that guides the execution of all or all procedures within the body, formal division of capabilities, hierarchy, and associations designed to anticipate needs and improve efficiency (http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Bureaucracy). Rabie (2004) defines bureaucracy as a management system created to handle talk about affairs and plan state relationships using its individuals. Asd it developed further, it helped different types of organizations in controlling their inside and exterior affairs. Thus, standardization of procedures, keeping documents of trades, and managing decision making techniques have grown to be essential components of every management system (http://www. yazour. com/site_doc/attch-219216. pdf).

Interestingly, four structural concepts are central to any classification of bureaucracy, particularly:

a well-defined division of administrative labour among people and office buildings;

a employees system with constant patterns of recruitment and steady linear jobs;

a hierarchy among office buildings, in a way that the authority and status are differentially distributed among celebrities; and

formal and informal networks that hook up organizational actors to one another through moves of information and patterns of co-operation.

Hall (2010) examines the proportions of bureaucratic concept drawn from Weber's model the following: divisiuon of labor based on functional specialty area, well-defined hierarchy of power, system of guidelines and procedures covering the rights and duties of positional incumbents, system of strategies for interacting with work situations, impersonality of social relations, campaign and selection for job based upon complex competence. The study figured: (1) the bureaucratic proportions are significant organizational attributes; (2) when measured quantitatively, the measurements exist in the form of a continuum rather than as dichotomies; and (the magnitude of the sizes varies individually among organizations. The analysis further concluded that the types of organizational activities are related to the amount of bureaucratization on one or several dimensions.

2. 2. 2 The Bureaucratic Structure

The bureaucratic framework is a familiar style used by several organizations. This style contains an organization head or a top administrator, several (or no) levels of upper and/or middle management, usually some first lines management, and the baseline employees. Figure 1 below illustrates the typical pyramid style composition of any organization


Figure 1: A Typical Organization Graph: Pyramid Style

Source: http://www. deltaproconsultants. com/org_design. htm

According to an article from http://www. deltaproconsultants. com/org_design. htm, the pyramid organizational structure originated from an ancient armed forces model and was considered extremely effective for managing people and supplies during wartime. With the development of the Industrial trend, production range became the standard and the military services model was followed for a business design because:

It had proved to be reliable for the "chunking" of work.

In the 20th hundred years large numbers of individuals spent time in the military services. Thus, they brought with those to the work environment the "rank and document" structure that they had seen in use.

In the bureaucratic structure, a direct vertical line connects the top management through midsection management, and down to the baseline employees. Major decisions are made at the top, and filter down to the employees below. The individuals at each level work to satisfy those one level above. Horizontal considerations are usually nominal with little matter for the needs of individuals or organizations aside. This composition works quite well in a military environment.

For control purposes, vertical levels of management are being used and multiple company ceilings are manufactured which can conceal or filter information, impede the flow of ideas, and gradual change. Top management provides way to another level which eventually translates into telling lower-level employees how to proceed without giving the reason why at some point in the downward movements. Thus, it avoids lower-level employees from providing helpful ideas and suggestions, and from making on-the-spot decisions.

Bureaucratic organizations are inflexible, monolithic companies with uncaring employees who create 'red tape'.

A recognized good thing about bureaucracy is that it can enhance efficiency, logic, and rationality in large organizations. However, it tends to lead to inflexibility and rigidity, which hamper decision making and create an over-all inability to react to fast changes or crises. Regarding to Likert (1968) the original bureaucratic business are relatively formal, rigid, and mechanistic (http://courses. washington. edu/inde495/lecd. htm)

The bureaucratic structure is grounded on the traditional theory of management which is principally characterized by the following:

Work is divided into specialized duties and standardized. The hierarchy of expert ( the right to lead ) and responsibility ( the obligation to execute ) is the string of command. Line expert is linear and derived from position, staff expert can be an advisory romantic relationship.

The design of the work group or organizational composition is dependant on departmentalization.

Span of control refers to just how many employees a manager can effectively supervise.

In a bureaucratic composition, expert and communication movement downward by having a rigid string of command. In addition, the vertical development represents many levels of supervision and reveals a one individual one boss beliefs (unity of demand). Also, the number of men and women supervised is small (span of control). Bureaucracy brings about a line framework, a string of order or leader-follower romantic relationship which can facilitate large scale administration by coordinating the work of many workers.

