Posted at 11.18.2018
There are lots of basic definitions that have to be considered before a person before providing a technological analysis and review of the publication by Alan Quieroz (2013) this is the Monkey's voyage. One such definition is the concept of biogeography. Biogeography refers to the study of the way in which where living organism, have the ability to move around the planet earth. For example, biogeography concerns itself with how the same kinds of monkeys are located in Africa, and in SOUTH USA. Quite simply, Biogeography concerns itself with an evaluation of the manner that your same species of animals are able to be found in the same continent. One of the major reasons advanced for the event of such kind of any phenomenon is the concept of plate tectonics. Dish tectonics identifies the composition of earth, which can travel and float independently. This is the most common argument that experts have managed to bring out, in regards to describing why the same species exists in different elements of the continent. Another important definition that an specific needs to understand, before clinically analyzing this book, is the idea of vicariance.
This is a term that is utilized for purposes of providing a information of certain types of living microorganisms, that were in a position to get separated into organizations that are non-communicating, through external circumstances. For example the submersion of your land, the rise of a pile range, etc. Another important term that is contained in this e book is Gondwana. That is a medical term that identifies the Southern half of the continent, which existed millions of years back, but could fragment, and drift apart. Therefore, this newspaper is a review of the reserve by Dr. de Queiroz. . In providing an assessment of this publication, the researcher use two techniques. The first strategy is the way in which where this book points out the major scientific points. The next approach would be an overall evaluation of the e book, and the way the author manages to mention medical ideas, and use good examples to make clear these ideas.
In writing this book, the author handles to make use of the three technological approaches that are always used in medical research. These solutions are, the id of the historical origin of the idea, the idea itself, and any future awareness regarding the concept. In giving an explanation on why the same types are found in several elements of the continent, Dr. de Queiroz commences by giving the historical biogeography, and the reasons why he thinks that the breakage of the tectonic plates is not the major reason for the lifestyle of the same specifies of animals, in several continents. In providing the historical source of his items, de Queiroz is able to introduce a leading scholar of biology, by the name of Leon Croizat. De Queiroz offers us a information of the works of Croizat, and the way in which in which he was able to dispute the reason of the living of earth by Charles Darwin, and the lifetime of the same types of animals in various continents, through the process of plate tectonics. Croizat feels that Darwin was incorrect, through his concept of natural selection (De Quieroz, 11). Natural selection is a technological process, where the biological traits of animal can become common, or less common, within the population. This may occur as a result of attributes that are inherited during the reproductive process of the organism. It is therefore important to make clear that natural selection is one of the important aspects of the theory of advancement that talks about the lifestyle of the earth. Therefore, another concept that is created in this book is evolution, which really is a theoretical framework that was developed by Charles Darwin, to make clear the reason why for the lifetime of different kinds of animals. These animals evolved, and through the procedure of natural selection, the toughest pets and species were able to survive, and therefore exists.
The theory of evolution and natural selection focuses on the environment in explaining why animals are located in a specific continent or environment. Based on these facts, hence, it is possible to denote that this is a theoretical construction that does not support the utilization of the theory of tectonic plates to make clear the reason why the same varieties of animals are found in the same region. This section further brings us to the concept of historical biogeography, and why it is not sufficient in detailing the syndication of species about the world, or in different continents of the world. Historical biogeography is the study of the circulation of animals, and exactly how they were sent out, based on different time scales. Out of this book, we're able to learn that was one of the major principles or elements of the idea of evolution. Among the historical biogeography that is depicted in the publication is on the primate time tree that discusses the voyage of the monkeys (De Quiroz, p. 214). This time around tree shows the evolution of the monkeys, from the millions of years ago, to the current species of monkeys, hence reinforcing the ideas of Charles Darwin, in regard to the idea of the evolution theory. The writer of this book uses the concepts of historical biogeography, to give a conclusion why the Tectonic plate theory cannot explain the reason why for the lifetime of the same types of animals, in different continents of the world. Furthermore, in arguing up against the lifestyle of the same varieties of animals, in several continents, the writer introduces the idea of panbiogeography.