In the original bureaucratic structures, there is a trend to increase job specialization as the business grows larger. Careers are grouped into departments by function. Last decision-making authority is vested by those highest in the vertically organized hierarchy. Last decisions are usually made by top management. Hence, bureaucratic organizational composition is seen as a high job expertise, functional departments, narrow spans of control, and centralized expert. Such a composition has been referred to as traditional, traditional, bureaucratic, formal, mechanistic, or command and control (http://www. referenceforbusiness. com/management/Ob-Or/Organizational-Structure. html).

The bureaucratic style has been criticized due to following drawbacks:

It encourages inside politics and conflict especially when fulfilling a supervisor is more important than satisfying a customer.

Separation of power from responsibility and accountability can derive from concern for power and control which can make many careers simply empty jobs.

Baseline employees can get disillusioned with top professionals who, with enough layers get disconnected from them.

Division and departmentalization often confine employees to narrow task-oriented careers and lead to boredom and stagnation.

Failure to encourage inter-function understanding and work integration across boundary lines can end up with major breakdowns and added charges for organizations.

Sub-optimization can lead to executing functions not essential for organizational success. This happens when departments place goals inconsistent with those of other departments.

Misuse of mature management hard work especially in repairing problems between departments.

According to articles published in the internet website http://www. busting-bureaucracy. com/excerpts/management. html some beliefs associated with bureaucratic management and management tend to decelerate business growth. These are:

All planning and control functions need to be done by management.

Managers and managing are more important than the individuals who achieve the product quality or satisfy individual customers.

The higher the individual is on the business chart, a lot more important see your face is.

Ambiguity is intolerable and must be solved. Things must be dark-colored or white. There is no room for grey.

Consistency, itself, has value.

The idea of the "slippery slope": "EASILY do it for one, I must do it for everybody. "

Choices tend to be thought to be complicated to customers and employees due to hierarchy and control from the very best.

"Efficiency" is more important than reaching the mission.

Process is more important than outcomes.

Manage with a "problem-solving" procedure.

Court (2010) reported the studies of a report on bureaucratic structure and performance in Africa that better bureaucratic performance is associated with:

Agency electricity- greater influence of core monetary firms in formulating new guidelines.

Autonomy- top civil servants have job security when politics control changes.

Career opportunities- inner promotion, period and civil service opportunities.

Good relative income- open public sector incomes compare moderately to private sector ones.

Merit-based access mechanisms- entrance via a formal exam and university certifications. (African bureaucracies are guided by the same incentives as others. )

Court further reported that:

Bureaucratic framework and performance varies significantly over the region, with lots of countries scoring well.

The relationship between your people and private sector seems to be improving across the region.

Perceived levels of corruption are increasing.

Many older bureaucrats feel they lack "ownership"; they believed that economic policy is formulated beyond your country.

According to Wilson (1989), there are four types of bureaucratic organizations, namely:

Production organizationswherein both outputs and final results are observable.

Procedural organizations wherein outputs can be observed, but outcomes are unclear or not observable.

Craft organizationswherein outputs are hard to observe, but final results are simple enough to evaluate.

Coping organizationswherein neither outputs nor benefits are observable

2. 2. 3 Weber's Ideal Bureaucracy

A popular design of organizational structure is Weber's ideal bureaucracy which resulted from his observation of the changes taking place through the Industrial Revolution. Watching that capitalism is the logical way to arrange activities based on the approximation of the possible go back to the business, Weber's Ideal bureaucracy was devoted to the basic principle of efficiency: making the most of output while reducing inputs.

From his study of the organizational innovations in Germany at the convert of the 20th century, Weber determined the core components of bureaucratic structure, particularly: (1) impersonality, (2) efficiency, and (3) rationality. Its key feature is the give attention to authority based on published written rules and codes of practice.

A bureaucratic firm is structured into a continuing hierarchy where each level is handled by the level above it. Each hierarchical position is out there in its right and job holders have no rights to a specific position. Duties within each level are clearly delineated and each level has its sphere of competence. A scheduled appointment to a office, and the levels of authority that go along with it, are based solely on the grounds of complex competence (Weber, 1947).

Max Weber (1947) broadened on Taylor's ideas, and stressed the need to reduce diversity and ambiguity in organizations. The emphasis was on establishing clear lines of expert and control. Weber's bureaucratic theory emphasized the need for a hierarchical framework of power. It recognized the importance of department of labor and expertise. A formal set of rules was bound into the hierarchy structure to insure stability and uniformity. Weber also put forth the notion that organizational habit is a network of individual interactions, where all habit could be known by looking at cause and result (http://www. survey-software-solutions. com/walonick/organizational-theory. htm).

Weber (1947) thought that the bureaucratic model was an excellent method of structuring organizations predicated on a rational set of guidelines and techniques. The bureaucratic model of organizations is characterized by:

Clear section of labor;

consistent guidelines;

hierarchy of positions;


employment and advancement based on technical expertise;

centralization of expert and ability;

leveling influence on social and monetary differences; and

implementation of virtually indestructible system of authority

Weber explained his ideal kind of bureaucracy, the most perfect example of this kind of managing, as getting the pursuing components.

Formalization. A continuing organization of official functions destined by rules.

Records. Administrative works, decisions and rules are produced and recorded on paper.

Office. The mixture of written documents and a continuous organization of standard functions constitute any office.

Specialization. Each office has a evidently described sphere of competence.

Hierarchy. Each lower office is under the control and supervision of an increased one.

Officials. Candidates are selected based on technical qualifications. They may be appointed, not elected. The office is treated as the sole, or at least the principal, job of the incumbent. The job constitutes a job. There is a system of advertising matching to seniority or even to achievement, or both. There is a complete lack of appropriation of official position by the incumbent.

Ownership. There is complete parting of the property belonging to the business, which is controlled within the sphere of office, and the non-public property of the official. Users of the administrative staff should be completely separated from possession of the method of production or supervision.

Impersonality. The dominance of an heart of formalistic impersonality, without hatred or love, and hence without passion or enthusiasm. Everyone is subject to formal equality of treatment.

Weber's examination of bureaucracy concerns:

the historical and administrative known reasons for the procedure of bureaucratization (especially in the European civilisation)

the impact of the rule of law upon the performing of bureaucratic organisations

the typical personal orientation and occupational position of the bureaucratic officials as a position group

the most important attributes and consequences of bureaucracy in the modern world

Weber noted the following major guidelines of bureaucracy:

A formal hierarchical composition. Each level handles the particular level below and is also controlled by the particular level above. Central planning and centralized decision making is based on a formal hierarchy

Management by guidelines. Controlling by rules allows decisions made at high levels to be performed consistently by all lower levels.

Organization by practical specialty. Work is done by specialists, and people are prepared into units based on the kind of work they certainly or skills they have got.

An "up-focused" or "in-focused" objective. In an "up-focused" mission, the organization's goal is to provide the stockholders, the plank, or whatever firm empowered it. In an "in-focused" mission, the purpose is to serve the organization itself, and the ones within it

Purposely impersonal. The idea is to take care of all employees and customers equally without being influenced by individual variations.

Employment predicated on technical skills.

Thus, relating to Weber, a bureaucratic organization operates based on the following guidelines: Similarly, Weber characterized a bureaucratic formal as you who:

is professionally free and appointed to his position on the basis of conduct

exercises the specialist delegated to him in accordance with impersonal rules, and his / her loyalty is enlisted with respect to the faithful execution of his public duties

is appointed and positioned in a job placement based on his / her technical qualifications

does his administrative are a full-time occupation

is rewarded by a regular salary and potential clients of progression in a lifetime career in doing his work

Weber further claims a bureaucratic official must exercise his or her judgment and his or her skills, but his / her duty is to place these at the service of a higher authority; finally he/she is in charge only for the impartial execution of given jobs and must sacrifice his or her personal view if it runs counter to his or her official responsibilities.

Critics of Weber's ideal bureaucracy cited the next drawbacks of the model:

Competences can be unclear and used contrary to the nature of the law; sometimes a choice itself may be looked at more important than its result;

Nepotism, corruption, politics infighting and other degenerations can counter the guideline of impersonality and can create a recruitment and promotion system not based on meritocracy but rather on oligarchy;

Overspecialization can make officers unaware of bigger consequences of the actions

Rigidity of strategies can make decision-making gradual and even hold off change.

A occurrence of group pondering - zealotry, commitment and lack of critical thinking about the company can make the organisation struggling to change and realise its own faults and constraints;

Disregard for dissenting thoughts, even when such views suit the available data better than the thoughts and opinions of almost all;

Complex bureaucratic rules and procedures makes the machine more technical which diminish coordination.

Not allowing visitors to use common sense, as everything must be as is written by regulations.