De Quiroz (p. 33) in defending his argument that animals weren't found in various elements of the continent through geographical dispersal borrows this concept panbiogeography notion that was introduced by Croizat. De Quiroz argues that it was almost impossible for the same family pets to end up in different continents because of dispersal, and he provides good examples to illustrate this aspect. For instance, it is not likely for the same varieties of snails to end up in the same continent, by attaching themselves to the tail of an bird, or perhaps a spider to find itself in another continent, by which consists of web, and being taken by wind. These are impossible circumstances that occurs; hence this theoretical idea of tectonic plates is absurd, and uncalled for. Section two and section three of the book are being used in the explanation of the reasons why the de Quiroz feels that the same varieties of animals did not find themselves in various continents, through the breakup of the land mass, or through the procedure of tectonic plates. For example, de Quiroz will a congrats, in coming up with a new method, that can be used for purposes of doing the procedure of genetic sequencing. De Quiroz uses this method for purposes of estimating the time where two populations, of the same species could actually split, within the last one hundred thousand of years.
In this analysis, De Quiroz explains that the garter snakes were able to float within an open ocean, which was approximately 120 kilometers, and this can be an reason on why they could be found in various regions of the earth. His review of snakes started out when de Queiroz was curious on the reason why for life of the garter snakes, at the tip of California. This is one of the major factors that added in the desire of Quiroz to study and take a look at the impact of tectonic plate's theory, in the dispersal of living organisms. For example, De Quieroz was able to wrongly presume that the varieties of the snake came into the spot, over a long time frame, which is through the drifting continents, when the peninsula, was able to come apart from the mainland. However, through his research of the garter snake, De Quieroz (57) involves the final outcome that distinctive and attractive biological communities, were creating, when living organism could actually soar through the atmosphere, and float through the top water mass, or water body. Through these conclusions, De Quieroz manages to come out of the theory of progression and the idea of tectonic plates that points out the why the same kinds of animals and other living microorganisms are found in several continents. This sort of knowledge and information is very contentious, which is majorly because it challenges the existing body of knowledge, about the dispersion of family pets, and other living microorganisms, through the process of continental drift. For example, in the 1950s, and the 1960s, geologists could actually realize that the coasts of Africa and SOUTH USA were united, and through the process of tectonic plates, these coasts were separated.
However, because of new technologies, scientists could actually measure the floor of the ocean, revealing several ridges, and this includes a ridge that was found in the Atlantic Ocean. These discoveries were able to give a clear device on the manner in which the continent was able to creep, making researchers to think that in about 180 years back, there was the presence of a continent referred to as Gondwana that made up of Australia, Africa, America, India, and Antarctica. The brand new knowledge as a result of de Quieroz was challenging these facts, and scientific knowledge, and therefore this information is questionable. Furthermore, in detailing the idea of Gondwana, and the continental drifting theory, researchers use the existence of emus, rheas and ostriches, in detailing why they are located in Africa, Australia, and other continents of the world.
Scientist explains these animals could actually drift to these other continents, and this is as a result of moving continents. However, the genetic studies that were conducted by De Quieroz (44), on garter snakes, was a substantiation that these wild birds found themselves in these different continents, through their actions, rather than through the drifting apart of the continent. Other examples include the New World monkeys, which were able to proceed to SOUTH USA, by rafting themselves, through the use of the earth's clump, now, they comprise of 73% of the land mammals.
This booklet by Quieroz is well crafted, and it handles to provide plainly the views of de Quiroz, on the reasons why the same kinds of animals are located in different continents. The info within this booklet is controversial. This is majorly since it challenges the data that been around, on the reasons why the same varieties of animals are located in several continents. That is the drifting of continents, hence these pets finding themselves in different geographic areas.
De, Queiroz A. The Monkey's Voyage: How Improbable Journeys Shaped the History of Life. 2013. Printing.