Michel Crozier (1964) criticized bureaucratic organizations for ". . . the slowness, the ponderousness, the routine, the problem of types of procedures and the maladapted replies to the needs which they should fulfill" (Crozier, 1964, p 3) He further states that "A bureaucratic corporation is an company that cannot correct its behaviour by learning from its mistakes" (Crozier, 1964, p 187). On top of that, he said that bureaucracy is ". . . not just a system that will not correct its behaviour in view of its mistakes; it is also too rigid to adjust, without crises, to the transformations that the accelerated development of the industrial society makes more and more essential" (Crozier, 1964, p 198).

Crozier (1964) recognizes the following characteristics of bureaucracy:

Functional Specialization. Sets of individuals are split into special functions predicated on expertise or purpose. Practical specialists exert impact primarily through their use of competence.

A Well-Defined Dominance Hierarchy. Expert serves as the primary means of influence for those in the higher levels to influence those in the low levels of the hierarchy. Expert is symbolically conveyed by title and level of position on the business chart.

Written Techniques &Policies. The amount of bureaucracy depends upon the thousands of internet pages of polices and strategies.

Control by Coverage. It allows management to control the actions of thousands, thousands of miles from the head office. Authority is typically conveyed by using plan and through regulations.

Bureaucracies Prefer Stability and Order. Bureaucracies commonly assume the external conditions do not change; and for that reason, internal organizational structure doesn't have to change either.

Competence Based Advertising Systems. Promotion systems are designed to stress competency.

That Helpless Sense. This occurs mostly at the lower levels of the organization, but even executives experience lack of control.

Lower Degrees of Innovation and Imagination. There's a certain bureaucratic mind-set that will avoid creative answers to problems.

Responsibility Avoidance within Coverage Voids. Bureaucratic leadership is often seen as a those who avoid making the decision when a decision is necessary.

Inversion of Means and Ends. This occurs when there are too many rules, too many control buttons, and no way to change them. Typically, the primary measure of someone's success becomes how well the guidelines are obeyed. The path to growth becomes conformity. Risk takers who break the guidelines tend to be penalized.

Glacial Decision Making. Decision making occurs at a glacial rate which makes the business gradual in adapting to improve and thus miss opportunities completely.

Approval Straight Jackets. Every good notion, three uncreative minds have to say yes, but only 1 must say no

2. 3 Core Components of Bureaucratic Structure

According to Weber ideal bureaucracy has the pursuing basic components:

Formalization - a continuous organization of standard functions destined by rules

Records - administrative works, decisions and guidelines formulated and documented in writing

Office - combination of written documents and constant organization of standard functions

Specialization - each office has a plainly defined sphere of competence

Hierarchy - each lower office is under the control and guidance of a higher one

Officials - specialized qualifications are firmly considered in appointing officials

Ownership - complete parting of organization's property and representatives' properties

Impersonality - dominance of the nature of formalistic impersonality; everyone is treated formally

Weber's bureaucracy assumes that individuals are logical and are capable of working regarding to guidelines and types of procedures which guide behaviour. (http://apps. business. ualberta. ca/rfield/Organizational%Effectiveness, %20Structure, 5020and%20Technology. htm).

2. 4 Benefits and drawbacks of Bureaucratic Structure

In security of bureaucratic structure, Cordella (2007) du Homosexual (2000) who asserts that bureaucracy still remains as a sustainable and successful way of structuring large organizations, specifically in continuous repetitive contexts and responsibilities. In the analysis of NHS using site theory, Tag and Scott (1992) remarked that NHS-based organizations typically contain a political, managerial, and professional site responsible for insurance plan, administration, and service, and their inherently different tasks will demand different structures, even at the trouble of organizational domain friction. Further, bureaucratic company ensures identical and impartial action by Consumer Administration and hence enforces democratic worth (Frederickson, 2000; Aberbach and Christensen, 2005).

Chris (2006) acknowledges the role of bureaucracy in controlling the functions for the implementation of insurance policies and procedures directing out that its can be an essential aspect of all organizations. On the contrary, he stresses that when bureaucracy becomes self-serving and self-perpetuating, it creates problems in the business such as inefficiency, consumption of needless resources, slow-moving process response time, gradual adaptation to development and change.

Rabie (2004) highlights the advantages of bureaucratic management such as: facilitating people and situation management, predicting benefits of activities, and minimizing chances for upsetting surprises. Undermining employees' potential to take initiative and become creative, creating brain a that lacks interest and with limited functions, hindering organizational transformation, undermining the organization's capability to adapt to changes and react to challenges.

An article shared in http://www. scribd. com recognizes the advantages of bureaucracy as follows: precision, rate, clearness in communication, reduced amount of friction, and reduced amount of personal costs. Alternatively, its cons include: multiplication of administrative functions, vertical composition, many levels of management, a great deal of paper works, daily habit, and red tape, impersonal recognized working to a fixed routine and lacking intelligent judgment. The exact same article cited Weber's idea of bureaucracy as possibly "the most efficient system of organizing", but a "threat to basic personal liberties. " Thus, bureaucracy is often accused of "robbing the human nature and robbing organizational members of their freedom and dignity by eliminating standard business love, hatred and all simply personal, irrational, and psychological elements. " (http://www. scribd. com)

2. 5 Problems Connected with Bureaucratic Structure

An article publicized in http://www. busting-democracy. com (2010) says that "virtually all bureaucratic organizations appear to suffer the same suffocating and immobilizing symptoms of bureaucracy and its detestable effects victimize everyone no matter level. "

Autier (2001) states that bureaucratic management systems impede inventions within proven companies. The writer further talks about that due to its reliance on individuals' specialty area of tasks, fixed operative guidelines, task-focused control, and hierarchical authority, it hinders employees' potential to innovate. Hence, bureaucratic form may be befitting routine kind of tasks but not for advancement (Perrow, 1986; Souder, 1987). Autier also argued that bureaucratic systems are genetically, constitutionally not capable of generating advancement". To aid his discussion, he cited Thompson (1969) who discovered six basic constraints of bureaucratic system the following:

It will not incite individuals to be impressive. Initiative is discouraged.

Individuals haven't any a chance to innovate because their time is devoted to doing what they are expected to do and is tightly managed by supervisors.

Individuals haven't any access to basic and relevant home elevators the organization's goals. They only get access to a small part of reality.

Innovative initiative does not have any place in the business since individuals have thin and exclusive mission assignment.

Individuals and departments are not used to working mutually and there are no confrontation among them. Hence, established limitations impede communication exchange.

Decision making process is institutionalized and it is ill-adapted to innovation.

Because of the abovementioned limitations, Autier (2001) added that bureaucratic management may generate deviant behaviours from ground breaking people because the ponly person who can innovate is the top man in the organization (Thompson, p. 17. )

Considine and Lewis (2003) declare that a good number of business and politics reformists desire to end bureaucracy in public areas service agencies since it is very costly, too big, too rigid, too standardized, and too insensitive to individual identities. The authors also cited Fournier and Gray (1992) who specifically described open public bureaucracy as outmoded and functionally and morally bankrupt.

Commenting on the issues with bureaucracy, Courpasson and Reed (2004) cited Bennis (1966) who views bureaucracy as a "prosthetic device, irrelevant to a fearless new world of dynamic solutions, markets, and values. "

Cordella (2007) explains bureaucratic accountability as troublesome, inefficient, and unproductive.

In the business enterprise context, bureaucracy seems to have destructive effect on customers and employees. A study on the effects of bureaucracy on customers and employees of public corporations posted in the web site http://www. busting bureaucracy. com discovered that that a bureaucratic corporation:

is basically challenging and rigid characterized by "red tape";

cannot fulfill customer's specific situation;

is inflexible and unresponsive to customer's individual situation;

has standard types of procedures, policies, or practices designed entirely for the benefit for the business and work to the drawback of the clients;

makes it very hard to get exceptions approved;

is uncaring;

is unwilling to say that mistakes and tries to switch blame onto the clients;

is not ground breaking and is reluctant to change;

has second-rate products and services;

is hard to reach during office hours and rarely reachable during busy hours; and

is arrogant and lacking in love of life.

The research further exposed that customers often associate bureaucratic organizations with the next:

Getting transferred around a number of times when they call.

Employees with bad attitude towards the organization providing the impression they are unhappy with the business.

Employees who are less thinking about their products and services.

Unfriendly and uncaring employees.

In addition to the above mentioned, the analysis also uncovered employees' information of bureaucratic organizations as follows:

Lack of co-operation among departments. Each section has its agenda.

Department minds feel responsible only for their own departments to the neglect of the organization's mission.

Presence of inside politics. Executives strives for personal progress and electric power.

Subordinates' ideas are not usually welcome.

People in the section spend lots of time guarding their own area, neglecting their responsibility.

Employees are not trusted and cared for as though they are not with the capacity of making good wisdom and work only when pushed.

Employees work in an extremely nerve-racking environment.

The firm is top-heavy while the operating products are too low fat.

Politics, alternatively than genuine job achievement, is more likely to be used to advertise employees.

Top professionals are ill-informed and insulated from actual happenings in leading lines or in the fields making them use stereotypical thinking and out-of-date experience in making decisions. .

There is hoarding and secrecy of information-the basis for electric power.

Data is selectively used or distorted to make performance look better.

There is distortion of internal communication.

Mistakes and failures are denied, covered up, or ignored.

Responsibility for mistakes and failures tends to be denied and blame is shifted onto others.

Decisions are created by larger and larger groupings, so no-one can be kept accountable.

Decisions are made based on identified wants of superiors, not on matter for mission achievement.

Policies, tactics, and procedures tend to grow endlessly and become more and more rigid.

Quantitative is more emphasized than quality.

Personal concerns and human needs are disregarded.

Overall, both employees and customers view bureaucracy as a range of negative forces, behaviour, or actions disadvantageous to customer and employee satisfaction. Also, bureaucracy is seen as an obstacle to organizational efficiency and a generating push that weakens worker morale and dedication. It is a reason behind polarization, discord, and competition among people in the business which hinders objective accomplishment (http://www. busting bureaucracy. com)

2. 6 Organizational Efficiency: Aspect and Definition

A great deal has been discussed organizational effectiveness running a business and academic literature; however, the idea has extended to haunt management experts. The still unresolved issue concerning the notion stems from the disagreement among management experts concerning a universally accepted definition of the term including a couple of criteria, rules, or attributes that could define a highly effective organization. Quite simply, there is still a continuous visit a generic definition that could fairly connect with all industries (Helms, 2001).

Helms (2001) further argues that organizational performance has been considered the result of Total Quality management (TQM), Ongoing Quality Improvement (CQI), and organizational efficiency. As a result it's been one of the very most sought out research subjects in various management areas. In addition, the author talks about four key models which have been determined in the literature and also have been used empirically in academics research as follows:

The first model emphasizes production (the stream of organizational outputs), commitment (the degree of connection to the organization), authority (the amount of impact and personal capability), and social conflict ( the degree of perceived misunderstanding between your supervisors and subordinates).

The second model was developed predicated on interrelated organizational functions as an instrument for management consultants. Organizational success, maximizing come back, and self-regulations are fundamental variables that enable an organization to keep up an equilibrium among internal-external boundary permeability, awareness to status and change, contribution to constituents, transformation, promoting advantageous ventures, overall flexibility, adaptability, and efficiency to effect a result of effectiveness.

Management experience, organizational structure, political impact, board of directors engagement, volunteer involvement, and internal marketing communications are the six indicators after which the third model is based.

To compare for-profit and non-profit organizational success, the competing value framework originated focusing on four components, specifically: human relationships (participation, dialogue, and openness as ways to improve morale and achieve determination), wide open systems (information, innovation, and version as path toward external reputation, support, acquisition, and progress), rational goals (income and production through direction and goals), and interior process (way of measuring, records, information management as means to achieve stability, control, and continuity.

Despite continuous effort to check and validate the abovementioned models, there is still little consensus about the universal classification or dimension of organizational success. Hence, different parameters have often been considered individuals of organizational performance by individuals and organizations such as speed of service, friendliness of employees, cleanliness, value, quality, performance, etc. Helms (2001) cited the consequence of a study relating 700 CEOs from leading commercial and service companies in the public and private industries based on the following conditions: (1) top institutions in the industry; (2) widely admired by educated people; (3) with multiple generations of chief executives; (4) have been through multiple product or service life cycles; and (5) had been founded before 1950.

The following factors were identified as requirements for organizational success:

Quality, passionate, and satisfied employees

Consistent and energizing communication strategy

Clear practices, regulations, and decisions

Adaptive and recognizing environment

Interdependent communication

Effective recruiting management

Strategic alternatives of marketplaces and opportunities

Ability to assume competitor reactions to tactical responses and predict employee responses

Strategy associated with organizational goals and reviews

Free movement of communication

Effective external communication

Opportunities for worker advancement and growth

Emphasis on planning, training, and support

Adaptive organizational forms and structures

High level of organizational trust

Consistency and congruency between words and actions

Effective Planks of Directors

Effective sue of information technology

Integrating employees from units

Emphasis on ethics, the surroundings, and sustainability

Customer focus and potential to boost customer value

Choosing the right partners and building trusting, durable relationships

Empowerment and delegation

Lean development and focus on efficiency and reliable processes

Strong culture and mission

Organizational success is the organization's capability to achieve its goals and efficiently react to environmental factors

(http://apps. business. ualberta. ca/rfield/Organizational%Effectiveness, %20Structure, 5020and%20Technology. htm)

An important concept in management books, organizational effectiveness actions the organization's fulfillment of its missions through the use of core strategies. Studies upon this concept give attention to organizations' unique capacities to efficiently achieve their missions (McCann, 2004).

Schools of thought investigate organizational efficiency (OE) from different perspectives. According to Peters and Waterman (1982) a highly effective business: " is able to take care of ambiguity, is flexible, customer oriented, fruitful, value driven, lean in form, and is aware of its major portion of business, and empowers its employees. "

The "goals' strategy seeks to measure organizational success in terms of the organization's success of its set in place goals (Robbins, 1990; Hannan and Freeman, 1977). To be a a reaction to the "goals' model, the systems way clarifies that healthy and effective organizational means such as people, resources, functions, infrastructure, etc. are crucial in making organization achieve their ends. A business works well if it acquires inputs from its environment and has outputs accepted by its environment. (Vijayalaksmi, 2008). The "strategic constituencies" model proposes an firm becomes effective when it "distinguishes among its tactical groups (i. e. shareholders, customers, employees, and suppliers) and meets their demands since they are essential for the organization's success. " (Pennings and Goodman, 1982). The competing values tackle argues that no specific set of criteria best demonstrates organizational success; hence, it is just a combo of diverse factors. Suggested by Quinn and Rohrbaugh (1983), this model has three measurements, specifically: organizational emphasis (individual to business), organizational composition (balance and flexibility), and organizational means and ends (systems to goals). The "contradiction" deal with state governments that organizational constraints such as goals, constituencies, systems, federal government regulatory brokers and time casings should be investigated elaborately and prioritized matching with their organizational value and fulfilled without creating discord with other organizations (Banner and Gange, 1995).

The abovementioned methods focus on the fundamental role of means, organizational qualities and external factors in attaining organizational performance.

Despite a number of models for looking into organizational effectiveness, an over-all consensus over a valid group of effectiveness criteria has not been reached anticipated to due to differences in requirements problems and level of evaluation (Etzioni, 1974; Yuchtman and seashore, 1967).

Miner (1980) identifies effective organization as one capable of obtaining inputs and changing them into outputs, screen environmental changes and take corrective activities for success. Sparrow and Hiltrop (1993) stress that "a sound performance management system can help organizations include strategy into specific employee initiatives and change employees' potential in to the desired organizational effectiveness. Matching to Katz and Miller (1995), focused leadership, motivated labor force, smart proper management, and acoustics business execution are fundamental issues for the success of a business.

Pestonjee and Pandey (1996) strss the organizational efficiency calls for the development of proper role conception. In addition, autonomy to make decisions, group role, pursuance of prize and career systems, and increased role of social partners are essential components of organizational effectiveness (Sparrow and Hiltrop, 1997).

The multidimensionality of organizational success results from multiple organizational worth and tastes (Verma and Jain, 2001). Kochanski and Sorensen (2005) found that most organizations greatly emphasized performance management as the building blocks for ability management and an integral drivers of organizational success. In the study of Koll, Woodside, and Muhlbacher (2005), well balanced responsiveness to multiple constituencies was found to be more more likely to lead to high organizational effectiveness

2. 7 Areas of Organizational Effectiveness

Batista (2008) identifies three components of organizational effectiveness as follows: people, culture, and impact. People contain the staff. Culture is a combination of style, skills, and distributed ideals. Impact includes both profitability and sustainability and the created value for any stakeholders, from business's employees to nonprofit's clients.

The publisher further explains that people, culture, and impact are interrelated. People build a culture that in turn figures them future coworkers select-select into a preexisting culture that fulfills their needs. In addition, people implement the organization's strategies, and the culture either aids and amplifies or hinders and dampens their attempts. Finally, the organization's ability to attain its goals affects its ability to draw in and retain effective people and to support a high-performance culture.

Effectiveness when it comes to people, regarding to Batista (2008), includes:

Investment in organizational culture;

passion about desired impact;

appropriate authenticity;

high value on social skills;

willingness to hold peers accountable;

building contacts within and across public connections;

eagerness for reviews as a chance for progress; and

using technology to learn, collaborate, and network.

Batista (2008) also identifies effectiveness when considering culture the following:

consistent investment in management development;

leadership expressed by any means levels of company;

emphasis on constant learning through feedback;

shared and celebrated successes;

failures are opportunities for learning;

candor is prompted and rewarded;

information is shared freely rather than hoarded; and

decentralized decision-making and empowered edges.

Moreover, Batista (2008) clarifies that in terms of impact, effectiveness is indicated by the next:

commonly understood definitions of "impact";

definitions subject to regular review;

systematic data-gathering and evaluation;

distinction between information and important metrics;

data-based decision making;

data complemented by compelling stories;

systems complemented by value for stakeholders;

pragmatism; and a vision of win.

2. 8 Impact of Bureaucratic Structure on Organizational Effectiveness

Miles and Snow (1992) summarized the effects of bureaucratic structure on organizational communication the following:

Lack of communication between useful groups within an organization, making the organization gradual and inflexible, although specialization can result in operational efficiencies within groups

Centralized coordination and specialization of tasks contributes to successful and predictable production of limited amount of products or services

Vertical integration of activities leads to quick selling and circulation of products.

Vijayalaksmi (2008) discovered that organizational composition is an integral determinant of organizational performance. Bureaucracy negatively influences organizational effectiveness

Chapter 3


3. 1Introduction

The following hypotheses will be examined in order to discover the influence of specific bureaucratic aspects on the amount of organizational effectiveness of the federal government sector in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

Hypothesis 1:

Specialization affects the level of organizational performance of administration organizations in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

Hypothesis 2:

Rigid guidelines and procedures effect the amount of organizational efficiency of federal organizations in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

Hypotheses 3:

Hierarchical position has an impact on the level of organizational success of government organizations in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

Hypothesis 4:

Centralized specialist and decision making impact the level of organizational performance of federal government organizations in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

Hypothesis 5:

Chain of order affects the level of organizational performance of government organizations in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

Hypothesis 6:

Impersonal relationship impacts the amount of organizational success of administration organizations in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

Hypothesis 7:

Technical expertise and competence effect the level of organizational success of authorities organizations in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

Pearson's relationship coefficient will be used to determine the relationship of each of the bureaucratic features with organizational success. The results of the tests will show if the romantic relationship is significant or not. Then, conclusions will be attracted based on these results.

3. 2 Conceptual Platform of the Study

Independent Adjustable Dependent Variable

Bureaucratic Features

Task specialization

Rigid guidelines and procedures

Hierarchical positions

Centralized authority and

decision making ORGANIZATIONAL

Chain of command EFFECTIVENESS

Impersonal relationship

Technical expertise

and competence

Mission- Driven

Organizational Model

Figure 1: Conceptual Framework of the Study

Chapter 4

Research Methodology

4. 1 Research Design

4. 2 Inhabitants and Sample

4. 3 Sampling Procedure

4. 4 Data Collection Method

4. 5 Procedures

4. 6 Data Analysis

Chapter 5

Data Evaluation and Interpretation

5. 1 Key elements of Bureaucracy in Bahraini Organizations

5. 2 Characteristics of Bureaucratic Bahraini Organizations

5. 3 Problems Connected with Bureaucratic Framework among Bahraini Organizations

5. 4 Organizational Success of Bureaucratic Bahraini Organizations

5. 5 Bureaucratic Aspects/Characteristics Associated with Organizational Efficiency of Bahraini Organizations

Chapter 6

Discussion of Results

6. 1 Center elements of Bureaucracy in Bahraini Organizations

6. 2 Characteristics of Bureaucratic Bahraini Organizations

6. 3 Problems Connected with Bureaucratic Composition among Bahraini Organizations

6. 4 Organizational Efficiency of Bureaucratic Bahraini Organizations

6. 5 Bureaucratic Aspects/Characteristics Associated with Organizational Effectiveness of Bahraini Organizations

Chapter 7

Conclusions and Recommendations

7. 1 Conclusions

7. 2 Recommendations

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